Alfred S Bockarie, Eloise A Marais, A R MacKenzie
The demand for charcoal in Africa is growing rapidly, driven by urbanization and lack of access to electricity. Charcoal production and use, including plastic burning to initiate combustion, release large quantities of trace gases and particles that impact air quality and climate. Here, we develop an inventory of current (2014) and future (2030) emissions from the charcoal supply chain in Africa that we implement in the GEOS-Chem model to quantify the contribution of charcoal to surface concentrations of PM2...
October 21, 2020: Environmental Science & Technology
Marie J Hallinen, Jacob T Wittman, Brian H Aukema
Many jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) play an important ecological role in wood decomposition and nutrient cycling. Compared with other saproxylic species, buprestids are considered cryptic as they are difficult to sample and identify. As a result, factors that influence buprestid diversity and distribution are poorly understood. This is especially true in urban forests, which may be uniquely fragmented and contain unique species distributions. We utilized the native ground nesting hunting wasp Cerceris fumipennis Say to survey buprestids at 20 urban sites in Minnesota...
October 21, 2020: Environmental Entomology
Sameer Bajaru, Saunak Pal, Mrugank Prabhu, Pinal Patel, Rahul Khot, Deepak Apte
Urbanization is one of the main drivers in the conversion of natural habitats into different land use and land cover types (LULC) which threaten the local as well as global biodiversity. This impact is particularly alarming in tropical countries like India, where ~18% of the world's population live, and its ever-growing economy (i.e., industrial development) expanded urban areas by several folds. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of urbanization (i.e., LULC) on terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), Western Ghats, India...
2020: PloS One
Zhuanglin Ma, Mingjie Luo, Steven I-Jy Chien, Dawei Hu, Xue Zhao
Recent advance in VMS technology has made it viable to ease traffic congestion and improve road traffic efficiency. However, the drivers' low compliance with the posted information may limit its performance to ease traffic congestion and improve traffic safety. This paper explores drivers' attitude to the service quality of VMS system resulted from the identified predominant influencing factors. A questionnaire is developed and used for surveying 9,600 drivers in Beijing, China. The collected data are analyzed with a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model considering different driver categories (e...
2020: PloS One
Kazumi Sakashita, Robert W Blum
Background Despite the assurance of free medical access through the universal health insurance system, over the past three decades Japanese youth have experienced an increase in developmental and behavioral problems, psychosomatic disorders, and psychiatric illnesses. Objectives To identify the challenges in promoting comprehensive preventive health services to adolescents in Japan, specifically in Tokyo. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted of physicians who are members of the Tokyo Pediatric Association...
October 21, 2020: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Phirapat Punyadi, Phetrada Thongngen, Anong Kiddee, Kanit Assawatheptawee, Uttapoln Tansawai, Nophawan Bunchu, Pannika R Niumsup
This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) among blow fly ( Chrysomya megacephala ) populations in Northern Thailand. Of 600 blow flies collected from rural ( n  = 400) and urban ( n  = 200) areas, 334 blow flies carried ESBL-EC (55.7%). Prevalence of ESBL-EC in blow flies captured from rural areas was significantly higher than that from urban region (72.5% vs. 22.0%, p  < 0.001). Susceptibility tests revealed that 68...
October 20, 2020: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Josue Patien Epane, Robert Weech-Maldonado, Larry R Hearld, Bisakha Sen, Stephen J O'Connor, Luceta McRoy
Hospitalists, or specialists of hospital medicine, have long been practicing in Canada and Europe. However, it was not until the mid-1990s, when hospitals in the U.S. started widespread adoption of hospitalists. Since then, the number of hospitalists has grown exponentially in the U.S. from a few hundred to over 50,000 in 2016. Prior studies on hospitalists have well documented benefits hospitals gain from adopting this innovative staffing strategy. However, there is a dearth of research documenting predictors of hospitals' adoption of hospitalists...
October 21, 2020: Health Services Management Research
James M Stevenson, G Caleb Alexander, Natasha Palamuttam, Hemalkumar B Mehta
Many academic institutions are collecting blood samples from patients seeking treatment for COVID-19 to build research biorepositories. It may be feasible to extract pharmacogenomic information from biorepositories for clinical use. We sought to characterize the potential value of multi-gene pharmacogenomic testing among individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of electronic health records from consecutive individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large, urban academic health system...
October 21, 2020: Clinical and Translational Science
Yvonne C Jonk, Amanda Burgess, Martha Elbaum Williamson, Deborah Thayer, Jennifer MacKenzie, Catherine McGuire, Kimberley Fox, Andrew F Coburn
PURPOSE: This study assesses trends in telehealth use in Maine-a rural state with comprehensive telehealth policies-across payers, services, and rurality, and identifies barriers and facilitators to the adoption and use of telehealth services. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, researchers analyzed data from Maine's All Payer Claims Database (2008-2016) and key informant interviews with health care organization leaders to examine telehealth use and explore factors impacting telehealth adoption and implementation...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Rural Health
Suzanne B Merrill, Justin Loloi, Eric W Schaefer, Christopher S Hollenbeak
PURPOSE: Surveillance guidelines for kidney cancer following surgery are heterogeneous, making it unclear what factors influence surveillance intensity in practice. Thus, we assessed the patterns of surveillance intensity in kidney cancer after primary surgery among patients ≥ 66 years. METHODS: Non-metastatic kidney cancer patients after primary surgery (n = 2433) from 2007 to 2011 were identified in SEER-Medicare. Surveillance intensity was measured as the number of unique inpatient and outpatient claims made for kidney cancer starting 60 days after primary surgery...
October 21, 2020: International Urology and Nephrology
Manjulika Vaz, Olinda Timms, Avita Rose Johnson, Rathna Kumari S, Mala Ramanathan, Mario Vaz
Research using Controlled Human Infection Models is yet to be attempted in India. This study was conducted to understand the perceptions of the lay public and key opinion makers prior to the possible introduction of such studies in the country. 110 respondents from urban and rural Bangalore district were interviewed using qualitative research methods of Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews. The data was analyzed using grounded theory. Safety was a key concern of the lay public, expressed in terms of fear of death...
October 21, 2020: Monash Bioethics Review
Digvijay Verma, Ankita Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar Garg, Yusuf Akhter, Ashok Kumar Dubey, SukhDev Mishra, S V S Deo
Poor oral health has broad consequences that can be seen at personal as well as societal levels, especially in developing countries like India. We have limited information on the healthy oral cavity's inhabitant microorganisms that play a crucial role in overall oral health. In a comprehensive culture-independent approach, the bacterial composition of healthy human oral cavities was determined from a sub-population of northern India. During this study, 20 mouthwash-derived metagenomes were explored for identifying bacterial diversity using the 16S rRNA hypervariable V3 region with the MiSeq Illumina platform...
October 21, 2020: Archives of Microbiology
Prashant Bhandarkar, Priti Patil, Kapil Dev Soni, Gerard M O'Reilly, Satish Dharap, Joseph Mathew, Naveen Sharma, Bhakti Sarang, Anita Gadgil, Nobhojit Roy
BACKGROUND: India has one-sixth (16%) of the world's population but more than one-fifth (21%) of the world's injury mortality. A trauma registry established by the Australia India Trauma Systems Collaboration (AITSC) Project was utilized to study 30-day in-hospital trauma mortality at high-volume Indian hospitals. METHODS: The AITSC Project collected data prospectively between April 2016 and March 2018 at four Indian university hospitals in New Delhi, Mumbai, and Ahmedabad...
October 21, 2020: World Journal of Surgery
Sumera Aziz Ali, Umber Khan, Farina Abrejo, Brandi Vollmer, Sarah Saleem, Michael K Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs, Jamie E Westcott, Robert L Goldenberg, Elizabeth M McClure, Omrana Pasha
INTRODUCTION: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption during pregnancy has adverse consequences for the mother and fetus. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy SLT consumption on maternal and fetal outcomes in the district of Thatta, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of an individual randomized controlled trial of preconception maternal nutrition. Study participants were women of reproductive age residing in the district of Thatta, Pakistan...
October 21, 2020: Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Meredith Franklin, Xiaozhe Yin, Rob McConnell, Scott Fruin
Importance: Emerging research suggests that factors associated with the built environment, including artificial light, air pollution, and noise, may adversely affect children's mental health, while living near green space may reduce stress. Little is known about the combined roles of these factors on children's stress. Objective: To investigate associations between components of the built environment with personal and home characteristics in a large cohort of children who were assessed for perceived stress...
October 1, 2020: JAMA Network Open
Cristiane da Silva Ramos Marinho, Taiana Brito Menezes Flor, Josilene Maria Ferreira Pinheiro, Maria Ângela Fernandes Ferreira
The United Nations approved the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, including Target 4.A, or a two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality by 2015. Brazil reached this target in 2010. The current study aimed to analyze the trend in under-five mortality and the correlation with healthcare, socioeconomic, and sanitation indicators in Brazil's major geographic regions that helped the country meet the MDGs. This was an ecological study using secondary data for Brazil according to Intermediate Urban Linkage Regions (RIAU in Portuguese) from 2001 to 2017...
2020: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Beatriz Maria de Almeida Braz, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira Feitosa, Elton Amorim Romão, Edson Moura da Silva, José Wilton Pinheiro Júnior, Rinaldo Aparecido Mota, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Wagnner José Nascimento Porto
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease, which is prevalent across the world and has a strong environmental component in its transmission chain. The present study determined the seroprevalence and factors related to Toxoplasma gondii infection among free-range chickens from an Atlantic Forest area in Northeastern Brazil. A total of 550 free-range chickens were tested for T. gondii antibodies usingthe indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, cut-off point 1:16), and 269 (48.9%; 95% CI = 44.7-53.1%) were positive...
2020: Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Rohan Jeremiah, Brian Taylor, Amparo Castillo, Veronica Garcia
HIV/STI, substance use, and mental health issues disproportionately affect racial/ethnic sexual minority young adults. These health vulnerabilities intensify across the life course, most notably when young adults are independent college students. To identify the perspectives of racial/ethnic sexual gender minorities living on or near an urban university, we implemented an intersectionality-informed SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analysis, as a qualitative community assessment situated within in a campus-community setting...
September 2020: American Journal of Men's Health
Ferda Evin, Eren Er, Aysun Ata, Arzu Jalilova, Günay Demir, Yasemin Atik Altınok, Samim Özen, Şükran Darcan, Damla Gökşen
BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has forced health care teams to look for alternative approaches to manage a great number of children with diabetes not only in rural but also in urban locations. Our aim in this COVID-19 pandemic was to provide information about the follow-up of new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and to discuss the integration of telemedicine into routine clinical care in the long term. METHODS: The changes in Coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD); percentage of time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and time above range (TAR) were evaluated in 8 patients with new-onset T1D diagnosed in Pediatric Diabetes division of Ege University, during COVID-19 pandemic over a period of two-months follow-up using telemedicine system...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Smriti Tripathi, Uma Kumari, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
Dementia linked with cognitive impairments is the most prominent indication of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current investigation, we have examined the streptozotocin- (STZ) induced cellular toxicity in mouse neuroblastoma (N2A) cells, and Zn with the high-fat diet- (HFD) induced neurotoxicity in mouse brain. These cells and animals were pretreated with apple cider vinegar (ACV), Chrysin, and Rivastigmine to examine their protection against cellular toxicity and neurotoxicity. Experiments have affirmed that pretreatment of ACV, Chrysin, and Rivastigmine has displayed protective outcomes in MTT reduction, tau phosphorylation, amyloid aggregation, attenuated memory impairment as well as oxidative stress, and protected cholinergic hippocampal neurons from degeneration...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Food Biochemistry
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