Vera Geisen, Christian Mayer, Julia Harrer, Katrin Hartmann, Sebastian Ulrich, Stefan Unterer
A 10-month-old male Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, LMU, Germany, with a 6-month history of chronic diarrhea and hematochezia. The dog lived in Germany and had never traveled abroad. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry performed by the referring veterinarian revealed neutrophilia, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia, with a basal cortisol of 4.3 µg/dl, which excluded hypoadrenocorticism. Since antibiotic treatment had not resulted in any improvement, a 2 week course of prednisolone administration had been initiated, leading to a marked deterioration of intestinal signs and a significant weight loss of 6 kg...
October 2020: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Cambrian Y Liu, Sharon S Tam, Ying Huang, Philip E Dubé, Rabea Alhosh, Nandini Girish, Shivesh Punit, Shirin Nataneli, Fan Li, Jeffrey M Bender, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
Neutralization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) represents a widely used therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the fact that many patients with IBD are non-responsive to anti-TNF therapies suggests the need for a better understanding of TNF signaling in IBD. Here, we show that co-deletion of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1, Tnfrsf1a) in the Il10-/- spontaneous colitis model exacerbates disease, resulting in very-early-onset inflammation after weaning. The disease can be interrupted by treatment with antibiotics...
October 20, 2020: Cell Reports
Sana Siddique, Amna Shoaib, Salik Nawaz Khan, Ahsan Mohy-Ud-Din
Twenty-two sunflower germplasms were screened for resistance to Macrophomina phaseolina to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of charcoal rot-resistant sunflower cultivars. Potting soil inoculated with pathogen (10 mL pot-1 , 2 × 105 sclerotia mL-1 ) sown with sunflower seeds was examined for disease severity index (%), disease incidence (%), mortality (%), and growth inhibition index (%) 90 d after inoculation. None of the germplasm was disease-free; four were found to be resistant, five moderately resistant, six moderately susceptible, five susceptible, and two highly susceptible...
October 21, 2020: Mycologia
Kanjana Sukhokanjanachusak, Ananya Pongpaibul, Akarin Nimmannit, Charuwan Akewanlop, Krittiya Korphaisarn
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is increasing in adults younger than 50 years. This study evaluated clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of adolescent and young adult (AYA)-onset sporadic CRC patients. Methods: Medical records of patients who were diagnosed adenocarcinoma of colon or rectum at Siriraj Hospital between 2007 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into two groups: AYA-onset CRC (age 15-39 years) and adult-onset CRC (age >50 years). Associations between sporadic microsatellite stable (MSS) AYA-/adult-onset CRC and clinicopathological features and outcome were evaluated...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Yu-Xue Luo, Man-Lin Sun, Pei-Lei Shi, Pan Liu, Yi-Yin Chen, Xian Peng
Veillonella species, known as the early colonizer of oral biofilm, are prevalent in oral microbiota. Seven Veillonella species have been isolated from oral cavity. Their distribution varies not only with different people but also with different sites in the oral cavity. Oral Veillonella are associated with oral diseases. They contribute to the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and consume the lactate generated by streptococci. Veillonella species play an important role in the occurrence and development of periodontal diseases by providing adhesion sites for Porphyromonas gingivalis and boosting immune responses...
October 1, 2020: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Charlotte Deschamps, Elora Fournier, Ophélie Uriot, Frédérique Lajoie, Cécile Verdier, Sophie Comtet-Marre, Muriel Thomas, Nathalie Kapel, Claire Cherbuy, Monique Alric, Mathieu Almeida, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
In vitro gut models, such as the mucosal artificial colon (M-ARCOL), provide timely and cost-efficient alternatives to in vivo assays allowing mechanistic studies to better understand the role of human microbiome in health and disease. Using such models inoculated with human fecal samples may require a critical step of stool storage. The effects of preservation methods on microbial structure and function in in vitro gut models have been poorly investigated. This study aimed to assess the impact of three commonly used preserving methods, compared with fresh fecal samples used as a control, on the kinetics of lumen and mucus-associated microbiota colonization in the M-ARCOL model...
October 21, 2020: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Liya Y Qiao, Namrata Tiwari
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), historically considered as regional gastrointestinal disorders with heightened colonic sensitivity, are increasingly recognized to have concurrent dysfunction of other visceral and somatic organs, such as urinary bladder hyperactivity, leg pain, and skin hypersensitivity. The inter-organ sensory crosstalk is, at large, termed 'cross-organ sensitization'. These organs, anatomically distant from one another, physiologically interlock through projecting their sensory information into dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and then the spinal cord for integrative processing...
October 21, 2020: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Amin N Olaimat, Iman Aolymat, Murad Al-Holy, Mutamed Ayyash, Mahmoud Abu Ghoush, Anas A Al-Nabulsi, Tareq Osaili, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Shao-Quan Liu, Nagendra P Shah
COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This new viral infection was first identified in China in December 2019, and it has subsequently spread globally. The lack of a vaccine or curative treatment for COVID-19 necessitates a focus on other strategies to prevent and treat the infection. Probiotics consist of single or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that can beneficially affect the host by maintaining the intestinal or lung microbiota that play a major role in human health...
2020: NPJ science of food
Miguel Waterhouse, Sandra Pennisi, Dietmar Pfeifer, Max Deuter, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Florian Scherer, Tim Strüssmann, Claudia Wehr, Justus Duyster, Hartmut Bertz, Jürgen Finke, Jesus Duque-Afonso
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been investigated in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) following allogeneic cell transplantation (HSCT). Identifying the tissue of origin of cfDNA in patients with aGvHD is relevant particularly when a biopsy is not feasible. We investigate the cfDNA tissue of origin in patients with aGvHD using methylated gene biomarkers. Patients with liver, colon, or skin aGvHD (n = 28) were analyzed. Liver- and colon-derived cfDNA was measured using a colon- (SESN3) and liver (PTK2B)-specific methylation marker with digital droplet PCR...
October 20, 2020: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Kriangsak Jenwitheesuk, Udomlack Peansukwech, Kamonwan Jenwitheesuk
This research examined the relationship between colon cancer risks and pollution in various areas of Thailand, using satellites to gather quantities of aerosols in the atmosphere. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model and the Poisson log-linear model were used to examine the incidence rates of colon cancer standardized by national references; from the database of the National Health Security Office, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand and NASA's database from aerosol diagnostics model. Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) was used to explore disease-gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of colon cancer incidences and accumulated air pollution-related cancers in Thailand between 2010 and 2016...
October 20, 2020: Scientific Reports
Paweł Krzyściak, Zofia Bakuła, Agnieszka Gniadek, Aleksander Garlicki, Mikołaj Tarnowski, Michał Wichowski, Tomasz Jagielski
Malassezia is a genus of lipophilic yeasts residing on the skin of warm-blooded animals. The correlation between specific species and their involvement in skin diseases has been well researched. However, only very few studies have investigated the distribution of Malassezia spp. on the healthy skin of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of this work was to analyze whether the composition of Malassezia spp. isolated from the skin of the HIV-infected patients differs from that of healthy individuals...
October 20, 2020: Scientific Reports
Yoshikazu Nakamura, Kaori Kanemaru, Madoka Shoji, Kengo Totoki, Karen Nakamura, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Keisuke Nakase, Norihisa Noguchi, Kiyoko Fukami
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) commonly colonizes the human skin and nostrils. However, it is also associated with a wide variety of diseases. S. aureus is frequently isolated from the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and is linked to increased disease severity. S. aureus impairs the skin barrier and triggers inflammation through the secretion of various virulence factors. S. aureus secretes phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), which hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol and cleaves glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins...
October 20, 2020: Scientific Reports
Meng Wu, Yaobing Chen, Han Xia, Changli Wang, Chin Yee Tan, Xunhui Cai, Yufeng Liu, Fenghu Ji, Peng Xiong, Ran Liu, Yuanlin Guan, Yaqi Duan, Dong Kuang, Sanpeng Xu, Hanghang Cai, Qin Xia, Dehua Yang, Ming-Wei Wang, Isaac M Chiu, Chao Cheng, Philip P Ahern, Liang Liu, Guoping Wang, Neeraj K Surana, Tian Xia, Dennis L Kasper
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted thus far in greater than 933,000 deaths worldwide; yet disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical and immunological features of patients with COVID-19 have highlighted a potential role for changes in immune activity in regulating disease severity. However, little is known about the responses in human lung tissue, the primary site of infection. Here we show that pathways related to neutrophil activation and pulmonary fibrosis are among the major up-regulated transcriptional signatures in lung tissue obtained from patients who died of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China...
October 20, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Sala, Bruna Colombari, Lavinia Beatrice Giva, Claudio Cermelli, Samuele Peppoloni, Anna Vecchiarelli, Elena Roselletti, Elisabetta Blasi, Robert T Wheeler, Eva Pericolini
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is primarily caused by Candida albicans and affects 75% of childbearing age women. Although C. albicans can colonize asymptomatically, disease is associated with an increased Candida burden, a loss of epithelial tolerance and a breakdown in vaginal microbiota homeostasis. VVC symptoms have been ascribed to a powerful inflammatory response associated with the infiltration of non-protective neutrophils (PMN). Here, we compared the immunological characteristics of vaginal fluids and cellular protein extracts obtained from 28 VVC women and from 23 healthy women colonized by Candida spp...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Toshiro Sugiyama, Akiko Shiotani
Highly impacted articles on functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders research presented at the core symposium held in the Japanese Gastroenterological Association (JGA) annual meeting 2018-2020 are selected and summarized. Regarding visceral hypersensitivity and sensor in GI tracts, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 ion channel and acid-sensitive ion channel were candidates for hypersensitivity in GI tracts. ATP release from vesicular nucleotide transporter may be a key pathway to sensitize the nerve endings...
October 20, 2020: Digestion
Sara Z Kuiper, Carmen D Dirksen, Merel L Kimman, Sander M J Van Kuijk, Robin R Van Tol, Jean W M Muris, Angus J M Watson, Jose M C Maessen, Jarno Melenhorst, Stéphanie O Breukink
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best treatment option in recurrent haemorrhoidal disease (HD), due to a lack of solid evidence. The Napoleon trial aims to provide high-level evidence on the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of repeat rubber band ligation (RBL) versus sutured mucopexy versus haemorrhoidectomy in patients with recurrent HD. METHODS: This is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Patients with recurrent HD grade II and III, ≥18 years of age and who had at least two RBL treatments in the last three years are eligible for inclusion...
October 17, 2020: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Sebastian Kjærgaard, Thorbjørn S R Jensen, Ulrike R Feddersen, Niels Bindslev, Kaare V Grunddal, Steen S Poulsen, Hanne B Rasmussen, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Mark Berner-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Colonic tuft cells are epithelial chemosensory cells involved in barrier integrity, modulation of inflammatory responses and gut homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates an involvement of tuft cells in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis, though mechanisms remain largely unknown.Here, we quantified the colonic tuft cell population in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis as compared to patients without identified colonic disease (controls). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we obtained endoscopic colonic sigmoid biopsies from 14 patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis and from 17 controls...
October 16, 2020: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Florence Fischer, Rossana Romero, Anne Hellhund, Uwe Linne, Wilhelm Bertrams, Olaf Pinkenburg, Hosam Shams Eldin, Kai Binder, Ralf Jacob, Alesia Walker, Bärbel Stecher, Marijana Basic, Maik Luu, Rouzbeh Mahdavi, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Alexander Visekruna, Ulrich Steinhoff
Although it is generally accepted that dietary fiber is health promoting, the underlying immunological and molecular mechanisms are not well defined, especially with respect to cellulose, the most ubiquitous dietary fiber. Here, the impact of dietary cellulose on intestinal microbiota, immune responses and gene expression in health and disease was examined. Lack of dietary cellulose disrupted the age-related diversification of the intestinal microbiota, which subsequently remained in an immature state. Interestingly, one of the most affected microbial genera was Alistipes which is equipped with enzymes to degrade cellulose...
November 9, 2020: Gut Microbes
Rui Han, Wuchen Yin, Bilal Ahmad, Peijia Gao, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
Elsinoë ampelina is the main cause of grape anthracnose, and the majority of grapevine cultivars are susceptible to this fungus. Some Chinese wild grape cultivars are resistant, however. It is therefore apt to compare the pathogenesis and immune responses in susceptible and resistant cultivars of grapevine to explore the detailed molecular and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to this fungus. In this study, ultrastructural and histopathological observations were used to demonstrate the resistance responses to E...
October 20, 2020: Phytopathology
Yan Li, Yuan-Yi Zhang, Li-Teng Yang, Jiang-Qi Liu, Chuan Zhou, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Gui Yang, Li-Hua Mo, Zhi-Gang Liu, Bai-Sui Feng, Ping-Chang Yang
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that frequently relapses and affects more than 0.1% general population; the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Published data show that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) contribute to the pathogenesis of UC. This study aims to identify antigen (Ag)-specific PMNs and investigate their role in UC relapse. In this study, the correlation between PMN activities and UC relapse was assessed in a group of UC patients. A UC mouse model was developed to expand the findings of UC patient study...
October 20, 2020: European Journal of Immunology
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