James P Caruso, M Burhan Janjua, Alison Dolce, Angela V Price
OBJECTIVE: Corpus callosotomy remains an established surgical treatment for certain types of medically refractory epilepsy in pediatric patients. While the traditional surgical approach is often well tolerated, the advent of MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) provides a new opportunity to ablate the callosal body in a minimally invasive fashion and minimize the risks associated with an open interhemispheric approach. However, the literature is sparse regarding the comparative efficacy and safety profiles of open corpus callosotomy (OCC) and LITT callosotomy...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Christopher W Rich, Rebecca E Fasano, Faical Isbaine, Amit M Saindane, Deqiang Qiu, Daniel J Curry, Robert E Gross, Jon T Willie
OBJECTIVE: Several small series have described stereotactic MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy for partial callosotomy of astatic and generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures, especially in association with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Larger case series and comparison of distinct stereotactic methods for stereotactic laser corpus callosotomy (SLCC), however, are currently lacking. The objective of this study was to report seizure outcomes in a series of adult patients with epilepsy following anterior, posterior, and complete SLCC procedures and to compare the results achieved with a frameless stereotactic surgical robot versus direct MRI guidance frames...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Junya Yamaguchi, Tomohide Nishikawa, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Atsushi Natsume
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) combined with perampanel (PER) therapy for intraoperative seizure treatment to determine whether a combination of LEV and PER can aid in the prevention of intraoperative intractable seizures during awake surgery. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study in 78 consecutive patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation mapping...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery
Salma M Bakr, Ajay Patel, Mohamed A Zaazoue, Kathryn Wagner, Sandi K Lam, Daniel J Curry, Jeffrey S Raskin
OBJECTIVE: The grid-based orthogonal placement of depth electrodes (DEs), initially defined by Jean Talairach and Jean Bancaud, is known as stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG). Although acceptance in the United States was initially slow, advances in imaging and technology have spawned a proliferation of North American epilepsy centers offering sEEG. Despite publications highlighting minimal access techniques and varied indications, standard work for phase I targeted DE has not been defined...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Pepin Marshall, Daniel R Garton, Tomi Taira, Vootele Võikar, Carolina Vilenius, Natalia Kulesskaya, Claudio Rivera, Jaan-Olle Andressoo
Parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV+) are a key component of inhibitory networks in the brain and are known to modulate memory and learning by shaping network activity. The mechanisms of PV+ neuron generation and maintenance are not fully understood, yet current evidence suggests that signalling via the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor GFRα1 positively modulates the migration and differentiation of PV+ interneurons in the cortex. Whether GDNF also regulates PV+ cells in the hippocampus is currently unknown...
January 22, 2021: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kouminin Kanwore, Xiao-Xiao Guo, Ayanlaja Abiola Abdulrahman, Piniel Alphayo Kambey, Iqra Nadeem, Dianshuai Gao
Failed neuroprotection leads to the initiation of several diseases. SOX1 plays many roles in embryogenesis, oncogenesis, and male sex determination, and can promote glioma stem cell proliferation, invasion, and migration due to its high expression in glioblastoma cells. The functional versatility of the SOX1 gene in malignancy, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease, as well as its adverse effects on dopaminergic neurons, makes it an interesting research focus. Hence, we collate the most important discoveries relating to the neuroprotective effects of SOX1 in brain cancer and propose hypothesis worthy of SOX1's role in the survival of senescent neuronal cells, its roles in fibroblast cell proliferation, and cell fat for neuroprotection, and the discharge of electrical impulses for homeostasis...
January 22, 2021: Molecular Neurobiology
Alexander Brown, Aimalohi Esechie, Bhanu Gogia, Elena Shanina
BACKGROUND: Gabapentin is a commonly used medication for neuropathic pain and epilepsy that is prescribed by a wide range of medical specialties. Adverse effects including asterixis and myoclonus have been described in patients with chronic kidney disease, but myokymia has not been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old man with a history of traumatic brain injury, peripheral neuropathy, amnesia, and posttraumatic stress disorder presented to the hospital after multiple falls attributed to acute onset muscle spasms...
January 20, 2021: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Aaron J Rozental, Stephanie McGrath, Allison P Mooney, Shannon R Hinson, Andrew McKeon, Sean J Pittock, Chase C Gross, Kenneth L Tyler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cell-based and tissue-based immunofluorescent assays (IFAs) run in parallel could be used to detect glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies in the CSF of dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) and other CNS disorders. ANIMALS: 15 CSF samples obtained from dogs with presumed MUO (n = 5), CNS disease other than MUO (5), and idiopathic epilepsy (5). PROCEDURES: All CSF samples underwent parallel analysis with a cell-based IFA that targeted the α isoform of human GFAP and a tissue-based IFA that involved mouse brain cryosections...
February 2021: American Journal of Veterinary Research
SeoYeon Yi, Young Hwa Kong, Sun Jun Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fludrocortisone in patients with pediatric vasovagal syncope (VVS). METHODS: This retrospective observational single-tertiary-center study based on chart reviews included 74 patients who were newly diagnosed with VVS in the head-up tilt-table test (HUTT). Some of the patients had been treated with fludrocortisone. All patients were assessed using a brain and cardiac workup before treatment to rule out the syncope being due to other causes, which resulted in seven of them being excluded: two for epilepsy and five for brain pathologies...
January 2021: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Soo Young Lim, Mi Sun Yum, Hyunji Ahn, Min Jee Kim, Han Na Jang, Tae Sung Ko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dietary therapy (DT), including the ketogenic diet (KD), is one of the nonpharmacological treatment options for patient with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, maintaining DT in patients without seizure reduction is very difficult, so it is critical for clinicians to decide when to stop this intervention. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed early clinical and laboratory findings and the clinical characteristics of children who received DT...
January 2021: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Jung Ick Byun, Dong Wook Kim, Keun Tae Kim, Kwang Ik Yang, Soon Tae Lee, Jong Geun Seo, Young Joo No, Kyung Wook Kang, Daeyoung Kim, Yong Won Cho, Jae Moon Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to survey the expert opinions on treatments for convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in adults. METHODS: Forty-two South Korean epileptologists participated in this survey. They completed an online questionnaire regarding various patient scenarios and evaluated the appropriateness of medications used to treat CSE and NCSE. RESULTS: Initial treatment with a benzodiazepine (BZD) followed by either a second BZD or an antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy was the preferred treatment strategy...
January 2021: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Daeyoung Kim, Jae Moon Kim, Yong Won Cho, Kwang Ik Yang, Dong Wook Kim, Soon Tae Lee, Young Joo No, Jong Geun Seo, Jung Ick Byun, Kyung Wook Kang, Keun Tae Kim
Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious neurologic emergencies. SE is a condition that encompasses a broad range of semiologic subtypes and heterogeneous etiologies. The treatment of SE primarily involves the management of the underlying etiology and the use of antiepileptic drug therapy to rapidly terminate seizure activities. The Drug Committee of the Korean Epilepsy Society performed a review of existing guidelines and literature with the aim of providing practical recommendations for antiepileptic drug therapy...
January 2021: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Mirna Sobana, Danny Halim, Jenifer Kiem Aviani, Uni Gamayani, Tri Hanggono Achmad
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is diagnosed when an accumulating amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fails to circulate and/or absorbed in the ventricular system. Based on its etiology, hydrocephalus can be classified into infectious and non-infectious hydrocephalus. In children, non-infectious hydrocephalus includes congenital hydrocephalus, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, neural tube defect-related hydrocephalus, and tumor-related hydrocephalus. Regardless of the cause, a CSF diversion device is placed to divert the excess fluid from the ventricles into peritoneal cavity...
January 21, 2021: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Stephanie J Mattingly, Melinda Wuest, Eugene J Fine, Ralf Schirrmacher, Frank Wuest
The ketone bodies d-beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid represent the principal oxidative energy sources of most tissues when dietary glucose is scarce. An 18 F-labeled ketone body could be a useful tool for studying ketone body metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we report the first radiofluorinated ketone body derivative (3 S )-4-[18 F]fluoro-3-hydroxybutyric acid ([18 F]FBHB) as well as its enantiomer and l-beta-hydroxybutyric acid derivative, (3 R )-4-[18 F]fluoro-3-hydroxybutyric acid (( R )-[18 F]F3HB)...
February 1, 2020: RSC Med Chem
Mariko Onodera, Jan Meyer, Kota Furukawa, Yuichi Hiraoka, Tomomi Aida, Kohichi Tanaka, Kenji F Tanaka, Christine R Rose, Ko Matsui
Seizures invite seizures. At the initial stage of epilepsy, seizures intensify with each episode; however, the mechanisms underlying this exacerbation remain to be solved. Astrocytes have a strong control over neuronal excitability and the mode of information processing. This control is accomplished by adjusting the levels of various ions in the extracellular space. The network of astrocytes connected via gap junctions allows a wider or more confined distribution of these ions depending on the open probability of the gap junctions...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Neuroscience
Domenica Battaglia, Daniela Chieffo, Simona Lucibello, Carla Marini, Valentina Sibilia, Davide Mei, Francesca Darra, Francesca Offredi, Elena Fontana, Nicola Specchio, Simona Cappelletti, Tiziana Granata, Francesca Ragona, Mara Patrini, Maria G Baglietto, Giulia Prato, Annarita Ferrari, Federico Vigevano, Eugenio Mercuri, Bernardo Dalla Bernardina, Renzo Guerrini, Charlotte Dravet, Francesco Guzzetta
The objective of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of developmental/behavioral phenotypes and possibly their relationship to epilepsy and genotype by analyzing developmental and behavioral features collected prospectively and longitudinally in a cohort of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Thirty-four patients from seven Italian tertiary pediatric neurology centers were enrolled in the study. All patients were examined for the SCN1A gene mutation and prospectively assessed from the first years of life with repeated full clinical observations including neurological and developmental examinations...
January 18, 2021: Brain & Development
Omar Alkedeh, Ronny Priefer
The ketogenic diet, while originally thought to treat epilepsy in children, is now used for weight loss due to increasing evidence indicating that fat is burned more rapidly when there is a low carbohydrate intake. This low carbohydrate intake can lead to elevated ketone levels in the blood and breath. Breath and blood ketones can be measured to gauge the level of ketosis and allow for adjustment of the diet to meet the user's needs. Blood ketone levels have been historically used, but now breath acetone sensors are becoming more common due to less invasiveness and convenience...
January 19, 2021: Biosensors
Goran Sedmak, Miloš Judaš
White matter interstitial neurons (WMIN) are a subset of cortical neurons located in the subcortical white matter. Although they were fist described over 150 years ago, they are still largely unexplored and often considered a small, functionally insignificant neuronal population. WMIN are adult remnants of neurons located in the transient fetal subplate zone (SP). Following development, some of the SP neurons undergo apoptosis, and the remaining neurons are incorporated in the adult white matter as WMIN. In the adult human brain, WMIN are quite a large population of neurons comprising at least 3% of all cortical neurons (between 600 and 1100 million neurons)...
January 19, 2021: Cells
Louis Jacob, Jae Il Shin, Guillermo F López-Sánchez, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi, Jong Yeob Kim, Jae Han Kim, Hans Oh, Lee Smith
This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between arthritis and migraine in a large representative sample of the US adult population. The study used data from adults who participated in the RAND American Life Panel (ALP). Arthritis (excluding rheumatoid arthritis) and migraine were self-reported. Control variables included sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education, employment, annual family income, stroke, epilepsy, coronary artery disease, asthma, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and alcohol dependence...
January 18, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mariano Fernandez-Corazza, Rui Feng, Chengxin Ma, Jie Hu, Li Pan, Phan Luu, Don Tucker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epileptic source estimation using multiple sparse priors (MSP) inverse method and high-resolution, individual electrical head models. METHODS: Accurate source localization is dependent on accurate electrical head models and appropriate inverse solvers. Using high-resolution, individual electrical head models in fifteen epilepsy patients, with surgical resection and clinical outcome as criteria for accuracy, performance of MSP method was compared against standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) and coherent maximum entropy on the mean (cMEM) methods...
December 3, 2020: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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