Simón Cárdenas-Robledo, Susana Otero-Romero, Maria Angels Passarell-Bacardit, Pere Carbonell-Mirabent, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Xavier Montalban, Mar Tintoré
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased healthcare resource usage. We studied the frequency of comorbidities and adverse health behaviors (AHB) in MS patients in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia. METHODS: Population-based, case-control study using primary healthcare information covering 80% of Catalonia's population. Cases were matched by age/sex with randomly-chosen controls (ratio 1:5)...
July 22, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Xijing Zhou, Haiqing Xu, Xiuqu Cai, Bin Tang, Xiaorong Liu, Yiwu Shi, Jinou Zheng, Weiping Liao, Lu Yu
OBJECTIVE: Intronic variants of the SCN1A gene are detected in patients with epilepsy with febrile seizures (EFS), which includes a series of phenotypes with different severities. However, the pathogenicity of intronic variants and their genotype-phenotype correlation remain under characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in mRNA splicing caused by SCN1A intronic variants associated with EFS and their association with phenotypes. METHODS: Five SCN1A intronic variants detected in patients with focal epilepsy with antecedent febrile seizures plus (FEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS) were molecularly cloned...
July 7, 2021: Epilepsy Research
Brian LaGrant, Daniel M Goldenholz, Marvin Braun, Robert E Moss, Zachary M Grinspan
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic seizure diaries (e-diaries) by caregivers of children with epileptic spasms is not well understood. We describe the demographic and seizure-related information of children with epileptic spasms captured in a widely used e-diary and explore the potential biases in how caregivers report these data. METHODS: We analyzed children with epileptic spasms in an e-diary, Seizure Tracker, from 2007 to 2018. We described variables including sex, time of seizure, percentage of spasms occurring as individual spasms (versus in clusters), cluster duration, and number of spasms per cluster...
April 23, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Sebastian Powell, Tangunu Fosi, Jenny Sloneem, Christina Hawkins, Hanna Richardson, Sarah Aylett
INTRODUCTION: This study of children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) profiled neurological presentations; compared patients with (+) and without (-) port-wine stain (PWS); and determined risk factors for intellectual and language impairments. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was conducted at a national centre. RESULTS: This cohort (n = 140, male 72, median follow up 114 months) showed sex parity. Intellectual disability ("ID": IQ ≤ 70) affected half (66), being severe (IQ ≤ 40) in two-fifths (27) with ID...
July 9, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Rodrigo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Túlio C Bernardino, Maria Carolina Machado da Silva, Antônio C P de Oliveira, Luciana E Drumond, Daniela V Rosa, André R Massensini, Márcio F D Moraes, Maria C Doretto, Marco A Romano-Silva, Helton J Reis
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affects 1% of the population. However, the neurochemical alterations observed in epilepsy are not fully understood. There are different animal models of epilepsy, such as genetic or drug induced. In the present study, we utilize Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR), a murine strain that develops seizures in response to high intensity audio stimulation, in order to investigate abnormalities in glutamatergic and GABAergic systems...
July 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Mona Aslani, Seyed Shahabeddin Mortazavi-Jahromi, Abbas Mirshafiey
Known as one of the most sophisticated systems of the human body, the nervous system consists of neural cells and controls all parts of the body. It is closely related to the immune system. The effects of inflammation and immune reactions have been observed in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Defined as the gene expression regulators, miRNAs participate in cellular processes. miR-146a is a mediator in the neuroimmune system, leaving substantial effects on the homeostasis of immune and brain cells, neuronal identities acquisition, and immune responses regulation in the nervous system...
July 19, 2021: Immunology Letters
Arka N Mallela, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Gautam M Nayar, Diego D Luy, Niravkumar Barot, Jorge A González-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is an effective method to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Typical placement requires passing and anchoring electrodes through native skull. OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful placement of SEEG electrodes in patients without native bone. To the best of our knowledge, the use of SEEG in patients with nonautologous cranioplasties has not been described. METHODS: We describe 3 cases in which SEEG was performed through nonautologous cranioplasty...
July 22, 2021: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Zhuo Fu, Yue-Xin Jia, Jun-Xian Fu, Tian-Xia Li, Jing-Jing Zhao, Ting Wang, Zhi-Dong Qiao, Xiao-Yang Liu, Rong Tang, Ting Lv, Guang-Lu Yang
BACKGROUND: The chromosomal 15q11-q13 regions are structurally complex, and their abnormalities are associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, Angelman syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old child was admitted to the hospital as a result of an "epileptic status" showing ASD, intractable epilepsy, and total developmental retardation. Chromosome gene detection showed repetitive variation in the 15q11-q13 regions, and the video electroencephalogram was abnormal...
July 21, 2021: Brain and Behavior
Till S Zimmer, Bastian David, Diede W M Broekaart, Martin Schidlowski, Gabriele Ruffolo, Anatoly Korotkov, Nicole N van der Wel, Peter C van Rijen, Angelika Mühlebner, Wim van Hecke, Johannes C Baayen, Sander Idema, Liesbeth François, Jonathan van Eyll, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Helmut W Kessels, Rainer Surges, Theodor Rüber, Jan A Gorter, James D Mills, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Neuronal dysfunction due to iron accumulation in conjunction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) could represent an important, yet underappreciated, component of the epileptogenic process. However, to date, alterations in iron metabolism in the epileptogenic brain have not been addressed in detail. Iron-related neuropathology and antioxidant metabolic processes were investigated in resected brain tissue from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), post-mortem brain tissue from patients who died after status epilepticus (SE) as well as brain tissue from the electrically induced SE rat model of TLE...
July 22, 2021: Acta Neuropathologica
Austin Gamblin, Vance L Fredrickson, Todd C Hollon, Karen L Salzman, William T Couldwell
Herniation of parahippocampal gyrus is usually caused by pressure differentials intracranially, and herniation without known risk factors is extremely rare. We describe a patient with a long history of seizures and a remote status epilepticus event. On magnetic resonance imaging, a presumed left temporal lobe tumor was observed. On neurosurgical consultation, the lesion was identified as a chronic mesial temporal lobe herniation. The patient lacked history that would suggest risk of cerebral herniation. Accurately identifying the patient's chronic temporal lobe herniation radiographically likely saved this patient from unnecessary surgery or biopsy and allowed the patient to receive appropriate conservative care...
July 22, 2021: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jingdian Liu, Kai Zhao, Junwen Wang, Kai Shu
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric meningiomas are relatively rare and have atypical clinical features compared to adults. The purpose of this work is to report our 15-year experience in the management of pediatric meningiomas and assess their clinical characteristics, pathological features, and prognostic factors. METHODS: A total of 40 children (age ≤ 15 years) who were diagnosed as pediatric meningiomas were enrolled in this study. Patient information including clinical presentation, gender, age at time of diagnosis, histopathological features, tumor location, tumor volume, treatment methods, and follow-up data were extracted and analyzed...
July 22, 2021: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Karim Hamouda, Philine Senf-Beckenbach, Carola Gerhardt, Freddy Irorutola, Matthias Rose, Kim Hinkelmann
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are considered functional neurological symptoms and are highly prevalent in specialized epilepsy clinics. The underlying mechanisms of PNES are not fully understood. Recent findings point towards possible alterations in attention and executive functions. This study aimed to extend the current knowledge of attention and executive function in patients with PNES and to assess possible relationships between seizures and dissociation, childhood trauma, and cognitive function...
July 21, 2021: Psychosomatic Medicine
Martina Göldlin, Piotr Radojewski, Bernhard Siepen, Madlaine Müller, Roland Wiest, Pasquale Mordasini, Alexandros Polymeris, Stefan T Engelter, Philippe Lyrer, Werner Z'Graggen, Urs Fischer, David Seiffge
Intracerebral haemorrhage - acute event and chronic disease Abstract. Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and approximately 1'500-2'000 patients per year in Switzerland. Acute treatment by multi-disciplinary experts at certified stroke units and stroke centers is important to provide optimal care. A simple ABC-care bundle (revert anticoagulation, control blood pressure, inform neurosurgeon) decreases poor outcome. Despite a high mortality, one third of patients are functionally independent after intracerebral hemorrhage contradicting widespread pessimism...
August 2021: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Moussa Toudou-Daouda, Abdoul Kadir Ibrahim-Mamadou
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate epilepsy management at the regional hospital center (RHC) of Tahoua (Niger) to determine the intrahospital deficiencies to optimize to improve the management of people with epilepsy. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out at the Psychiatric Unit of the RHC of Tahoua between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2019. We collected from the registers of consultation all patients followed by nurse technicians in mental health for epilepsy whose diagnosis was made by nonspecialist physicians or internists...
July 21, 2021: Brain and Behavior
Kaixuan Wang, Jing Wu, Jiangping Wang, Kewen Jiang
AIM: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), most subsequently developing refractory epilepsy, causes a significant burden to the society. microRNAs have been demonstrated as key regulators and therapeutic targets in epilepsy. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to test whether miR-485 could be a potential target for DRE. METHODS AND RESULTS: An in vivo DRE model was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by lithium chloride-pilocarpine and screened by antiepileptic drugs...
July 21, 2021: Brain and Behavior
Tao-Ran Li, Yu-Di Zhang, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
AIMS: Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is characterized by complex manifestations of seizures. Here, we report a new seizure semiology, attempt to classify the disease by semiology type, and explore the metabolic pattern of each group. METHODS: Anti-LGI1 AE patients were retrospectively screened between May 2014 and September 2019 in our tertiary epilepsy center. All enrolled patients had seizures during long-range video electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and all patients (except one) underwent [18 F] fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans...
July 22, 2021: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Suat Sari, Burak Barut, Monika Marcinkowska, Suna Sabuncuoğlu, Ahmet Avci, Ebru Koçak Aslan, Arzu Özel, Agata Siwek
Nafimidone is known for its clinical antiepileptic effects and alcohol derivatives of nafimidone were reported be potent anticonvulsants. These compounds are structurally similar to miconazole, which is known to inhibit cholinesterases, protect neurons, and ameliorate cognitive decline. Herein, we aimed to reveal the potential of three nafimidone alcohol esters (5 g, 5i, and 5 k), which were previously reported for their anticonvulsant effects, against co-morbidities of epilepsy such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and neuron death, and understand their roles in related pathways such as γ-butyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor and cholinesterases using in vitro, in vivo and in silico methods...
July 22, 2021: Drug Development Research
Mehdi Sharafi, Ehsan Bahramali, Mojtaba Farjam, Shahab Rezaeian, Sima Afrashteh, Zahra Amiri
Background: Contrary to health indices advancement during recent years, health inequalities are still a global challenge. This study aimed to determine socioeconomic factors for noncommunicable diseases using concentration indices (CI). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the baseline data from a cohort study in Fasa (southern Iran). Principle component analysis was used to measure asset index. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities were calculated by CI. Analysis was done at 95% confidence level using STATA software...
2021: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Kaijia Yu, Zhiwei Ren, Tao Yu, Xueyuan Wang, Yongsheng Hu, Song Guo, Jianyu Li, Yongjie Li
Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a potentially effective, minimally invasive, and reversible method for treating epilepsy. The goal of this study was to explore whether 3 T quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) could delineate the ANT from surrounding structures, which is important for the direct targeting of DBS surgery. Methods: We obtained 3 T QSM, T1-weighted (T1w), and T2-weighted (T2w) images from 11 patients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia who received subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS surgery in our center...
2021: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James E Kragel, Youssef Ezzyat, Bradley C Lega, Michael R Sperling, Gregory A Worrell, Robert E Gross, Barbara C Jobst, Sameer A Sheth, Kareem A Zaghloul, Joel M Stein, Michael J Kahana
Episodic recall depends upon the reinstatement of cortical activity present during the formation of a memory. Evidence from functional neuroimaging and invasive recordings in humans suggest that reinstatement organizes our memories by time or content, yet the neural systems involved in reinstating these unique types of information remain unclear. Here, combining computational modeling and intracranial recordings from 69 epilepsy patients, we show that two cortical systems uniquely reinstate the semantic content and temporal context of previously studied items during free recall...
July 21, 2021: Nature Communications
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