Monica Aleman, Ruba Benini, Sami Elestwani, Tatiana Vinardell
BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) is categorized as a generalized epilepsy. Epilepsy classification entails electrocortical characterization and localization of epileptic discharges (ED) using electroencephalography (EEG). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Characterize epilepsy in Egyptian Arabian foals with JIE using EEG. ANIMALS: Sixty-nine foals (JIE, 48; controls, 21). METHODS: Retrospective study. Inclusion criteria consisted of Egyptian Arabian foals: (1) JIE group diagnosed based on witnessed or recorded seizures, and neurological and EEG findings, and (2) control group of healthy nonepileptic age-matched foals...
December 2, 2023: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Zhufei Xu, Lei Wu, Zhimin Chen
Foreign body aspiration is relatively common in children, especially in children younger than 3 years, and it is associated with a high incidence and mortality rate. Because of impairments in swallowing, speech, and vision, more caution regarding foreign body aspiration is required in children with abnormal nervous system development. This report describes a clinically rare case involving a 6-year-old patient with delayed brain development and epilepsy who was found to have a tooth in the bronchus of the left lung through fiberoptic bronchoscopy...
December 2023: Journal of International Medical Research
Luis Genis-Najera, Maria Elena Sañudo-Maury
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of neurological disorders is high among the Mexican population. Clonazepam is primarily indicated to treat panic disorders, certain kinds of epilepsy such as status epilepticus, childhood motor seizures (petit mal absence, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and infantile spasms), anxiety, and muscle spasm. This study was performed to compare bioequivalence between two oral tablet formulations of clonazepam 2 mg in healthy Mexican volunteers under fasting conditions...
December 2, 2023: Neurology and Therapy
Elena Merli, Michele Romoli, Simone Galluzzo, Lorenzo Bevacqua, Emanuele Saverio Cece, Gabriele Ricci, Stefania Testoni, Anna Zaniboni, Maria Maddalena Viola, Luigi Simonetti, Francesca Bisulli, Sara Contardi, Paolo Tinuper, Andrea Zini
BACKGROUND: Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a time-dependent neurological disorder often misdiagnosed in the emergency setting. Electroencephalography (EEG) is often not available on a 24/7 basis, and Salzburg criteria may at times miss the diagnosis. Here, we tested the accuracy of hyperperfusion on CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in the identification of NCSE against Salzburg criteria, to define its potential role in a pragmatic diagnostic workflow. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with suspected acute seizure or seizure disorder undergoing brain imaging with CTP and EEG from January 2021 to March 2023...
November 24, 2023: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Gernot Hlauschek, John-Paul Nicolo, Benjamin Sinclair, Meng Law, Clarissa L Yasuda, Fernando Cendes, Morten Ingvar Lossius, Patrick Kwan, Lucy Vivash
Stroke is one of the most common causes of acquired epilepsy, which can also result in disability and increased mortality rates particularly in elderly patients. No preventive treatment for post-stroke epilepsy is currently available. Development of such treatments has been greatly limited by the lack of biomarkers to reliably identify high risk patients. The glymphatic system, including perivascular spaces (PVS) is the brain's waste clearance system and enlargement or asymmetry of PVS (ePVS) is hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several neurological conditions...
December 2, 2023: Epilepsia Open
Natalia Erenburg, Roa'a Hamed, Chanan Shaul, Dinorah Barasch, Emilio Perucca, Meir Bialer
The effect of fenfluramine and norfenfluramine enantiomers in rodent seizure models, and their correlation with the pharmacokinetics of d- and l-fenfluramine in rats have been recently reported. To complement these findings, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of d- and l-norfenfluramine in rat plasma and brain samples. Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 20mg/kg and 1 mg/kg l-norfenfluramine. A 1 mg/kg dose of d-norfenfluramine was used because higher doses caused severe toxicity...
December 2, 2023: Epilepsia
Ionuț-Flavius Bratu, Julia Makhalova, Elodie Garnier, Samuel Medina Villalon, Aude Jegou, Francesca Bonini, Stanislas Lagarde, Francesca Pizzo, Agnès Trébuchon, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Christian Bénar, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: Quantification of the epileptogenic zone network (EZN) most frequently implies analysis of the seizure onset. However, important information can also be obtained from the postictal period, characterized by prominent changes in the EZN. We used permutation entropy (PE), a measure of signal complexity, to analyze the peri-ictal stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) signal changes with emphasis on the postictal state. We sought to determine the best PE-derived parameter (PEDP) for identifying the EZN...
December 2, 2023: Epilepsia
Shennan A Weiss, Itzhak Fried, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin, Shuang Wang, Michael R Sperling, Robert K S Wong, Yuval Nir, Richard J Staba
OBJECTIVE: To confirm and investigate why pathological HFOs (pHFOs), including ripples [80-200 Hz] and fast ripples [200-600 Hz], are generated during the UP-DOWN transition of the slow wave and if information transmission mediated by ripple temporal coupling is disrupted in the seizure onset zone (SOZ). METHODS: We isolated 217 total units from 175.95 iEEG contact-hours of synchronized macro- and microelectrode recordings from 6 patients. Sleep slow oscillation (0...
December 2, 2023: Epilepsia
Piergiorgio d'Orio, Silvia Squarza, Martina Revay, Francesco Cardinale, Laura Castana, Ivana Sartori, Laura Tassi, Giorgio Lo Russo, Massimo Cossu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with surgery-related neurological morbidity in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy undergoing supra-sylvian operculo-insular resections. As secondary outcomes, we also analyzed the risk factors for ischemic lesions (IL) of corona radiata and seizure recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on a cohort of patients underwent supra-sylvian operculo-insular resections for drug-resistant epilepsy...
December 2, 2023: Epilepsia
Chenyu Liu, Yi Qi, Liang Wang, Ce Zhang, Li Kang, Suhang Shang, Jingxia Dang
PURPOSE: Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) captured in electroencephalography (EEG) have a high diagnostic value for epileptic patients. Extending the recording time may increase the possibility of obtaining IEDs. The purpose of our research was to determine how long it took for various epileptic individuals to receive their first IEDs. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with epilepsy and had no anti-seizure medications (ASMs) between September 2018 and March 2019 in the neurology department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University...
December 1, 2023: BMC Neurology
P Capitaine, B Thomas, A Gradel, T Ferté, O Branchard, E Frison, V Renaudeau, J Aupy
AIMS: Functional non-epileptic seizures significantly impact the quality of life of patients. We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with the quality of life in individuals with functional non-epileptic seizures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with definite or documented functional seizures based on LaFrance's criteria (n=72) were enrolled at the time of diagnosis. Quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31) at diagnosis and at a six-month follow-up...
November 30, 2023: Revue Neurologique
E Monfort, P Latour
The large number of technological developments suggests that patients with epilepsy can be better supported in the management of their seizures, especially when their condition is drug resistant. Patients and their caregivers, who are generally supportive of seizure detection and monitoring technologies, can provide relevant information to improve their effectiveness. We propose a comprehensive co-design approach to support more efficient development of seizure detection and monitoring technologies. Such an approach should follow the steps of the research and development process, take into account the temporal requirements characteristic of seizure management, focus on the themes of autonomy and self-management, and be guided by disease experts...
November 30, 2023: Revue Neurologique
Matthias De Wachter, An-Sofie Schoonjans, Sarah Weckhuysen, Kristof Van Schil, Ann Löfgren, Marije Meuwissen, Anna Jansen, Berten Ceulemans
The implementation of whole exome sequencing (WES) has had a major impact on the diagnostic yield of genetic testing in individuals with epilepsy. The identification of a genetic etiology paves the way to precision medicine: an individualized treatment approach, based on the disease pathophysiology. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to: (1) determine the diagnostic yield of WES in a heterogeneous cohort of individuals with epilepsy referred for genetic testing in a real-world clinical setting, (2) investigate the influence of epilepsy characteristics on the diagnostic yield, (3) determine the theoretical yield of treatment changes based on genetic diagnosis and (4) explore the barriers to implementation of precision medicine...
November 22, 2023: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Huaiyu Sun, Di Ma, Shuai Hou, Wuqiong Zhang, Jiaai Li, Weixuan Zhao, Nilupaer Shafeng, Hongmei Meng
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a role in the development and advancement of epilepsy, but the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and epilepsy is still not well understood. Herein, we use two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causal association between systemic inflammatory cytokines and epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a bidirectional two-sample MR analysis based on genome-wide association study data of 41 serum cytokines from 8293 Finnish individuals with various epilepsy subtypes from the International League against Epilepsy Consortium...
November 10, 2023: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Frank Brandhoff, Thomas Mayer, Miriam Wienecke, Tatjana Kovacevic-Preradovic, Martin Holtkamp, Eva Breuer
PURPOSE: At onset of generalized seizures, focal electroclinical features are commonly seen, while generalized onset seizures with focal evolution (GOFE) are largely unknown bearing the risk of misclassification. METHODS: In two German epilepsy-centers, patients with GOFE documented by video-EEG monitoring (VEM) between 2017 and 2022 were identified retrospectively. In addition to analysis of ictal electroclinical features, detailed epilepsy and family history, response to antiseizure medication (ASM), and findings from neuroimaging were considered...
November 25, 2023: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Claire Ufongene, Grace Van Hyfte, Parul Agarwal, Jonathan Goldstein, Brian Mathew, Allison Navis, Louise McCarthy, Churl-Su Kwon, Kapil Gururangan, Priti Balchandani, Lara Marcuse, Georges Naasan, Anuradha Singh, James Young, Alexander Charney, Girish Nadkarni, Nathalie Jette, Leah J Blank
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in older adults, especially those with pre-existing conditions. There is little work investigating how neurological conditions affect older adults with COVID-19. We aimed to compare in-hospital outcomes, including mortality, in older adults with and without epilepsy. METHODS: This retrospective study in a large multicenter New York health system included consecutive older patients (age ≥65 years) either with or without epilepsy who were admitted with COVID-19 between 3/2020-5/2021...
November 26, 2023: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Luis Gerardo Balcazar-Ochoa, Rosa Ventura-Martínez, Guadalupe Esther Ángeles-López, Claudia Gómez-Acevedo, Omar Francisco Carrasco, Raúl Sampieri-Cabrera, Anahí Chavarría, Abimael González-Hernández
Clavulanic acid (CLAV) is a non-antibiotic β-lactam that has been used since the late 1970s as a β-lactamase inhibitor in combination with amoxicillin, another ß-lactam with antibiotic activity. Its long-observed adverse reaction profile allows it to say that CLAV is a well-tolerated drug with mainly mild adverse reactions. Interestingly, in 2005, it was discovered that β-lactams enhance the astrocytic expression of GLT-1, a glutamate transporter essential for maintaining synaptic glutamate homeostasis involved in several pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 30, 2023: Archives of Medical Research
Yongri Hong, Caichuan Wei, Miaoying Fu, Xinyang Li, Haiju Zhang, Baozhen Yao
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, affecting up to 70 million people worldwide. Vascular disruption, including blood-brain barrier impairment and pathological angiogenesis, exacerbates its occurrence. However, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. MCC950 is a specific small-molecule inhibitor that selectively blocks NLRP3 inflammatory vesicle activation across the blood-brain barrier, limits downstream IL-1β maturation and release, and exerts therapeutic effects across multiple diseases...
November 30, 2023: International Immunopharmacology
Francesco Brigo, Johan Zelano, Laura Abraira, Carla Bentes, Christine T Ekdahl, Simona Lattanzi, Morten Ingvar Lossius, Petra Redfors, Rob P W Rouhl, Emilio Russo, Josemir W Sander, Alberto Vogrig, Ronny Wickström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2023: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Giorgia Giussani, Nadia Ronzano, Elisa Bianchi, Francesca Banditelli, Ettore Beghi, Dario Pruna
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of pediatric epilepsy in the geographic isolate of Sardinia island and to calculate the prevalence of active epilepsy. METHODS: The study was retrospective, observational and involved a systematic review of medical records and computerized archives containing all clinical and EEG recordings of patients with epilepsy referred to the regional structures that could have followed patients with epilepsy in South Sardinia, during the period 2003-2021...
November 30, 2023: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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