Shuang Guo, Kong-Xi Zhu, Wei-Hua Yu, Teng Wang, Shuai Li, Yun-Xia Wang, Chen-Chen Zhang, Jian-Qiang Guo
Long non-coding RNAs have important roles in the occurrence and progression of various cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well illustrated. Thus, we used bioinformatics methods to find potential lncRNAs associated with CRC progression, and chose SH3PXD2A-AS1 as a candidate for further analysis. The roles of SH3PXD2A-AS1 in CRC cells were determined by CCK-8, transwell invasion, wound healing and flow cytometry assays. Besides, we established the CRC tumor models in nude mice to study the effect of SH3PXD2A-AS1 on the tumor growth...
October 19, 2020: Environmental Toxicology
Lia C Scott, Shelton Bartley, Nicole F Dowling, Lisa C Richardson
The purpose of this study is to present a variety of measures that quantify equity in cancer outcomes, demonstrate how the measures perform in various cancer types, and identify counties, or Bright Spots, that meet the criteria of those measures. Using county-level age adjusted death rates for 2007-2016 from the National Center for Health Statistics, we determined counties that had both equitable and optimal outcomes for the black and white death rates across five cancer types, lung/bronchus, prostate, breast, colorectal, and liver cancers...
October 19, 2020: American Journal of Epidemiology
Min Jeong Kim, Young Jung Kang, Bokyung Sung, Jung Yoon Jang, Yu Ra Ahn, Hye Jin Oh, Heejeong Choi, Inkyu Choi, Eunok Im, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung, Nam Deuk Kim
We examined the anticancer effects of a novel sirtuin inhibitor, MHY2256, on HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells to investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms. MHY2256 significantly suppressed the activity of sirtuin 1 and expression levels of sirtuin 1/2 and stimulated acetylation of forkhead box O1, which is a target protein of sirtuin 1. Treatment with MHY2256 inhibited the growth of the HCT116 ( TP53 wild-type), HT-29 ( TP53 mutant), and DLD-1 ( TP53 mutant) human colorectal cancer cell lines. In addition, MHY2256 induced G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle progression, which was accompanied by the reduction of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and the decrease of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and E2F transcription factor 1...
October 19, 2020: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Huiyuan Jiang, Haiyi Liu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common digestive malignant tumors globally. Focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FALEC) is a novel lncRNA that has been reported to be involved in many biological processes during carcinogenesis. However, its role in CRC remains poorly understood. METHODS: Gene expression at mRNA or protein level was measured by qRT-PCR or western blot, respectively. In vitro experiments including EdU, colony formation, flow cytometry, wound-healing and transwell assays, as well as in vivo xenograft experiment, were utilized to determine the functional role of FALEC in CRC...
October 19, 2020: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Sophie Scherer, Lina Jansen, Daniel Boakye, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) and its treatment can lead to several physical and psychosocial impairments. Cancer rehabilitation aims to reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. The objective of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence on changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation therapy and on the effectiveness of such treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search including the electronic databases Pubmed and Web of Science to find observational and interventional studies, which investigated changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation programs or treatment effects...
October 19, 2020: Acta Oncologica
Shengqi He, Dongqing Hu, Haixia Feng, Ye Xue, Jin Jin, Xiaoyan Wang
Aim: PD-1 inhibitors have a leading role among immunotherapy while its efficacy on colorectal cancer (CRC) patients did not reach consensus and the small sample size remains as a limitation. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis on the effects of the monotherapy anti-PD-1 inhibitors in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Materials & methods: We searched databases to identify studies on efficacy of anti-PD-1 inhibitor on CRC. Objectives were objective response rate, progression-free survival rate, disease control rate and overall survival rate with their 95% CI...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Morteza Gholami, Marzieh Zoughi, Bagher Larijani, Mahsa M Amoli, Milad Bastami
Colorectal cancer (CRC) and obesity are linked clinical entities with a series of complex processes being engaged in their development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in these processes through regulating CRC and obesity-related genes. This study aimed to develop an in silico approach to systematically identify and prioritize miRNAs target sites polymorphisms in obesity and CRC. Data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were used to retrieve CRC and obesity-associated variants. The polymorphisms that were resided in experimentally verified or computationally predicted miRNA target sites were retrieved and prioritized using a range of bioinformatics analyses...
October 18, 2020: Cancer Medicine
Anna Lm Smith, Julia C Whitehall, Carla Bradshaw, David Gay, Fiona Robertson, Alasdair P Blain, Gavin Hudson, Angela Pyle, David Houghton, Matthew Hunt, James N Sampson, Craig Stamp, Grace Mallett, Shoba Amarnath, Jack Leslie, Fiona Oakley, Laura Wilson, Angela Baker, Oliver M Russell, Riem Johnson, Claire A Richardson, Bhavana Gupta, Iain McCallum, Stuart Ac McDonald, Seamus Kelly, John C Mathers, Rakesh Heer, Robert W Taylor, Neil D Perkins, Doug M Turnbull, Owen J Sansom, Laura C Greaves
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects caused by somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations increase with age in human colorectal epithelium and are prevalent in colorectal tumours, but whether they actively contribute to tumorigenesis remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mtDNA mutations causing OXPHOS defects are enriched during the human adenoma/carcinoma sequence, suggesting they may confer a metabolic advantage. To test this we deleted the tumour suppressor Apc in OXPHOS deficient intestinal stem cells in mice...
October 2020: Nature cancer
Andre Luiz Pitanga Bastos De Souza
Although researchers have been trying to harness the immune system for over 100 years, the advent of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) marks an era of significant clinical outcomes in various metastatic solid tumors, characterized by complete and durable responses. ICBs are monoclonal antibodies that target either of a pair of transmembrane molecules in tumors or T-cells involved in immune evasion. Currently 2 ICBs targeting the checkpoint program death 1 (PD-1), nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and one cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor (ipilimumab) are approved in gastrointestinal malignancies...
2020: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Frédérique Gouriet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Jean-Paul Casalta, Sandrine Hubert, Serge Cammilleri, Alberto Riberi, Hubert Lepidi, Gilbert Habib, Didier Raoult
Background: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an imaging technique largely used in the management of infective endocarditis and in the detection and staging of cancer. We evaluate our experience of incidental cancer detection by PET/CT during IE investigations and follow-up. Methods and Findings: Between 2009 and 2018, our center, which includes an "endocarditis team," managed 750 patients with IE in a prospective cohort. PET/CT became available in 2011 and was performed in 451 patients...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Zhaoyan Qiu, Ning Liang, Qian Huang, Tao Sun, Hongyuan Xue, Tianyu Xie, Xinxin Wang, Qian Wang
Background: Dual-specificity phosphatase 9 (DUSP9) belongs to the dual-specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. Recently, increasing attention has been paid on the role of DUSP9 in a variety of cancers. However, its functional role in tumor development is still unclear, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The functional role of DUSP9 in inhibiting the progression of CRC was verified using colony formation assay, wound healing assay, nude mice xenograft model, etc...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Tang Yang, Huang Zhiheng, Wang Zhanhuai, Xiao Qian, Liu Yue, Ge Xiaoxu, Wei Jingsun, Zheng Shu, Ding Kefeng
RAB family proteins participate in the dynamic regulation of cellular membrane compartments and are dysregulated in a variety of tumor types, which may alter the biological properties of cancer cells such as proliferation, migration, and invasion. In our previous study, we found that Ras-related protein Rab-31 (RAB31) expression was increased in late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of RAB31 has never been investigated in CRC. In this study, we found that expression of RAB31 in the tumor stroma but not cancer cells of colon cancer predicted poor survival...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Jiayi Han, Wu Sun, Rui Liu, Zhen Zhou, Haiyang Zhang, Xi Chen, Yi Ba
Background: Chemotherapy is one of the most common therapies used in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but chemoresistance inevitably occurs. It is challenging to obtain an immediate and accurate diagnosis of chemoresistance. The potential of circulating exosomal miRNAs as oxaliplatin-based chemoresistant biomarkers in CRC patients was investigated in this study. Methods: Plasma exosomal miRNAs in sensitive and resistant patients were analyzed by miRNA microarray analysis, followed by verification with a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay in two independent cohorts...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Haitao Chen, Fan Zhang, Jin Zhang, Xinjie Zhang, Yong Guo, Qinghua Yao
Berberine (BBR) has been reported that it has effects on inhibiting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of BBR on CRC also remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of BBR on CRC from the perspective of gut microbiota and metabolic alterations, which can provide a holistic view to understand the effects of BBR on CRC. First, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse was used as CRC animal model, then the degree of colorectal carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS mice with or without BBR administration was measured...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Can Bai, Zhe Zhang, Li Zhou, Huan-Yu Zhang, Yan Chen, Yong Tang
Effective chemotherapy drugs for colorectal cancer remain a challenge. In this research, Ziyuglycoside II (Ziyu II), exhibits considerable antitumor activity against CRC cells both  in vitro  and  in vivo . The results showed that Ziyu II induced apoptosis through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was necessary for Ziyu II to inhibit colorectal cancer cells. Intriguingly, The treatment of Ziyu II triggered complete autophagic flux in CRC cells. Inhibition of autophagy partially reversed Ziyu II-induced growth inhibition, demonstrating a cytotoxic role of autophagy in response to Ziyu II-treated...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaodong Yan, Dali Han, Zhiqiang Chen, Chao Han, Wei Dong, Li Han, Lei Zou, Jianbo Zhang, Yan Liu, Jie Chai
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. CD44 is the most commonly used marker of CSCs, with the potential to act as a determinant against the invasion and migration of CSCs and as the key factor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like changes that occur in colorectal cancer (CRC). Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) is a mesenchymal stem marker for cancer that is involved in stem cell biology and tumorigenesis. However, whether RUNX2 is involved in CSC and in inducing EMT-like changes in CRC remains uncertain, warranting further investigation...
2020: Cancer Cell International
Vivek Sukumar, Diwakar Pandey, Barath Raj Kumar, Swapnil Patel, Tushar Pawar, Jitender Rohila, Ashwin DeSouza, Avanish Saklani
The health services across the world have been deeply impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic which has resulted in diversion of resources to testing, isolating and treating COVID-19 patients. This meant cutting down resources and manpower away of various healthcare facilities and severely hampering the functioning of various cancer services across the world. It is however, important to understand, cancer itself is a life-threatening condition, and there is a need to continue running cancer care services, at least for those who needed the most...
October 14, 2020: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Pu-Hyeon Cha, Jeong-Ha Hwang, Dong-Kyu Kwak, Eunjin Koh, Kyung-Sup Kim, Kang-Yell Choi
BACKGROUND: Most cancer cells employ the Warburg effect to support anabolic growth and tumorigenesis. Here, we discovered a key link between Warburg effect and aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signalling, especially by pathologically significant APC loss, in CRC. METHODS: Proteomic analyses were performed to evaluate the global effects of KYA1797K, Wnt/β-catenin signalling inhibitor, on cellular proteins in CRC. The effects of APC-loss or Wnt ligand on the identified enzymes, PKM2 and LDHA, as well as Warburg effects were investigated...
October 19, 2020: British Journal of Cancer
Hans-Joachim Schmoll
Hans Schmoll speaks to Rachel Jenkins, Managing Commissioning Editor. Over four decades of professional activity, Hans has become one of the most highly esteemed and influential medical oncologists in Germany. As Editor of the German standard reference book for medical and multidisciplinary oncology (6000 pages) [1], he has defined treatment standards and education in medical oncology in the German speaking countries. His work as a research scientist has covered numerous fields in medical oncology, in particular, genitourinary and gastrointestinal cancers, where he has defined worldwide standards for the management of germ-cell cancer and ;early and late stages of colon cancer...
October 17, 2020: Future Oncology
Kyu Hye Choi, Jin Ho Song, Hong Seok Jang, Sung Hwan Kim, Ji Hyun Shin, Ki Hwa Yang, Jong Hoon Lee
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in South Korea due to westernized eating habits and regular health check-ups. The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) has conducted a national quality assessment of the treatment of CRC. This study examined the quality assessment report of the Korean HIRA and analyzed the status of practice pattern and the epidemiology of CRC in South Korea. Materials and Methods: The number of subjects was determined based on the number of surgical procedures in each institution during 2012-2017...
October 6, 2020: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
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