Turki Alelyani, Maha M Alshammari, Afnan Almuhanna, Onur Asan
Breast cancer represents a significant health concern, particularly in Saudi Arabia, where it ranks as the most prevalent cancer type among women. This study focuses on leveraging eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques to predict benign and malignant breast cancer cases using various clinical and pathological features specific to Saudi Arabian patients. Six distinct models were trained and evaluated based on common performance metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, and AUC-ROC score...
May 15, 2024: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Wei-Chung Shia, Yu-Hsun Kuo, Fang-Rong Hsu, Joseph Lin, Wen-Pei Wu, Hwa-Koon Wu, Wei-Cheng Yeh, Dar-Ren Chen
BACKGROUND: The assessment information of tumor margins is extremely important for the success of the breast cancer surgery and whether the patient undergoes a second operation. However, conducting surgical margin assessments is a time-consuming task that requires pathology-related skills and equipment, and often cannot be provided in a timely manner. To address this challenge, digital breast tomosynthesis technology was utilized to generate detailed cross-sectional images of the breast tissue and integrate deep learning algorithms for image segmentation, achieving an assessment of tumor margins during surgery...
May 16, 2024: Diagnostics
Andrés Larroza, Francisco Javier Pérez-Benito, Raquel Tendero, Juan Carlos Perez-Cortes, Marta Román, Rafael Llobet
Breast cancer is a major health concern worldwide. Mammography, a cost-effective and accurate tool, is crucial in combating this issue. However, low contrast, noise, and artifacts can limit the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists. Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to overcome these challenges, with the accurate outlining of the breast being a critical step for further analysis. This study introduces the SAM-breast model, an adaptation of the Segment Anything Model (SAM) for segmenting the breast region in mammograms...
May 15, 2024: Diagnostics
Alberto Miceli, Virginia Liberini, Giovanna Pepe, Francesco Dondi, Antonio Vento, Lorenzo Jonghi Lavarini, Greta Celesti, Maria Gazzilli, Francesca Serani, Priscilla Guglielmo, Ambra Buschiazzo, Rossella Filice, Pierpaolo Alongi, Riccardo Laudicella, Giulia Santo
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells in most of the patients affected by prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). However, PSMA expression has also been demonstrated in the endothelial cells of newly formed vessels of various solid tumors, suggesting a role for PSMA in neoangiogenesis. In this scenario, gallium-68 (68 Ga) or fluoro-18 (18 F)-labeled PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) may play a role in tumors other than PCa, generally evaluated employing other radiopharmaceuticals targeting different pathways...
May 13, 2024: Diagnostics
Shamiha Binta Manir, Priya Deshpande
Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in women. Risk factor assessment can aid in directing counseling regarding risk reduction and breast cancer surveillance. This research aims to (1) investigate the relationship between various risk factors and breast cancer incidence using the BCSC (Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium) Risk Factor Dataset and create a prediction model for assessing the risk of developing breast cancer; (2) diagnose breast cancer using the Breast Cancer Wisconsin diagnostic dataset; and (3) analyze breast cancer survivability using the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) Breast Cancer Dataset...
May 8, 2024: Diagnostics
Karina D Rysenkova, Julia Gaboriaud, Artem I Fokin, Raphaëlle Toubiana, Alexandre Bense, Camil Mirdass, Mélissa Jin, Minh Chau N Ho, Elizabeth Glading, Sophie Vacher, Laura Courtois, Ivan Bièche, Alexis M Gautreau
Breast cancer develops upon sequential acquisition of driver mutations in mammary epithelial cells; however, how these mutations collaborate to transform normal cells remains unclear in most cases. We aimed to reconstitute this process in a particular case. To this end, we combined the activated form of the PI 3-kinase harboring the H1047R mutation with the inactivation of the histone lysine methyl-transferase KMT2D in the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A. We found that PI 3-kinase activation promoted cell-cycle progression, especially when growth signals were limiting, as well as cell migration, both in a collective monolayer and as single cells...
May 19, 2024: Cells
Fanni Tóth, Zahra Moftakhar, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Although cellular senescence was originally defined as an irreversible form of cell cycle arrest, in therapy-induced senescence models, the emergence of proliferative senescence-escaped cancer cells has been reported by several groups, challenging the definition of senescence. Indeed, senescence-escaped cancer cells may contribute to resistance to cancer treatment. Here, to study senescence escape and isolate senescence-escaped cells, we developed novel flow cytometry-based methods using the proliferation marker Ki-67 and CellTrace CFSE live-staining...
May 15, 2024: Cells
Tongtong Wang, Meijing Chen, Yang Su, Yuying Zhang, Chang Liu, Miaomiao Lan, Lei Li, Fan Liu, Na Li, Yingying Yu, Lei Xiong, Kun Wang, Jin Liu, Qing Xu, Yue Hu, Yuxin Jia, Yuxin Cao, Jingwen Pan, Qingyong Meng
Cells defend against oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant capacity, including stress-activated metabolic alterations, but the underlying intracellular signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This paper reports that immunoglobulin superfamily containing leucine-rich repeat (ISLR) functions as a redox sensor that responds to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulation and modulates the antioxidant capacity by suppressing pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2) activity. Following oxidative stress, ISLR perceives ROS stimulation through its cysteine residue 19, and rapidly degrades in the autophagy-lysosome pathway...
May 14, 2024: Cells
Halla Elshwekh, Inas M Alhudiri, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil Enattah, Yasmine Abbassi, Lubna Abou Assali, Ilenia Marino, Cristiana Stuani, Emanuele Buratti, Maurizio Romano
Our study focused on assessing the effects of three newly identified BRCA1 exon 11 variants (c.1019T>C, c.2363T>G, and c.3192T>C) on breast cancer susceptibility. Using computational predictions and experimental splicing assays, we evaluated their potential as pathogenic mutations. Our in silico analyses suggested that the c.2363T>G and c.3192T>C variants could impact both splicing and protein function, resulting in the V340A and V788G mutations, respectively. We further examined their splicing effects using minigene assays in MCF7 and SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines...
May 11, 2024: Cells
Federica Brugnoli, Marcello Dell'Aira, Paola Tedeschi, Silvia Grassilli, Marina Pierantoni, Rebecca Foschi, Valeria Bertagnolo
Breast cancer includes tumor subgroups with morphological, molecular, and clinical differences. Intrinsic heterogeneity especially characterizes breast tumors with a triple negative phenotype, often leading to the failure of even the most advanced therapeutic strategies. To improve breast cancer treatment, the use of natural agents to integrate conventional therapies is the subject of ever-increasing attention. In this context, garlic ( Allium sativum ) shows anti-cancerous potential, interfering with the proliferation, motility, and malignant progression of both non-invasive and invasive breast tumor cells...
May 11, 2024: Cells
Madhumathy G Nair, Apoorva D Mavatkar, Chandrakala M Naidu, Snijesh V P, Anupama C E, Savitha Rajarajan, Sarthak Sahoo, Gayathri Mohan, Vishnu Sunil Jaikumar, Rakesh S Ramesh, Srinath B S, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Tessy Thomas Maliekal, Jyothi S Prabhu
Epigenetic alterations that lead to differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs/miR) are known to regulate tumour cell states, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the progression to metastasis in breast cancer. This study explores the key contribution of miRNA-18a in mediating a hybrid E/M cell state that is pivotal to the malignant transformation and tumour progression in the aggressive ER-negative subtype of breast cancer. The expression status and associated effects of miR-18a were evaluated in patient-derived breast tumour samples in combination with gene expression data from public datasets, and further validated in in vitro and in vivo breast cancer model systems...
May 10, 2024: Cells
Alyssa N Ho, Violet A Kiesel, Claire E Gates, Bennett H Brosnan, Scott P Connelly, Elaine M Glenny, Alyssa J Cozzo, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Francis Coleman
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks targeted therapies, leaving cytotoxic chemotherapy as the current standard treatment. However, chemotherapy resistance remains a major clinical challenge. Increased insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling can potently blunt chemotherapy response, and lysosomal processes including the nutrient scavenging pathway autophagy can enable cancer cells to evade chemotherapy-mediated cell death. Thus, we tested whether inhibition of insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor with the drug BMS-754807 and/or lysosomal disruption with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could sensitize TNBC cells to the chemotherapy drug carboplatin...
May 9, 2024: Cells
Muhanad Alhujaily
The glyoxalase system, comprising GLO1 and GLO2 enzymes, is integral in detoxifying methylglyoxal (MGO) generated during glycolysis, with dysregulation implicated in various cancer types. The MEK/ERK/SMAD1 signaling pathway, crucial in cellular processes, influences tumorigenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Altered GLO1 expression in cancer showcases its complex role in cellular adaptation and cancer aggressiveness. GLO2 exhibits context-dependent functions, contributing to both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic effects in different cancer scenarios...
May 15, 2024: Biomolecules
Hsieh-Tsung Shen, Chin-Sheng Hung, Clilia Davis, Chih-Ming Su, Li-Min Liao, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Kuan-Der Lee, Muhamad Ansar, Ruo-Kai Lin
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip, we analyzed plasma sample methylation to identify the SRCIN1 gene in breast cancer patients. We assessed SRCIN1 -related roles and pathways for their biomarker potential. To verify the methylation status, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) was performed on genomic DNA and circulating cell-free DNA samples, and mRNA expression analysis was performed using RT‒qPCR. The results were validated in a Western population; for this analysis, the samples included plasma samples from breast cancer patients from the USA and from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort...
May 12, 2024: Biomolecules
Elsa Vitale, Alessandro Rizzo, Kazuki Santa, Emilio Jirillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with metabolic syndrome exhibit simultaneously pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory conditions which more probably can lead to cardiovascular diseases progression, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The present scoping review is aimed at highlighting the association between cancer risk, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A search strategy was performed, mixing keywords and MeSH terms, such as "Cancer Risk", "Inflammation", "Metabolic Syndrome", "Oncogenesis", and "Oxidative Stress", and matching them through Boolean operators...
May 16, 2024: Biology
Emilia Amengual-Cladera, Pere Miquel Morla-Barcelo, Andrea Morán-Costoya, Jorge Sastre-Serra, Daniel Gabriel Pons, Adamo Valle, Pilar Roca, Mercedes Nadal-Serrano
Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, has garnered attention for its potential in cancer management, particularly in breast and colorectal cancer. It is established that metformin reduces mitochondrial respiration, but its specific molecular targets within mitochondria vary. Proposed mechanisms include inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I and/or Complex IV, and mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, among others. These actions lead to cellular energy deficits, redox state changes, and several molecular changes that reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients...
April 27, 2024: Biology
Insu Park, Seungyeop Choi, Youngwoo Gwak, Jingwon Kim, Gyeongjun Min, Danyou Lim, Sang Woo Lee
Electroporation is pivotal in bioelectrochemistry for cellular manipulation, with prominent applications in drug delivery and cell membrane studies. A comprehensive understanding of pore generation requires an in-depth analysis of the critical pore size and the corresponding energy barrier at the onset of cell rupture. However, many studies have been limited to basic models such as artificial membranes or theoretical simulations. Challenging this paradigm, our study pioneers using a microfluidic electroporation chip array...
May 11, 2024: Biosensors
Giuditta Carretti, Angela Dabraio, Mirko Manetti, Mirca Marini
Breast cancer (BC)-related sequelae drastically impact the psychophysical functioning and quality of life of affected women. Adapted physical activity (APA) has proved to effectively counteract these impairments in a non-medicalized framework. In particular, dragon boats are able to promote body functionality, social interaction, and quality of life in BC survivors, but the literature on specific motor gestures is scarce and practice is still based more on a re-educative perspective than a performative one...
May 11, 2024: European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education
Lyudmila V Bel'skaya, Elena I Dyachenko
This review systematizes information about the metabolic features of breast cancer directly related to oxidative stress. It has been shown those redox changes occur at all levels and affect many regulatory systems in the human body. The features of the biochemical processes occurring in breast cancer are described, ranging from nonspecific, at first glance, and strictly biochemical to hormone-induced reactions, genetic and epigenetic regulation, which allows for a broader and deeper understanding of the principles of oncogenesis, as well as maintaining the viability of cancer cells in the mammary gland...
May 13, 2024: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Liliana-Georgiana Grigore, Viorica-Elena Radoi, Alexandra Serban, Adina Daniela Mihai, Ileana Stoica
The objective of this study was to identify and classify the spectrum of mutations found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer in female patients in Romania. Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were investigated in a cohort of 616 female patients using NGS and/or MLPA methods followed by software-based data analysis and classification according to international guidelines. Out of the 616 female patients included in this study, we found that 482 patients (78.2%) did not have any mutation present in the two genes investigated; 69 patients (11...
May 12, 2024: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
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