Osama Mansour, Liat Morciano, Keren Zion, Renana Elgrabli, Drora Zenvirth, Giora Simchen, Ayelet Arbel-Eden
Mutations in budding yeast occur in meiosis at higher frequencies than in cells grown vegetatively. In contrast to mutations that occur in somatic cells, meiotic mutations have a special, long-range impact on evolution, because they are transferred to the following generations through the gametes. Understanding the mechanistic basis of meiotic mutagenicity is still lacking, however. Here, we report studies of mutagenicity in the reporter gene CAN1, in which forward mutation events in meiosis are sevenfold higher than in mitotic cells, as determined by fluctuation analysis...
January 13, 2020: Current Genetics
Jacob L Steenwyk, Dana A Opulente, Jacek Kominek, Xing-Xing Shen, Xiaofan Zhou, Abigail L Labella, Noah P Bradley, Brandt F Eichman, Neža Čadež, Diego Libkind, Jeremy DeVirgilio, Amanda Beth Hulfachor, Cletus P Kurtzman, Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas
Cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair processes protect organisms from potentially lethal mutational damage. Compared to other budding yeasts in the subphylum Saccharomycotina, we noticed that a lineage in the genus Hanseniaspora exhibited very high evolutionary rates, low Guanine-Cytosine (GC) content, small genome sizes, and lower gene numbers. To better understand Hanseniaspora evolution, we analyzed 25 genomes, including 11 newly sequenced, representing 18/21 known species in the genus. Our phylogenomic analyses identify two Hanseniaspora lineages, a faster-evolving lineage (FEL), which began diversifying approximately 87 million years ago (mya), and a slower-evolving lineage (SEL), which began diversifying approximately 54 mya...
May 2019: PLoS Biology
Charlene H Emerson, Christopher R Lopez, Albert Ribes-Zamora, Erica J Polleys, Christopher L Williams, Lythou Yeo, Jacques E Zaneveld, Rui Chen, Alison A Bertuch
The Ku heterodimer acts centrally in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku, like mammalian Ku, binds and recruits NHEJ factors to DSB ends. Consequently, NHEJ is virtually absent in yeast Ku null ( yku70 ∆ or yku80 ∆) strains. Previously, we unexpectedly observed imprecise NHEJ proficiency in a yeast Ku mutant with impaired DNA end-binding (DEB). However, how DEB impairment supported imprecise NHEJ was unknown. Here, we found imprecise NHEJ proficiency to be a feature of a panel of DEB-impaired Ku mutants and that DEB impairment resulted in a deficiency in precise NHEJ...
May 2018: Genetics
Brenda R Lemos, Adam C Kaplan, Ji Eun Bae, Alexander E Ferrazzoli, James Kuo, Ranjith P Anand, David P Waterman, James E Haber
Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides an unprecedented ability to modify genomic loci via DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair. We analyzed nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair induced by Cas9 in budding yeast and found that the orientation of binding of Cas9 and its guide RNA (gRNA) profoundly influences the pattern of insertion/deletions (indels) at the site of cleavage. A common indel created by Cas9 is a 1-bp (+1) insertion that appears to result from Cas9 creating a 1-nt 5' overhang that is filled in by a DNA polymerase and ligated...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Abdul Malik, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Ghulam Haider, Anwarul Hassan Gilani
A compound herbal formulation (POL4) is used traditionally in interior parts (Distt. Badin) of Sindh, Pakistan, for the treatment of metabolic disorders like diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This study is aimed to determine the effectiveness of POL4 and its ingredients in hyperlipidemia and associated endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. POL4 is composed of equal proportion of Nigella sativa, Cichorium intybus, Trigonella foenum graecum and Gymnema sylvestre mixed in powdered form. Chronic (6 to 7 weeks) administration of POL4 and its ingredients mixed in diet caused a notable attenuation in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, C-reactive protein and glucose, while it has increased high density lipoprotein levels...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Abdul Malik, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Hajra Channa, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Anwarul-Hassan Gilani
BACKGROUND: A compound herbal formulation (POL4) has been used in the indigenous system of medicine to treat cardiometabolic disorders like diabetes and associated hypertension. POL4 and most of its constituents have not been studied widely for its therapeutic use in hypertension. This study is aimed to determine the efficacy and possible insight into mechanism(s) for the medicinal use of POL4 and its ingredients in hypertension. METHODS: The aqueous methanolic extracts of POL4 (POL4...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zhuobin Liang, Sham Sunder, Sivakumar Nallasivam, Thomas E Wilson
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells with limited 5' resection. To better understand how overhang polarity of chromosomal DSBs affects NHEJ, we made site-specific 5'-overhanging DSBs (5' DSBs) in yeast using an optimized zinc finger nuclease at an efficiency that approached HO-induced 3' DSB formation. When controlled for the extent of DSB formation, repair monitoring suggested that chromosomal 5' DSBs were rejoined more efficiently than 3' DSBs, consistent with a robust recruitment of NHEJ proteins to 5' DSBs...
April 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Alvaro Galli, Cecilia Y Chan, Liubov Parfenova, Tiziana Cervelli, Robert H Schiestl
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) directly joins two broken DNA ends without sequence homology. A distinct pathway called microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) relies on a few base pairs of homology between the recombined DNA. The majority of DNA double-strand breaks caused by endogenous oxygen species or ionizing radiation contain damaged bases that hinder direct religation. End processing is required to remove mismatched nucleotides and fill in gaps during end joining of incompatible ends. POL3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes polymerase δ that is required for DNA replication and other DNA repair processes...
November 2015: Mutagenesis
Hui Yang, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Kelly M Trujillo, Susan P Lees-Miller, Mary Ann Osley, Alan E Tomkinson
DNA double strand breaks (DSB)s often require end processing prior to joining during their repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although the yeast proteins, Pol4, a Pol X family DNA polymerase, and Rad27, a nuclease, participate in the end processing reactions of NHEJ, the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of these factors to DSBs are not known. Here we demonstrate that Nej1, a NHEJ factor that interacts with and modulates the activity of the NHEJ DNA ligase complex (Dnl4/Lif1), physically and functionally interacts with both Pol4 and Rad27...
July 2015: DNA Repair
Guillermo Sastre-Moreno, Arancha Sánchez, Verónica Esteban, Luis Blanco
7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) is a highly premutagenic DNA lesion due to its ability to mispair with adenine. Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks homologs for relevant enzymes that repair 8oxodG, which suggests that this lesion could be persistent and must be tolerated. Here we show that SpPol4, the unique PolX in fission yeast, incorporates ATP opposite 8oxodG almost exclusively when all nucleotides (ribos and deoxys) are provided at physiological concentrations. Remarkably, this SpPol4-specific reaction could also occur during the NHEJ of DSBs...
September 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Jose F Ruiz, Benjamin Pardo, Guillermo Sastre-Moreno, Andrés Aguilera, Luis Blanco
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most dangerous DNA lesions, since their erroneous repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) can generate harmful chromosomal rearrangements. PolX DNA polymerases are well suited to extend DSB ends that cannot be directly ligated due to their particular ability to bind to and insert nucleotides at the imperfect template-primer structures formed during NHEJ. Herein, we have devised genetic assays in yeast to induce simultaneous DSBs in different chromosomes in vivo...
2013: PLoS Genetics
Peng Li, Jun Li, Ming Li, Kun Dou, Mei-Jun Zhang, Fang Suo, Li-Lin Du
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an important mechanism for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has a conserved set of NHEJ factors including Ku, DNA ligase IV, Xlf1, and Pol4. Their roles in chromosomal DSB repair have not been directly characterized before. Here we used HO endonuclease to create a specific chromosomal DSB in fission yeast and examined the imprecise end joining events allowing cells to survive the continuous expression of HO. Our analysis showed that cell survival was significantly reduced in mutants defective for Ku, ligase IV, or Xlf1...
February 1, 2012: DNA Repair
Karim Bahmed, Aman Seth, Karin C Nitiss, John L Nitiss
Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a critical error-prone pathway of double strand break repair. We recently showed that tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) regulates the accuracy of NHEJ repair junction formation in yeast. We assessed the role of other enzymes in the accuracy of junction formation using a plasmid repair assay. We found that exonuclease 1 (Exo1) is important in assuring accurate junction formation during NHEJ. Like tdp1Δ mutants, exo1Δ yeast cells repairing plasmids with 5'-extensions can produce repair junctions with templated insertions...
February 2011: Nucleic Acids Research
Cecilia Y Chan, Alvaro Galli, Robert H Schiestl
Nonhomologous end joining connects DNA ends in the absence of extended sequence homology and requires removal of mismatched DNA ends and gap-filling synthesis prior to a religation step. Pol4 within the Pol X family is the only polymerase known to be involved in end processing during nonhomologous end joining in yeast. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae POL3/CDC2 gene encodes polymerase delta that is involved in DNA replication and other DNA repair processes. Here, we show that POL3 is involved in nonhomologous end joining using a plasmid-based end-joining assay in yeast, in which the pol3-t mutation caused a 1...
September 1, 2008: DNA Repair
Shun-Fu Tseng, Abram Gabriel, Shu-Chun Teng
Genotoxic agents that cause double-strand breaks (DSBs) often generate damage at the break termini. Processing enzymes, including nucleases and polymerases, must remove damaged bases and/or add new bases before completion of repair. Artemis is a nuclease involved in mammalian nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), but in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nucleases and polymerases involved in NHEJ pathways are poorly understood. Only Pol4 has been shown to fill the gap that may form by imprecise pairing of overhanging 3' DNA ends...
April 25, 2008: PLoS Genetics
James M Daley, Thomas E Wilson
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) directly rejoins DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) when recombination is not possible. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DNA polymerase Pol4 is required for gap filling when a short 3' overhang must prime DNA synthesis. Here, we examined further end variations to test specific hypotheses regarding Pol4 usage in NHEJ in vivo. Surprisingly, Pol4 dependence at 3' overhangs was reduced when a nonhomologous 5' flap nucleotide was present across from the gap, even though the mismatched nucleotide was corrected, not incorporated...
January 1, 2008: DNA Repair
Kihoon Lee, Sang Eun Lee
Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) joins DNA ends via short stretches [5-20 nucleotides (nt)] of direct repeat sequences, yielding deletions of intervening sequences. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA) are other error prone processes that anneal single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) via a few bases (<5 nt) or extensive direct repeat homologies (>20 nt). Although the genetic components involved in MMEJ are largely unknown, those in NHEJ and SSA are characterized in some detail...
August 2007: Genetics
Anabelle Decottignies
Two DNA repair pathways are known to mediate DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). In addition, a nonconservative backup pathway showing extensive nucleotide loss and relying on microhomologies at repair junctions was identified in NHEJ-deficient cells from a variety of organisms and found to be involved in chromosomal translocations. Here, an extrachromosomal assay was used to characterize this microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) mechanism in fission yeast...
July 2007: Genetics
Benjamin Pardo, Emilie Ma, Stéphane Marcand
In yeast, the nonhomologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) mobilizes the DNA polymerase Pol4 to repair DNA double-strand breaks when gap filling is required prior to ligation. Using telomere-telomere fusions caused by loss of the telomeric protein Rap1 and double-strand break repair on transformed DNA as assays for NHEJ between fully uncohesive ends, we show that Pol4 is able to extend a 3'-end whose last bases are mismatched, i.e., mispaired or unpaired, to the template strand.
April 2006: Genetics
Catherine H Sterling, Joann B Sweasy
The DNA polymerase 4 protein (Pol4) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the X family of DNA polymerases whose closest human relative appears to be DNA polymerase lambda. Results from previous genetic studies conflict over the role of Pol4 in vivo. Here we show that deletion of Pol4 in a diploid strain of the SK1 genetic background results in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). However, deletion of Pol4 in other strain backgrounds and in haploid strains does not yield an observable phenotype...
January 2006: Genetics
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