Elizabeth T Helfrich, Camilo M Saraiva, James M Chimiak, Matias Chimiak
INTRODUCTION: Minors have been scuba diving for decades, and while the initial concerns about potential long-term complications related to bone development appear to be unfounded, the incidence of scuba diving injuries among them has been poorly studied. METHODS: We reviewed 10,159 cases recorded in the DAN Medical Services call centre database from 2014 through 2016 and identified 149 cases of injured divers younger than 18 years. Records were analysed for case categorisation on the most common dive injuries...
March 31, 2023: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Gina S Perez Giraldo, Sareen T Ali, Anthony K Kang, Tulsi R Patel, Shreya Budhiraja, Jordan I Gaelen, Grace K Lank, Jeffrey R Clark, Shreya Mukherjee, Tracey Singer, Aditi Venkatesh, Zachary S Orban, Patrick H Lim, Millenia Jimenez, Janet Miller, Carolyn Taylor, April L Szymanski, Jessica Scarpelli, Edith L Graham, Roumen D Balabanov, Bianca E Barcelo, Joshua G Cahan, Kaitlyn Ruckman, Alan G Shepard, Marc W Slutzky, Kathrin LaFaver, Priya U Kumthekar, Neil K Shetty, Katherine S Carroll, Sam U Ho, Rimas V Lukas, Ayush Batra, Eric M Liotta, Igor J Koralnik
OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurologic manifestations in post-hospitalization Neuro-PASC (PNP) and non-hospitalized Neuro-PASC (NNP) patients. METHODS: Prospective study of the first 100 consecutive PNP and 500 NNP patients evaluated at a Neuro-COVID-19 clinic between 5/2020 and 8/2021. RESULTS: PNP were older than NNP patients (mean 53.9 vs 44.9 y; p < 0.0001) with a higher prevalence of pre-existing comorbidities. An average 6...
March 26, 2023: Annals of Neurology
Victoria B Marshall, Savannah C Hooper, Carolyn Black Becker, Pamela K Keel, Lisa Smith Kilpela
This study examined differences in mental health in older adult women before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants who were community dwelling ( N  = 227) included n  = 67 women aged 60-94 in the pre-pandemic group and n  = 160 women aged 60-85 in the peri-pandemic group who completed self-report measures assessing mental health and quality of life (QOL). We compared mental health and QOL indices across the pre- and peri-pandemic groups. Results indicated that the peri-pandemic group reported higher anxiety ( F  = 4...
March 26, 2023: Journal of Women & Aging
Aylin Sariyildiz, Ilke Coskun Benlidayi, Ipek Turk, Serife Seyda Zengin Acemoglu, Ilker Unal
To identify the determinants of central sensitization (CS) in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) was used to determine CS frequency. Disease-related variables including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS-CRP/-ESR), Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)GLOBAL were assessed...
March 26, 2023: Rheumatology International
Sarah Abdulaziz Mohammed Alkanan, Hadeel Saleh Alhaweri, Ghada Amin Khalifa, Shaimaa Mohamed Saeed Ata
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent olfactory aromatherapy reduces the intensity of dental pain and the level of dental anxiety. It also attempted to corelate between olfactory aromatherapy, stages of dental visits, and various dental procedures. METHODS: Female patients were enrolled in a randomized controlled study. Olfactory aromatherapy was performed using lavender oils. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the lavender group, in which patients inhaled 2% lavender vapors, and the control group, in which patients inhaled water vapors...
March 26, 2023: BMC Oral Health
Suonaa Lee, Jae Won Oh, Kyung Mee Park, San Lee, Eun Lee
Despite research into the development of digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (dCBT-I), research into the outcomes of dCBT-I on insomnia and the associated clinical conditions of depression and anxiety have been limited. The PubMed, PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on adult patients with insomnia also having reported measures of depressive or anxiety symptoms. In total, 2504 articles were identified after duplicate removal, and 22 RCTs were included in the final meta-analysis...
March 25, 2023: NPJ Digital Medicine
Zhixin Zhang, Siyuan Li, Yang Wang, Jiahui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that has a significant unmet needs for effective treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of dupilumab in adult patients with PN refractory to traditional therapies. METHODS: This ongoing, real-life study examined dupilumab treatment in 8 adult patients diagnosed with PN for at least 6 months. The included patients were prescribed 300 mg dupilumab biweekly for at least 16 weeks...
March 23, 2023: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
I O Ishola, I O Awogbindin, T G Olubodun-Obadun, A E Olajiga, O O Adeyemi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Epidemiological reports showed a significant association between environmental toxicants-induced gut dysbiosis and PD. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased cerebral blood flow are hallmarks of PD. This study sought to evaluate the protective ability of vinpocetine (VIN), a neuroprotectant, on rotenone (ROT) (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor) induced PD in rats. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=10) and treated orally as follows; group 1: vehicle (10ml/kg); group 2: rotenone (10mg/kg) + vehicle; group 3-5: vinpocetine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) + rotenone (10mg/kg), respectively, or group 6: vinpocetine 20mg/kg before behavioural assay for motor symptoms (fore-limb hanging test and open field test) and non-motor symptoms (working memory and learning capabilities in Y-maze/Morris water maze tasks, anxiety in hole board test and gut motility with intestinal transit time)...
March 23, 2023: Neurotoxicology
Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Kate Northstone, Jean Golding, Stephen Nowicki
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased rates of mental health problems. We examined the possible role of the personality characteristic, Locus of Control (LOC), in moderating pandemic-induced stress. METHODS: The UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents & Children (ALSPAC), 7021 adults (mean ages: women 57.6 (SD = 4.48); partners 60.5 (SD = 5.36)) responded to a 2020 questionnaire which included a generalised measure of LOC...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ta-Chuan Yeh, Mu-Hong Chen, Ya-Mei Bai, Shih-Jen Tsai, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Tung-Ping Su, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Chih-Sung Liang
BACKGROUND: The mental health of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a concern of recent years. However, a large-scale longitudinal study investigating the risk and the time course of subsequent psychiatric comorbidities is still lacking. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 13,382 children and adolescents with ASD, and 53,528 age- and sex-matched non-ASD controls were enrolled between 2001 and 2009, and followed to the end of 2011...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jorge Rodrigues, Maria Inês Rocha, Francisco Teixeira, Beatriz Resende, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Ricardo Pinto Vaz, Kristof Raemdonck
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) has been identified as a cause of olfactory dysfunction. Beyond the classic symptoms, AR has been associated with altered sleep patterns, a decline in cognitive performance and higher likelihood of depression and anxiety. The olfactory pathway has been postulated to be a possible link between nasal inflammation and central nervous system (CNS) modifications. Thus, we aimed to investigate the structural, functional and behavioral changes in the olfactory pathway and related areas in an animal model of AR...
March 23, 2023: Physiology & Behavior
Stella M Sanchez, Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Rayus Kuplicki, Heekyeong Park, Ivan Postolski, Michael Rohan, Martin P Paulus, Salvador M Guinjoan
BACKGROUND: Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a frequent symptom of depression (MDD) associated to poor outcomes and treatment resistance. While most studies on RNT have focused on structural and functional characteristics of gray matter, this study aimed to examine the association between white matter (WM) tracts and interindividual variability in RNT. METHODS: A probabilistic tractography approach was used to characterize differences in the size and anatomical trajectory of WM fibers traversing psychosurgery targets historically useful in the treatment of MDD (anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, and subcaudate tractotomy), in patients with MDD and low (n = 53) or high RNT (n = 52), and healthy controls (HC, n = 54)...
March 23, 2023: Biological Psychiatry
Masayasu Ukai, Stephanie McGrath, Joseph Wakshlag
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an integral neuromodulatory system involved in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and homeostasis regarding immunity, as well as brain and other physiological functions such as anxiety, pain, metabolic regulation, and bone growth. Cannabis is a plant that contains exogenous cannabinoids, which have the potential for profound interplay within the ECS as enzymatic inhibitors or receptor-mediated interactions. Activation of cannabinoid receptors leads to various intracellular signaling processes that are involved in cellular functions, but those interactions are diverse due to different affinities of each cannabinoid with relevant receptors...
March 23, 2023: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Geraldine Leader, Andrea Curtin, Robert J Shprintzen, Sally Whelan, Rory Coyne, Arlene Mannion
BACKGROUND: 22q11.21 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by a microdeletion of genes at the 22q11.21 locus. It has a prevalence of 1:2000. This study investigated the prevalence of adaptive living skills, sleep problems, and mental health disorders in adults with 22q11DS and examined the relationship between these factors. METHODS: Parents with an adult son or daughter with 22q11DS completed the following: A bespoke Demographic Information Questionnaire, Sleep Questionnaire (SQ-SP), Psychopathology in Autism Checklist (PAC), and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale...
March 23, 2023: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sara Khosropoor, Mohaddeseh Sadat Alavi, Leila Etemad, Ali Roohbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main phytocannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa. In contrast to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, it has a low affinity for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, thereby it does not induce significant psychoactive effects. However, CBD may interact with other receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). CBD is a PPARγ agonist and changes its expression. There is considerable evidence that CBD's effects are mediated by its interaction with PPARγ...
March 15, 2023: Phytomedicine
Carolina Lunde, Tommy Reinholdsson, Therése Skoog
Physical education (PE) is an essential school subject due to its potential to promote well-being and health in all children. Yet, PE stands out among other subjects in terms of truancy. This study is one of the first to examine if unexcused absence from PE is associated with early adolescents' body image and autonomous motivation towards PE. A total of 526 Swedish 6th graders (Mage = 12.28, SD = 0.31) reported the frequency of unexcused absence from PE and answered questions about aesthetic and functional body image, social physique anxiety, and autonomous motivation...
March 23, 2023: Body Image
Selena A Baca, Pauline Goger, Dale Glaser, Michelle Rozenman, Araceli Gonzalez, John F Dickerson, Frances L Lynch, Giovanna Porta, David A Brent, V Robin Weersing
Brief behavioral therapy (BBT) is an efficacious transdiagnostic intervention for pediatric anxiety and depression that targets behavioral avoidance as a key mechanism. It is unknown if change in avoidance mediates treatment effects, as theorized. Data on avoidance at baseline and Week 16 were available on 52 youth (ages 8-16 years) from a randomized controlled trial (Weersing, Jeffreys, et al., 2017) comparing BBT and assisted referral to community care (ARC). BBT had significant effects on youth-reported behavioral avoidance, and significant indirect effects on functioning and anxiety, statistically mediated through changes in youth-reported behavioral avoidance...
March 8, 2023: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Sarah E Woronko, Sarah C Jessup, Thomas Armstrong, Alexander L Anwyl-Irvine, Edwin S Dalmaijer, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although attentional bias for threat has been implicated in anxiety disorders, traditional attentional bias measures have been criticized for lack of reliability and validity, and eye tracking technologies can be cost-prohibitive. MouseView.js was recently developed to mimic eye tracking online by using the computer cursor as a proxy for gaze, and although it is equally reliable, MouseView.js' utility for capturing attentional bias for threat in anxiety-related disorders remains unclear. To fill this knowledge gap, snake phobic and non-phobic participants (N = 62) completed a behavioral avoidance task (BAT) and the MouseView...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Hans Bogaardt, Daniel Golan, Marissa A Barrera, Stacie Attrill, Olivia Kaczmarek, Myassar Zarif, Barbara Bumstead, Marijean Buhse, Jeffrey Wilken, Glen M Doniger, Laura M Hancock, Iris-Katharina Penner, June Halper, Sarah A Morrow, Thomas J Covey, Mark Gudesblatt
INTRODUCTION: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The severity of disability in people with MS (PwMS) is generally measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). A variant of MS known as 'benign MS' (BMS) has been defined as an EDSS score of 3 or lower, combined with a disease duration of 10 years or longer; however, there is disagreement in the field about whether BMS really exists. Given that the EDSS does not capture cognitive issues, communication dysfunction, fatigue, depression, or anxiety properly, its ability to accurately represent disability in all PwMS, including BMS, remains questionable...
March 21, 2023: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jorge A Sanchez Ruiz, Brandon J Coombes, Richard S Pendegraft, Aysegul Ozerdem, Susan L McElroy, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Miguel L Prieto, Mark A Frye, Stacey J Winham, Joanna M Biernacka
Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) require chronic pharmacotherapy, typically including medication switches or polypharmacy due to persisting symptoms or intolerable side effects. Here, we quantified pharmacotherapy exposure (PE) of Mayo Clinic BD Biobank participants using the number of cross-sectional (at enrollment) and lifetime BD-specific medications and medication classes, to understand the relationship between PE and markers of disease severity or treatment failure, psychiatric comorbidities, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) for six major psychiatric disorders...
March 21, 2023: Psychiatry Research
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