Meera Rath, Jennifer Guergues, Joao P C Pinho, Ping Zhang, Truc G Nguyen, Kaley A MacFadyen, Joanna Peris, Jay P McLaughlin, Stanley M Stevens, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain where they play essential roles in the development and maintenance of physiological functions of this organ. Aberrant activation of microglia is speculated to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Repeated binge ethanol consumption can have a profound impact on the function and integrity of the brain resulting in changes in behaviors such as withdrawal and reward...
August 7, 2020: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Matthew J Leach, Marianne Gillam, David A Gonzalez-Chica, Sandra Walsh, Kuda Muyambi, Martin Jones
Regional South Australia has some of the highest rates of psychological distress, chronic disease and multimorbidity of any Australian State or Territory. Yet, the healthcare needs of this population are still not completely understood. To better understand the healthcare needs of regional South Australians, we invited adults living in the region to complete the 44-item consumer utilisation, expectations and experiences of healthcare instrument (CONVERSATIONS), online or in hard-copy. The survey was conducted between April 2017 and March 2018...
August 7, 2020: Health & Social Care in the Community
Baeksun Kim, Heh-In Im
Nicotine can diversely affect neural activity and motor learning in animals. However, the impact of chronic nicotine on striatal activity in vivo and motor learning at long-term sparse timescale remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that chronic nicotine persistently suppresses the activity of striatal fast-spiking parvalbumin interneurons, which mediate nicotine-induced deficit in sparse motor learning. Six weeks of longitudinal in vivo single-unit recording revealed that mice show reduced activity of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum during chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal...
August 6, 2020: Addiction Biology
Yu-Xin Zhan, Shi-Yu Zhao, Jiao Yuan, Huan Liu, Yun-Fang Liu, Ling-Li Gui, Hong Zheng, Ya-Min Zhou, Li-Hua Qiu, Jiao-Hong Chen, Jiao-Hua Yu, Su-Yun Li
Nurses' work-related fatigue has been recognized as a threat to nurse health and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fatigue among first-line nurses combating with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, and to analyze its influencing factors on fatigue. A multi-center, descriptive, cross-sectional design with a convenience sample was used. The statistical population consisted of the first-line nurses in 7 tertiary general hospitals from March 3, 2020 to March 10, 2020 in Wuhan of China...
August 7, 2020: Current Medical Science
J Cholet, M Rousselet, Y Donnio, M Burlot, M Pere, S Lambert, B Rocher, M Chirio-Espitalier, E Eyzop, M Grall-Bronnec
PURPOSE: The cognitive profiles of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) are currently explored as potential facilitating and/or maintenance factors. Specific data in restrictive AN (AN-R) remain contradictory. This study focused on women with AN-R to evaluate their cognitive functions to develop a more specific cognitive remediation program. METHODS: Female patients older than 15 years who were suffering from AN-R were recruited in a specialized unit for eating disorder management...
August 7, 2020: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Pavel Goldstein, Yoni Ashar, Jonas Tesarz, Mehmet Kazgan, Burak Cetin, Tor D Wager
Depression and anxiety co-occur with chronic pain, and all three are thought to be caused by dysregulation of shared brain systems related to emotional processing associated with body sensations. Understanding the connection between emotional states, pain, and bodily sensations may help understand chronic pain conditions. We developed a mobile platform for measuring pain, emotions, and associated bodily feelings in chronic pain patients in their daily life conditions. Sixty-five chronic back pain patients reported the intensity of their pain, 11 emotional states, and the corresponding body locations...
August 7, 2020: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Julian Wangler, Michael Jansky
Time and again, it is discussed that in medical practices, the number of patients who develop health anxieties due to extensive health information searches on the Internet is increasing. The objective of this study is to explore and describe general practitioners' experiences and attitudes towards cyberchondria patients as well as strategies to stabilize affected patients. Following a qualitative approach, oral personal semi-standardized interviews with general practitioners (N = 38) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, were conducted in 2019...
August 7, 2020: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ming Gao, Nana Feng, Xiang Liu, Jianhua Sun, Guangdong Hou, Lei Zhang, Hong Yin, Boda Guo, Jiayu Wu, Mengmeng Huang, Jianlin Yuan, Jun Guo, Peng Liu
Lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. It is still not well known about the possible neural mechanisms of lifelong PE. This study tried to investigate the abnormal characteristics of brain functional networks of lifelong PE and to assess relationships of PE-related functional abnormalities with clinical symptoms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and clinical symptoms were collected from 45 lifelong PE patients and 37 healthy controls (HCs) since 2016, including disease and sexual life history, intravaginal ejaculatory latency time measured by stopwatch and other scales...
August 6, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Taro Kishi, Nobumi Miyake, Makoto Okuya, Kenji Sakuma, Nakao Iwata
RATIONALE: It remains unclear whether using N-acetylcysteine as an adjunctive treatment has any benefit for bipolar depression and major depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and random-effect meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials was conducted to explore the clinical question. METHODS: Outcomes included improvement in depression scale scores (primary), Young Mania Rating Scale score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) score, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale score, Range of Impaired Functioning Tool score, Streamed Longitudinal Interval Clinical Evaluation for the Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation score, quality of life scales scores, and the incidence of all-cause discontinuation and individual adverse events...
August 6, 2020: Psychopharmacology
Scherezade K Mama, Nishat Bhuiyan, Melissa J Bopp, Lorna H McNeill, Eugene J Lengerich, Joshua M Smyth
Churches are well positioned to promote better mental health outcomes in underserved populations, including rural adults. Mind-body (MB) practices improve psychological well-being yet are not widely adopted among faith-based groups due to conflicting religious or practice beliefs. Thus, "Harmony & Health" (HH) was developed as a culturally adapted MB intervention to improve psychosocial health in urban churchgoers and was adapted and implemented in a rural church. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of HH to reduce psychosocial distress in rural churchgoers...
August 7, 2020: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Andrea K Graham, Carolyn J Greene, Thomas Powell, Pauli Lieponis, Amanda Lunsford, Chris D Peralta, L Casey Orr, Susan M Kaiser, Nameyeh Alam, Helom Berhane, Ozan Kalan, David C Mohr
Implementing a digital mental health service in primary care requires integration into clinic workflow. However, without adequate attention to service design, including designing referral pathways to identify and engage patients, implementation will fail. This article reports results from our efforts designing referral pathways for a randomized clinical trial evaluating a digital service for depression and anxiety delivered through primary care clinics. We utilized three referral pathways: direct to consumer (e...
August 7, 2020: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Sapna Oberoi, Jiayu Yang, Roberta L Woodgate, Saroj Niraula, Shantanu Banerji, Sara J Israels, Gary Altman, Sara Beattie, Rasheda Rabbani, Nicole Askin, Abha Gupta, Lillian Sung, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanski
Importance: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), grounded in mindfulness, focus on purposely paying attention to experiences occurring at the present moment without judgment. MBIs are increasingly used by patients with cancer for the reduction of anxiety, but it remains unclear if MBIs reduce anxiety in patients with cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association of MBIs with reductions in the severity of anxiety in patients with cancer. Data Sources: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were conducted from database inception to May 2019 to identify relevant citations...
August 3, 2020: JAMA Network Open
Eva-Maria Skoda, Martin Teufel, Andreas Stang, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Florian Junne, Benjamin Weismüller, Madeleine Hetkamp, Venja Musche, Hannah Kohler, Nora Dörrie, Adam Schweda, Alexander Bäuerle
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HPs) are the key figures to keep up the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic and thus are one of the most vulnerable groups in this. To this point, the extent of this psychological burden, especially in Europe and Germany, remains unclear. This is the first study investigating German HPs after the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We performed an online-based cross-sectional study after the COVID-19 outbreak in Germany (10-31 March 2020)...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Public Health
Zhou Zhu, Shabei Xu, Hui Wang, Zheng Liu, Jianhong Wu, Guo Li, Jinfeng Miao, Chenyan Zhang, Yuan Yang, Wenzhe Sun, Suiqiang Zhu, Yebin Fan, Yuxi Chen, Junbo Hu, Jihong Liu, Wei Wang
Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has laid unprecedented threats and challenges to health workers (HWs) in Wuhan, China. We aimed to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and hospital support measures associated with the immediate psychological impact on HWs at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan during COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: We conducted a single-center, cross-sectional survey of HWs via online questionnaires between February 8th and 10th, 2020. We evaluated stress, depression and anxiety by IES-R, PHQ-9, and GAD-7, respectively...
July 2020: EClinicalMedicine
Deying Hu, Yue Kong, Wengang Li, Qiuying Han, Xin Zhang, Li Xia Zhu, Su Wei Wan, Zuofeng Liu, Qu Shen, Jingqiu Yang, Hong-Gu He, Jiemin Zhu
Background: During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, frontline nurses face enormous mental health challenges. Epidemiological data on the mental health statuses of frontline nurses are still limited. The aim of this study was to examine mental health (burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear) and their associated factors among frontline nurses who were caring for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China. Methods: A large-scale cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study design was used...
July 2020: EClinicalMedicine
Marion Schott
Recent studies have shown that cannabidiol (CBD) could have a great therapeutic potential for treating disorders such as chronic pain and anxiety. In the target article, the authors propose that CBD modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses allodynia and anxiety-like behaviour in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, this study shows an antinociceptive effect mediated by TRPV1 and partially by 5-HT1A receptors, as well as an anxiolytic effect mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. Commentary on: De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Enns J, Lopez-Canul M, Aboud M, Maione S, Comai S, and Gobbi G...
September 2019: Pain Reports
Warren T McKinney, Cory R Schaffhausen, Marilyn J Bruin, Sauman Chu, David Schladt, Arthur Matas, Jon Snyder, Bertram Kasiske, Ajay K Israni
Background: Patients face obstacles in finding a transplant program that meets their healthcare needs. Acceptance criteria and waiting times vary by region and program. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients provides program-specific information, but it is unclear what patients and referring physicians need to know. Methods: We examined variability in program-specific characteristics that could influence access to transplantation. We also conducted 20 interviews and 16 focus groups with transplant candidates, recipients, and their family members...
August 2020: Transplantation Direct
Maliheh Abootalebi, Mansoureh Dehghani, Marzieh Akbarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Mental health is one of the major determinants of a person's health which has a significant impact on the quality of life. Implementing of mental health training programs for promotion of health affected teenage girls to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Shiraz, southern Iran: a community-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is randomized controlled trial done on 100 teenage girls affected to PMS in Shiraz-Iran (selected from400 girls). Multistage cluster sampling method was used f or sampling...
2020: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Fatemeh Aliakbari, Forouzan Mohammad Alipour, Elahe Tavassoli, Morteza Sedehi
OBJECTIVE AND AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic diseases. The patient's fear and anxiety of shortness of breath and coughing during exercise may lead to a decrease in patients' daily activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of empowerment program based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) on the daily activity of patients with COPD. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 patients with COPD referred to Kashani and Hajar centers in 2019...
2020: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Mohammad H Rajab, Abdalla M Gazal, Khaled Alkattan
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted all aspects of our lives, including education and the economy, as we know it. Governments have issued stay-at-home directives, and as a result, colleges and universities have been shut down across the world. Hence, online classes have become a key component in the continuity of education. The present study aimed to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on online education at the College of Medicine (COM) of Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
July 2, 2020: Curēus
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