Freya Rumball, Kinga Antal, Francesca Happé, Nick Grey
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are common amongst adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stressful and traumatic life events can trigger or exacerbate symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD. In the general population, transdiagnostic processes such as suppression and perseverative thinking are associated with responses to trauma and mental health symptoms. AIMS: This study explored the relationships between thought suppression, perseverative thinking and symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD in ASD adults who reported exposure to a range of DSM-5 and non-DSM-5 traumatic events...
January 13, 2021: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sandra M Opoka, Lea Ludwig, Stephanie Mehl, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic disorders report to apply more maladaptive and less adaptive emotion-regulation (ER) strategies compared to healthy controls. However, few studies have used experimental designs to investigate the success in ER and the results of those at hand are equivocal. AIM: This study investigated whether patients with delusions show problems in downregulating negative affect via cognitive ER-strategies. METHOD: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and acute delusions (n = 78) and healthy controls (n = 41) took part in an ER-experiment, in which they were instructed to downregulate anxiety and sadness via three ER-strategies (reappraisal, distraction, acceptance) or not to regulate their emotions (control-condition)...
January 13, 2021: Schizophrenia Research
Redouane Rebai, Luc Jasmin, Abdennacer Boudah
Growing evidence suggests that a high fat diet (HFD) induces oxidative stress on the central nervous system (CNS), which predisposes to mood disorders and neuroinflammation. In this study we postulated that in addition to improving mood, antidepressant therapy would reverse inflammatory changes in the brain of rats exposed to a HFD. To test our hypothesis, we measured the effect of the antidepressant agomelatine (AGO) on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, as well as on CNS markers of inflammation in rats rendered obese...
January 13, 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Colin Reilly, Amy Muggeridge, J Helen Cross
PURPOSE: To garner the views of young people with epilepsy and caregivers regarding the impact of COVID-19 and subsequent restrictions in the UK. MEHODS: An online survey was used to explore the views of young people with epilepsy (n = 71) and caregivers (n = 130) in June 2020. It included questions on the impact of the pandemic and associated restrictions on the child's epilepsy and on child and parental wellbeing. RESULTS: One in three young people and 29 % of caregivers reported that the young person's seizures had increased during the pandemic (only 10 % of young people and 8% of caregivers reported a decrease)...
January 8, 2021: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Mark K Greenwald, Siri S Sarvepalli, Jonathan A Cohn, Leslie H Lundahl
BACKGROUND: Despite medicalization and legalization of marijuana use, factors influencing demand for marijuana among persons living with HIV (PLWH) are incompletely understood. This knowledge gap undermines effective clinical management and policies. This study used demand curve simulation methods to address these issues. METHODS: Marijuana-using PLWH (N = 119) completed experimental tasks to simulate amount of marijuana purchasing/use across different costs (money or time), and likelihood of reselling marijuana or marijuana therapeutic-use registration card in relation to profits...
January 12, 2021: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, S Claudio-Neto, E Oliveira, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Tobacco smoke during gestation is associated with increased consumption of palatable foods by the offspring in humans and rats. Postpartum relapse is observed in lactating women who quit smoking during pregnancy, putting their children at risk of adverse health outcomes caused by secondhand smoke. Nicotine is transferred through milk and alters the dopaminergic reward system of adult male rats, reducing dopamine action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we evaluated the long-term effects of nicotine-only exposure during lactation on eating behavior, anxiety, locomotion, dopaminergic system, hypothalamic leptin signaling and nicotinic receptor in the adult female rat progeny...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
Cinzia Cecchetto, Marilena Aiello, Claudio Gentili, Silvio Ionta, Sofia Adelaide Osimo
Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an online survey was conducted to compare measures of self-reported physical (BMI), psychological (Alexithymia), affective (anxiety, stress, and depression) and social (income, workload) state during Phase 1 and Phase 2...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
J Santabárbara, J Bueno-Notivol, D M Lipnicki, B Olaya, M Pérez-Moreno, P Gracia-García, N Idoiaga-Mondragon, N Ozamiz-Etxebarria
During the COVID-19, healthcare workers are exposed to a higher risk of mental health problems, especially anxiety symptoms. The current work aims at contributing to an update of anxiety prevalence in this population by conducting a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline and Pubmed were searched for studies on the prevalence of anxiety in health care workers published from December 1, 2019 to September 15, 2020. In total, 71 studies were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of anxiety in healthcare workers was 25% (95% CI: 21%-29%), 27% in nurses (95% CI: 20%-34%), 17% in medical doctors (95% CI: 12%-22%) and 43% in frontline healthcare workers (95% CI: 25%-62%)...
January 13, 2021: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Viviane C Ceschim, Paula Sumarán, Andrea A Borges, Carlos Eduardo N Girardi, Deborah Suchecki
Impairment of social behaviour is a hallmark of emotional disorders, with increased avoidance of social contact. In rats, the 24 h maternal deprivation (DEP) paradigm is used to understand the impact of extreme neglect on neurodevelopment. Due to the distinct immediate effects of DEP on postnatal days (PND) 3 (DEP3) or 11 (DEP11), in the present study we investigated the long-term effects of DEP at these ages on anxiety-like behaviour, by recording the visits and time spent in the centre part of the open-field, social investigation of a confined, same-sex, unfamiliar animal, basal and post-social test corticosterone plasma levels and the immunoreactivity to oxytocin in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SON)...
January 13, 2021: Hormones and Behavior
Yael Friedman-Levi, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Chen Shemesh, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Efrat L Kesner, Galit Gincberg, S Thomas Carmichael, Alcino J Silva, Esther Shohami
CCR5 and CXCR4 are structurally related chemokine receptors that belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors through which the HIV virus enters and infects cells. Both receptors are also related to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that include difficulties in concentration and memory, impaired executive functions, psychomotor slowing, depression and irritability, which are also hallmarks of the long-term sequelae of TBI. Moreover, A growing body of evidence attributes negative influences to CCR5 activation on cognition, particularly after stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
January 13, 2021: Experimental Neurology
Meaghan L O'Donnell, Winnie Lau, Katherine Chisholm, James Agathos, Jonathon Little, Sonia Terhaag, Rachel Brand, Andrea Putica, Alexander C N Holmes, Lynda Katona, Kim L Felmingham, Kim Murray, Fardous Hosseiny, Matthew W Gallagher
The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) is an intervention that targets common mechanisms that maintain symptoms across multiple disorders. The UP has been shown to be effective across many disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode (MDE), and panic disorder, that commonly codevelop following trauma exposure. The present study represented the first randomized controlled trial of the UP in the treatment of trauma-related psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms...
January 16, 2021: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Shauna G Simon, Richard P Sloan, Julian F Thayer, Larry D Jamner
Emotions have long been discussed in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system. Most research on emotion-autonomic linkages does not consider sex differences or an evident underlying mechanism for sex differences: menstrual cycle phase. Further, most research is limited to cross-sectional and laboratory studies. The degree to which emotion-autonomic associations manifest in everyday life may be different and may vary by sex and, for women, by menstrual cycle phase. This study employs the ambulatory monitoring of cardiovascular measures (e...
January 16, 2021: Psychophysiology
Thierry Pelaccia, Jean Sibilia, Élodie Fels, Lucas Gauer, Audrey Musanda, François Severac, Milena Abbiati
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased staffing needs in emergency departments. The question quickly arose as to whether it was appropriate to offer medical students the opportunity to assist this staff. The dilemma stems in part from the potential impact on their psychological well-being as well as their academic and clinical performances. We sought to determine the level of anxiety of medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak, and whether it was higher among the students who chose to return to the clinical setting, especially in first-line units (i...
January 16, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
K Filia, D Rickwood, J Menssink, C X Gao, S Hetrick, A Parker, M Hamilton, I Hickie, H Herrman, N Telford, S Sharmin, P McGorry, S Cotton
PURPOSE: Headspace services provide treatment options to young people seeking mental healthcare. To obtain a better understanding of needs and characteristics of this population, and effectively evaluate services, we require novel youth-specific outcome measures. As part of our broad research program to establish such measures, a sample of young people were recruited and assessed. The study describes (i) methodology used to obtain clinical, functioning, and substance use characteristics of young people presenting to headspace services; and (ii) an overview of these characteristics...
January 16, 2021: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Naama Epstein Rigbi, Naama Schwartz, Michael R Goldberg, Michael B Levy, Liat Nachshon, Arnon Elizur
BACKGROUND: The start of oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy is a critical period in the treatment process, with a potential to influence patient quality of life (QOL) and subsequently treatment outcome. The association of medical clowning with QOL at OIT initiation was examined. METHODS: Children aged 4-12 years supported by a medical clown (MC) during the induction week of OIT for food allergy were studied. Children in the same age range starting OIT without the support of a MC served as controls...
January 16, 2021: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
James K Rilling, Lynnet Richey, Elissar Andari, Stephan Hamann
Human fathers often form strong attachments to their infants that contribute to positive developmental outcomes. However, fathers are also the most common perpetrators of infant abuse, and infant crying is a known trigger. Research on parental brain responses to infant crying have typically employed passive listening paradigms. However, parents usually engage with crying infants. Therefore, we examined the neural responses of 20 new fathers to infant cries both while passively listening, and while actively attempting to console the infant by selecting soothing strategies in a video game format...
January 15, 2021: Developmental Psychobiology
Patricia Mesa-Gresa, Marta Ramos-Campos, Rosa Redolat
Prior studies have suggested that short periods of exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) in rodents induce physiological and behavioral effects. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate if the impact of experiences based on EE could be modulated by the age of onset and the developmental period of exposure. NMRI male mice (n = 64) were exposed to EE or standard environment (SE) and behavioral changes (anxiety, exploration, memory and social interaction) were evaluated. Groups compared were: (a) SE: exposure to SE on post-natal day (PND) 28 and lasting 6 months; (b) EE-6: exposure to EE on PND 28 and lasting 6 months; (c) EE-4: exposure to EE on PND 91 and lasting 4 months; (d) EE-2: exposure to EE on PND 154 and lasting 2 months...
January 15, 2021: Developmental Psychobiology
Er-Jung Hsueh, El-Wui Loh, Joyce Jui-An Lin, Ka-Wai Tam
BACKGROUND: Complications of breast cancer treatment can cause physical and psychosocial distress in patients. Yoga demonstrates substantial potential as a supportive therapy for patients with breast cancer. Our aim is to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga in enhancing the quality of life (QoL) of patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We searched for studies published before March 2020 in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases...
January 15, 2021: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Haley A Vecchiarelli, Maria Morena, Catherine M Keenan, Vincent Chiang, Kaitlyn Tan, Min Qiao, Kira Leitl, Alessia Santori, Quentin J Pittman, Keith A Sharkey, Matthew N Hill
Peripheral inflammatory conditions, including those localized to the gastrointestinal tract, are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. These behavioral symptoms are poorly managed by conventional treatments for inflammatory diseases and contribute to quality of life impairments. Peripheral inflammation is associated with sustained elevations in circulating glucocorticoid hormones, which can modulate central processes, including those involved in the regulation of emotional behavior...
January 15, 2021: Neuropsychopharmacology
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, Andre R Brunoni, Stephan Goerigk, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Daniel Lucas da Conceição Costa, Juliana Belo Diniz, Frank Padberg, Giordano D'Urso, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent, disabling disorder with high rates of treatment resistance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe, tolerable noninvasive neuromodulation therapy with scarce evidence for OCD. This double-blind, randomized, and sham-controlled study investigates the efficacy of tDCS as add-on treatment for treatment-resistant OCD (failure to respond to at least one previous pharmacological treatment). On 20 consecutive weekdays (4 weeks), 43 patients with treatment-resistant OCD underwent 30 min active or sham tDCS sessions, followed by a 8 week follow-up...
January 15, 2021: Neuropsychopharmacology
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