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gaze stabilization

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31685652/zebrafish-dscaml1-deficiency-impairs-retinal-patterning-and-oculomotor-function
#1
Manxiu Ma 马漫修, Alexandro D Ramirez, Tong Wang 王彤, Rachel L Roberts, Katherine E Harmon, David Schoppik, Avirale Sharma, Christopher Kuang, Stephanie L Goei, James A Gagnon, Steve Zimmerman, Shengdar Q Tsai, Deepak Reyon, J Keith Joung, Emre R F Aksay, Alexander F Schier, Y Albert Pan 潘於勤
<u>D</u>own <u>S</u>yndrome <u>C</u>ell <u>A</u>dhesion <u>M</u>olecules ( dscam and dscaml1 ) are essential regulators of neural circuit assembly, but their roles in vertebrate neural circuit function are still mostly unexplored. We investigated the functional consequences of dscaml1 deficiency in the larval zebrafish (sexually undifferentiated) oculomotor system, where behavior, circuit function, and neuronal activity can be precisely quantified...
November 4, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31682634/cerebellum-mediated-trainability-of-eye-and-head-movements-for-dynamic-gazing
#2
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Naoki Yoshida, Satoru Nishishita, Yohei Okada, Nobuhiko Mori, Kosuke Oku, Shinya Douchi, Koichi Hosomi, Youichi Saitoh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether gaze stabilization exercises (GSEs) improve eye and head movements and whether low-frequency cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) inhibits GSE trainability. METHODS: 25 healthy adults (real rTMS, n = 12; sham rTMS, n = 13) were recruited. Real or sham rTMS was performed for 15 min (1 Hz, 900 stimulations). The center of the butterfly coil was set 1 cm below the inion in the real rTMS. Following stimulation, 10 trials of 1 min of a GSE were conducted at 1 min intervals...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31637477/rehabilitation-of-dynamic-visual-acuity-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-earlier-is-better
#3
Lacour Michel, Tardivet Laurent, Thiry Alain
PURPOSE: Patients with acute peripheral unilateral hypofunction (UVH) complain of vertigo and dizziness and show posture imbalance and gaze instability. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VR) enhances the functional recovery and it has been shown that gaze stabilization exercises improved the dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Whether the effects of VR depend or not on the moment when it is applied remains however unknown, and investigation on how the recovery mechanisms could depend or not on the timing of VR has not yet been tested...
October 21, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31618634/optomotor-swimming-in-larval-zebrafish-is-driven-by-global-whole-field-visual-motion-and-local-light-dark-transitions
#4
Andreas M Kist, Ruben Portugues
Stabilizing gaze and position within an environment constitutes an important task for the nervous system of many animals. The optomotor response (OMR) is a reflexive behavior, present across many species, in which animals move in the direction of perceived whole-field visual motion, therefore stabilizing themselves with respect to the visual environment. Although the OMR has been extensively used to probe visuomotor neuronal circuitry, the exact visual cues that elicit the behavior remain unidentified. In this study, we use larval zebrafish to identify spatiotemporal visual features that robustly elicit forward OMR swimming...
October 15, 2019: Cell Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31615357/sensory-gaze-stabilization-in-echolocating-bats
#5
O Eitan, G Kosa, Y Yovel
Sensing from a moving platform is challenging for both man-made machines and animals. Animals' heads jitter during movement, so if the sensors they carry are not stabilized, any spatial estimation might be biased. Flying animals, like bats, seriously suffer from this problem because flapping flight induces rapid changes in acceleration which moves the body up and down. For echolocating bats, the problem is crucial. Because they emit a sound to sense the world, an unstable head means sound energy pointed in the wrong direction...
October 23, 2019: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31606334/vestibular-implant-does-it-really-work-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Yaná Jinkings de Azevedo, Alleluia Lima Losno Ledesma, Larissa Vilela Pereira, Carlos Augusto Oliveira, Fayez Bahmad Junior
INTRODUCTION: People with vestibular loss present a deficit in the vestibular system, which is primarily responsible for promoting postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation while the head moves. There is no effective treatment for a bilateral loss of vestibular function. Recently, a vestibular implant was developed for people with bilateral loss of vestibular function to improve this function and, consequently, the quality of life of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify in the scientific literature evidence that vestibular implants in people with vestibular deficit improves vestibular function...
September 20, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31590121/sensorimotor-training-for-injury-prevention-in-collegiate-soccer-players-an-experimental-study
#7
Jennifer C Reneker, Ryan Babl, W Cody Pannell, Felix Adah, Meredith M Flowers, Kimberly Curbow-Wilcox, Seth Lirette
OBJECTIVES: Deliver a sensorimotor training intervention; quantify the change in clinical measurements of sensorimotor control; and compare injury rate to a historical control. DESIGN: One-arm experimental pilot; Level 3. SETTING: NCAA Division II university athletic facilities. PARTICIPANTS: 75 collegiate soccer players (38 males; 37 females) were enrolled, including 30 (40%) with history of concussion, and participated in eight training sessions...
September 27, 2019: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31533148/saccade-induced-changes-in-ocular-torsion-reveal-predictive-orientation-perception
#8
T Scott Murdison, Gunnar Blohm, Frank Bremmer
Natural orienting of gaze often results in a retinal image that is rotated relative to space due to ocular torsion. However, we perceive neither this rotation nor a moving world despite visual rotational motion on the retina. This perceptual stability is often attributed to the phenomenon known as predictive remapping, but the current remapping literature ignores this torsional component. In addition, studies often simply measure remapping across either space or features (e.g., orientation) but in natural circumstances, both components are bound together for stable perception...
September 3, 2019: Journal of Vision
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31524871/using-unidirectional-rotations-to-improve-vestibular-system-asymmetry-in-patients-with-vestibular-dysfunction
#9
Nayer Rassaian, Navid G Sadeghi, Bardia Sabetazad, Kathleen M McNerney, Robert F Burkard, Soroush G Sadeghi
The vestibular system provides information about head movement and mediates reflexes that contribute to balance control and gaze stabilization during daily activities. Vestibular sensors are located in the inner ear on both sides of the head and project to the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. Vestibular dysfunction is often due to an asymmetry between input from the two sides. This results in asymmetrical neural inputs from the two ears, which can produce an illusion of rotation, manifested as vertigo. The vestibular system has an impressive capacity for compensation, which serves to rebalance how asymmetrical information from the sensory end organs on both sides is processed at the central level...
August 30, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31483710/large-gaze-shift-generation-whilst-standing-up-the-role-of-the-vestibular-system
#10
Dimitri Anastasopoulos, Nausika Ziavra, Adolfo M Bronstein
The functional significance of vestibular information for the generation of gaze shifts is controversial and less well established than the vestibular contribution to gaze stability. Here, we asked seven bilaterally avestibular patients to execute voluntary, whole-body pivot turns to visual targets up to 180° whilst standing. In these conditions not only the demands imposed on gaze transfer mechanisms are more challenging but also neck-proprioceptive input represents an inadequate source of head-in-space motion information...
September 4, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31481007/the-bucket-test-differentiates-patients-with-mri-confirmed-brainstem-cerebellar-lesions-from-patients-having-migraine-and-dizziness-alone
#11
Tzu-Pu Chang, Ariel A Winnick, Yung-Chu Hsu, Pi-Yu Sung, Michael C Schubert
BACKGROUND: Amongst the most challenging diagnostic dilemmas managing patients with vestibular symptoms (i.e. vertigo, nausea, imbalance) is differentiating dangerous central vestibular disorders from benign causes. Migraine has long been recognized as one of the most common causes of vestibular symptoms, but the clinical hallmarks of vestibular migraine are notoriously inconsistent and thus the diagnosis is difficult to confirm. Here we conducted a prospective study investigating the sensitivity and specificity of combining standard vestibular and neurological examinations to determine how well central vestibular disorders (CVD) were distinguishable from vestibular migraine (VM)...
September 3, 2019: BMC Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31476191/gaze-stability-in-the-elite-athlete-a-normative-observational-study
#12
Shelly Massingale, Amy Alexander, Richard Gerkin, Charles Leddon, Elizabeth McQueary, Richard Cameron Allred, Jamie E Pardini
BACKGROUND: The ability to clearly perceive an object while the head is in motion is important in athletics, as it relates to performance and potentially to injury prevention. Normative data for healthy adults on measures of gaze stability have been established. However, data for elite athletes is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe performance of elite athletes on computerized gaze stability testing and establish normative data for reference. METHODS: Data were acquired via retrospective chart review...
August 28, 2019: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31469774/dizziness-in-a-child-with-irlen-syndrome-differentiating-visual-and-vestibular-complaints
#13
Carrie W Hoppes, Rebecca L Morrell, Laura Ward Woelfel, Susan L Whitney
PURPOSE: A case study of a 12-year-old boy with Irlen syndrome illustrates the overlapping symptoms of Irlen syndrome and vestibular-related dizziness. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Individuals with Irlen syndrome have eyestrain and headache, and often report visual perceptual distortions of blurring, doubling, and movement of print on the page. These symptoms can be relieved with the use of individually prescribed tinted lenses or overlays. Visually induced dizziness, also known as visual vertigo, is characterized by dizziness and/or unsteadiness that is triggered by complex, distorted, large field/moving visual stimuli...
August 28, 2019: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31460948/factors-affecting-recovery-trajectories-in-pediatric-female-concussion
#14
Natasha Desai, Douglas J Wiebe, Daniel J Corwin, Julia E Lockyer, Matthew F Grady, Christina L Master
OBJECTIVE: Up to one-third of children with concussion have persistent postconcussion symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Females have been shown to have prolonged concussion recovery compared with males. This study examined characteristics in pediatric athletes with concussion to investigate the underlying factors that may contribute to this difference and their relation to recovery trajectories in females compared with males. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with sports-related concussion (SRC)...
September 2019: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31442821/does-cochlear-implantation-influence-postural-stability-in-patients-with-hearing-loss
#15
Ida Wiszomirska, Agnieszka Zdrodowska, Grażyna Tacikowska, Magdalena Sosna, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI) procedure carries the potential risk for vestibular system insult or stimulation with resultant dysfunction due to its proximity to the cochlea. The vestibular system plays an essential role in crucial tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization and spatial orientation. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does standard cochlear implantation influence postural stability in patients with hearing loss? METHODS: The study included 21 individuals (age 51 ± 18 years) qualified to undergo CI due to severe or profound hearing loss...
August 13, 2019: Gait & Posture
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31396689/cervical-myogenic-potentials-and-controlled-postural-responses-elicited-by-a-prototype-vestibular-implant
#16
Angelica Perez Fornos, Raymond van de Berg, Stéphane Armand, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Céline Crétallaz, Herman Kingma, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Nils Guinand
Gaze stabilization and postural control are two key functions of the vestibular system. In consequence, oscillopsia and chronic imbalance are the two main complaints of patients presenting with a severe bilateral vestibular function loss. The vestibular implant is emerging as a promising treatment for this group of patients whose quality of life is significantly impaired. Although the final aim of the vestibular implant should be to restore vestibular function as a whole, until now the research has focused mainly on the restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex to improve gaze stabilization...
August 8, 2019: Journal of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31380477/limited-morbidity-and-possible-radiographic-benefit-of-c2-vs-subaxial-cervical-upper-most-instrumented-vertebrae
#17
Peter G Passias, Cole A Bortz, Frank Segreto, Samantha Horn, Katherine E Pierce, Haddy Alas, Avery E Brown, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton Line, Robert Eastlack, Daniel M Sciubba, Eric O Klineberg, Alexandra Soroceanu, Douglas C Burton, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Christopher P Ames
Background: The study aims to evaluate differences in alignment and clinical outcomes between surgical cervical deformity (CD) patients with a subaxial upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV) and patients with a UIV at C2. Use of CD-corrective instrumentation in the subaxial cervical spine is considered risky due to narrow subaxial pedicles and vertebral artery anatomy. While C2 fixation provides increased stability, the literature lacks guidelines indicating extension of CD-corrective fusion from the subaxial spine to C2...
June 2019: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31372322/intraspecific-variation-and-symmetry-of-the-inner-ear-labyrinth-in-a-population-of-wild-turkeys-implications-for-paleontological-reconstructions
#18
Donald G Cerio, Lawrence M Witmer
The cochlea and semicircular canals (SCCs) of the inner ear are vital neurosensory devices. There are associations between the anatomy of these sensorineural structures, their function, and the function of related biological systems, for example, hearing ability, gaze stabilization, locomotor agility, and posture. The endosseous labyrinth is frequently used as a proxy to infer the performance of the hearing and vestibular systems, locomotor abilities, and ecology of extinct species. Such fossil inferences are often based on single specimens or even a single ear, representing an entire species...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31341881/a-novel-virtual-reality-technique-cervigame%C3%A2-compared-to-conventional-proprioceptive-training-to-treat-neck-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Rezaei I, Razeghi M, Ebrahimi S, Kayedi S, Rezaeian Zadeh A
Background: Despite the potential benefits of virtual reality technology in physical rehabilitation, only a few studies have evaluated the efficacy of this type of treatment in patients with neck pain. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of virtual reality training (VRT) versus conventional proprioceptive training (CPT) in patients with neck pain. Materials and Methods: Forty four participants with nonspecific chronic neck pain were randomly assigned to VRT or CPT in this assessor-blinded clinical trial...
June 2019: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31306145/changes-in-gain-of-horizontal-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-during-spaceflight
#20
Gilles Clément, Scott J Wood, William H Paloski, Millard F Reschke
BACKGROUND: The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a basic function of the vestibular system that stabilizes gaze during head movement. Investigations on how spaceflight affects VOR gain and phase are few, and the magnitude of observed changes varies considerably and depends on the protocols used. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the gain and phase of the VOR in darkness and the visually assisted VOR were affected during and after spaceflight. METHODS: We measured the VOR gain and phase of 4 astronauts during and after a Space Shuttle spaceflight while the subjects voluntary oscillated their head around the yaw axis at 0...
July 6, 2019: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
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