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Cancer glycobiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30476078/transcriptional-activation-of-fucosyltransferase-fut-genes-using-the-crispr-dcas9-vpr-technology-reveals-potent-n-glycome-alterations-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
A Blanas, L A M Cornelissen, M Kotsias, J C van der Horst, H J van de Vrugt, H Kalay, D I R Spencer, R P Kozak, S J van Vliet
Aberrant fucosylation in cancer cells is considered as a signature of malignant cell transformation and it is associated with tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Specifically, in colorectal cancer cells, increased levels of the fucosylated Lewisx antigen are attributed to the deregulated expression of pertinent fucosyltransferases, like fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4) and fucosyltransferase 9 (FUT9). However, the lack of experimental models closely mimicking cancer-specific regulation of fucosyltransferase gene expression has, so far, limited our knowledge regarding the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the impact of Lewisx synthesis on the glycome of colorectal cancer cells...
November 22, 2018: Glycobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30227620/glycosylation-in-the-thyroid-gland-vital-aspects-of-glycoprotein-function-in-thyrocyte-physiology-and-thyroid-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Marta Ząbczyńska, Kamila Kozłowska, Ewa Pocheć
The key proteins responsible for hormone synthesis in the thyroid are glycosylated. Oligosaccharides strongly affect the function of glycosylated proteins. Both thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the pituitary gland and TSH receptors on the surface of thyrocytes contain N -glycans, which are crucial to their proper activity. Thyroglobulin (Tg), the protein backbone for synthesis of thyroid hormones, is a heavily N -glycosylated protein, containing 20 putative N -glycosylated sites. N -oligosaccharides play a role in Tg transport into the follicular lumen, where thyroid hormones are produced, and into thyrocytes, where hyposialylated Tg is degraded...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30111543/n-glycan-microheterogeneity-regulates-interactions-of-plasma-proteins
#3
Di Wu, Weston B Struwe, David J Harvey, Michael A J Ferguson, Carol V Robinson
Altered glycosylation patterns of plasma proteins are associated with autoimmune disorders and pathogenesis of various cancers. Elucidating glycoprotein microheterogeneity and relating subtle changes in the glycan structural repertoire to changes in protein-protein, or protein-small molecule interactions, remains a significant challenge in glycobiology. Here, we apply mass spectrometry-based approaches to elucidate the global and site-specific microheterogeneity of two plasma proteins: α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and haptoglobin (Hp)...
August 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29805991/genetically-encoded-toolbox-for-glycocalyx-engineering-tunable-control-of-cell-adhesion-survival-and-cancer-cell-behaviors
#4
Carolyn R Shurer, Marshall J Colville, Vivek K Gupta, Shelby E Head, FuiBoon Kai, Jonathon N Lakins, Matthew J Paszek
The glycocalyx is a coating of protein and sugar on the surface of all living cells. Dramatic perturbations to the composition and structure of the glycocalyx are frequently observed in aggressive cancers. However, tools to experimentally mimic and model the cancer-specific glycocalyx remain limited. Here, we develop a genetically encoded toolkit to engineer the chemical and physical structure of the cellular glycocalyx. By manipulating the glycocalyx structure, we are able to switch the adhesive state of cells from strongly adherent to fully detached...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29790113/structural-studies-of-fucosylated-n-glycans-by-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-and-collision-induced-fragmentation-of-negative-ions
#5
David J Harvey, Weston B Struwe
There is considerable potential for the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry in structural glycobiology due in large part to the gas-phase separation attributes not typically observed by orthogonal methods. Here, we evaluate the capability of traveling wave ion mobility combined with negative ion collision-induced dissociation to provide structural information on N-linked glycans containing multiple fucose residues forming the Lewisx and Lewisy epitopes. These epitopes are involved in processes such as cell-cell recognition and are important as cancer biomarkers...
June 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29759530/emerging-glycobiology-tools-a-renaissance-in-accessibility
#6
REVIEW
Douglas M Oswald, Brian A Cobb
The glycobiology of the immune response is a topic that has garnered increased attention due to a number of key discoveries surrounding IgG function, the specificity of some broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies, cancer immunoregulation by galectin molecules and others. This review is the opening article in a Special Edition of Cellular Immunology focused on glycoimmunology, and has the goal of setting the context for these articles by providing a mini-review of how glycans impact immunity. We also focus on some of the technological and methodological advances in the field of glycobiology that are being deployed to lower the barrier of entry into the glycosciences, and to more fully interrogate the glycome and its function...
April 25, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29531238/loss-and-gain-of-n-linked-glycosylation-sequons-due-to-single-nucleotide-variation-in-cancer
#7
Yu Fan, Yu Hu, Cheng Yan, Radoslav Goldman, Yang Pan, Raja Mazumder, Hayley M Dingerdissen
Despite availability of sequence site-specific information resulting from years of sequencing and sequence feature curation, there have been few efforts to integrate and annotate this information. In this study, we update the number of human N-linked glycosylation sequons (NLGs), and we investigate cancer-relatedness of glycosylation-impacting somatic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variation (nsSNV) by mapping human NLGs to cancer variation data and reporting the expected loss or gain of glycosylation sequon...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29521143/human-disease-glycomics-technology-advances-enabling-protein-glycosylation-analysis-part-2
#8
Arun V Everest-Dass, Edward S X Moh, Christopher Ashwood, Abdulrahman M M Shathili, Nicolle H Packer
The changes in glycan structures have been attributed to disease states for several decades. The surface glycosylation pattern is a signature of physiological state of a cell. In this review we provide a link between observed substructural glycan changes and a range of diseases. Areas covered: We highlight biologically relevant glycan substructure expression in cancer, inflammation, neuronal diseases and diabetes. Furthermore, the alterations in antibody glycosylation in a disease context are described. Expert commentary: Advances in technologies, as described in Part 1 of this review have now enabled the characterization of specific glycan structural markers of a range of disease states...
April 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29393868/galectin-3-the-impact-on-the-clinical-management-of-patients-with-thyroid-nodules-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Armando Bartolazzi, Salvatore Sciacchitano, Calogero D'Alessandria
Galectins (S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily-conserved family of lectin molecules, which can be expressed intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix, as well. Galectins bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are functionally active in converting glycan-related information into cell biological programs. Altered glycosylation notably occurring in cancer cells and expression of specific galectins provide, indeed, a fashionable mechanism of molecular interactions able to regulate several tumor relevant functions, among which are cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation, gene transcription and RNA splicing, cell cycle and apoptosis...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29306434/focused-glycomic-profiling-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-lectin-barcode-system
#10
Yuqin Shang, Yong Zeng
Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges associated with the analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and the speed of lectin microarrays...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29207682/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29127943/quantum-dot-cramoll-lectin-as-novel-conjugates-to-glycobiology
#12
Cássia R A Cunha, Camila G Andrade, Maria I A Pereira, Paulo E Cabral Filho, Luiz B Carvalho, Luana C B B Coelho, Beate S Santos, Adriana Fontes, Maria T S Correia
The optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) make them useful tools for biology, especially when combined with biomolecules such as lectins. QDs conjugated to lectins can be used as nanoprobes for carbohydrate expression analysis, which can provide valuable information about glycosylation changes related to cancer and pathogenicity of microorganisms, for example. In this study, we evaluated the best strategy to conjugate Cramoll lectin to QDs and used the fluorescent labeling of Candida albicans cells as a proof-of-concept...
January 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29126854/biomedical-applications-of-glyconanoparticles-based-on-quantum-dots
#13
REVIEW
C R A Cunha, A D P R Oliveira, T V C Firmino, D P L A Tenório, G Pereira, L B Carvalho, B S Santos, M T S Correia, A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Quantum dots (QDs) are outstanding nanomaterials of great interest to life sciences. Their conjugation versatility added to unique optical properties, highlight these nanocrystals as very promising fluorescent probes. Among uncountable new nanosystems, in the last years, QDs conjugated to glycans or lectins have aroused a growing attention and their application as a tool to study biological and functional properties has increased. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review describes the strategies, reported in the literature, to conjugate QDs to lectins or carbohydrates, providing valuable information for the elaboration, improvement, and application of these nanoconjugates...
March 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28894650/lectins-an-effective-tool-for-screening-of-potential-cancer-biomarkers
#14
Onn Haji Hashim, Jaime Jacqueline Jayapalan, Cheng-Siang Lee
In recent years, the use of lectins for screening of potential biomarkers has gained increased importance in cancer research, given the development in glycobiology that highlights altered structural changes of glycans in cancer associated processes. Lectins, having the properties of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates, have become an effective tool for detection of new cancer biomarkers in complex bodily fluids and tissues. The specificity of lectins provides an added advantage of selecting peptides that are differently glycosylated and aberrantly expressed in cancer patients, many of which are not possibly detected using conventional methods because of their low abundance in bodily fluids...
2017: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28767404/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
July 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28683920/computational-glycobiology-mechanistic-studies-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-implication-for-inhibitor-design
#16
REVIEW
Andrew P Montgomery, Kela Xiao, Xingyong Wang, Danielle Skropeta, Haibo Yu
Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are families of essential and structurally related enzymes, which catalyze the creation, modification, and degradation of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates to maintain essentially all kingdoms of life. CAZymes play a key role in many biological processes underpinning human health and diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's diseases, AIDS) and have thus emerged as important drug targets in the fight against pathogenesis. The realization of the full potential of CAZymes remains a significant challenge, relying on a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of catalysis...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#17
REVIEW
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#18
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28110657/maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-n-linked-glycans-in-cancer-tissues
#19
REVIEW
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27965934/editorial-glycosylation-changes-in-cancer-an-innovative-frontier-at-the-interface-of-cancer-and-glycobiology
#20
EDITORIAL
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Jose Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
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