Nonkanyiso Mboweni, Muzi Maseko, Nqoba Tsabedze
Cardiovascular diseases are a well-established cause of death in high-income countries. In the last 20 years, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has seen one of the sharpest increases in cardiovascular disease-related mortality, superseding that of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, in South Africa. This increase is evidenced by a growing burden of heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors. AF is a common comorbidity of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), which predisposes to an increased risk of stroke, rehospitalizations, and mortality compared with patients in sinus rhythm...
March 19, 2023: ESC Heart Failure
Pierre C Qian
Radiofrequency (RF) ablation uses alternating electrical current to generate heat at the catheter-tissue interface. The goal is the produce irreversible myocardial tissue injury by raising the tissue temperature above the lethal threshold, variably estimated at approximately 53.6±3.20°C to 60.6 (IQR 59.7-62.4) °C(1,2). Ideally, the tissue temperature should not exceed boiling point and the tissue surface temperature should be kept less than 80°C to avoid complications such as steam pop and coagulum or char formation, respectively...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Anindya Ghosh, Deepanwita Das, Chenni S Sriram, Ulhas M Pandurangi
A 50-year old man with a structurally normal heart presented with recurrent palpitations for six months. This was in spite of a recent radiofrequency ablation at another center for a presumed diagnosis of atrio-ventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Interestingly, his first radiofrequency ablation for a tachyarrhythmia was over a decade ago, but records were unavailable. The 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed a short RP tachycardia at rate of 170 bpm. There was no preexcitation during sinus rhythm...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Chrishan Nalliah, Hariharan Raju, Chamath Jagoda, Christopher Semsarian
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases with age, with the incidence among persons in their fifth and sixth decades of life reaching 50 per 100,000 patient years. 1 However, SCD and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young remains one of the most poorly understood causes of death in cardiovascular medicine, comprising a broad range of pathologic entities that encompass both genetic and structural causes. 2 Understanding the fundamental substrate is critical for effective management and prevention of future adverse events...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Michael Ghannam, Krit Jongnarangsin, Hamed Emami, Miki Yokokawa, Jackson J Liang, Mohammed Saeed, Hakan Oral, Fred Morady, Aman Chugh
BACKGROUND: Incidental left atrial appendage (LAA) isolation may occur during radiofrequency ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe the mechanisms and long-term thromboembolic risk related to incidental LAA isolation. METHODS: Patients who experienced incidental LAA isolation after AF ablation were included. Culprit sites where ablation resulted in LAA isolation were identified. Thromboembolic risk despite oral anticoagulation (OAC) was compared to that in a propensity-matched control group without LAA isolation...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Orod Razeghi, Ridhima Kapoor, Mahmood I Alhusseini, Muhammad Fazal, Siyi Tang, Caroline H Roney, Albert J Rogers, Anson Lee, Paul J Wang, Paul Clopton, Daniel L Rubin, Sanjiv M Narayan, Steven Niederer, Tina Baykaner
BACKGROUND: Structural changes in the left atrium (LA) modestly predict outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Machine learning (ML) is a promising approach to personalize AF management strategies and improve predictive risk models after catheter ablation by integrating atrial geometry from cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans and patient-specific clinical data. We hypothesized that ML approaches based on a patient's specific data can identify responders to AF ablation...
March 19, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Zsófia Dankovics, Tamás Ungvári, Döme Szabó, András Heim, Béla Farkas, Balázs Kiss, András Csejtei, Judit Olajos
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women. Treatment with drugs and radiotherapy increases the incidence of late cardiovascular disease. It is therefore particularly important to protect the heart from radiation exposure. METHOD: We prepared an irradiation plan for 45 patients with left breast cancer using deep breathing and normal breathing techniques. The plans were compared and analyzed. The irradiation plans were created in the Philips Pinnacle v...
March 19, 2023: Orvosi Hetilap
Zsuzsanna Cserép, Ákos Batiz, Andrea Székely
Coronary artery disease is a highly prevalent heart disease and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. During the last decades, numerous studies have focused on the comprehension of the relationship between coronary heart disease and different psychosocial factors. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a common treatment for coronary artery disease and is usually associated with improved clinical outcomes. Symptoms of anxiety and unipolar depression are common psychological disorders in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
March 19, 2023: Orvosi Hetilap
Na Lin, Liping Xu, Qiaoding Dai
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), a secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis characterized by an excessive systemic inflammatory response, is a life-threatening and rare disease. Cardiovascular damage is a common and severe complication of the disease, however, it is easily ignored and not well studied. Herein, we report two cases of patients with MAS-associated heart damage and review the clinical characteristics, mechanism, and treatment. Case 1 along with systemic lupus erythematosus and Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis occurred in fatal acute heart failure, and case 2 complicated adult-onset Still's Disease began with atrial fibrillation and had some improvement with the treatment of high dose corticosteroids...
March 14, 2023: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Thomas F Valenzuela, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) within left main coronary arteries are high-risk procedures that require optimization of interactions between stent(s) and diseased vessels. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a widely accepted tool that enhances physicians' ability to assess proper stent appositions during clinical procedures. The primary aim of this study was to develop complementary post-procedure imaging methodologies to better assess and interpret outcomes of left main PCI procedures, utilizing both reanimated and perfusion-fixed human hearts...
March 18, 2023: Biomedical Engineering Online
Yajie Zhang, Lina Lu, Ling Yang, Weihui Yan, Qun Yu, Jinye Sheng, Xiaomeng Mao, Yi Feng, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: In a cohort of hospitalized children with congenital heart disease (CHD), a new digital pediatric malnutrition screening tool as a mobile application was validated, and its effectiveness and clinical value were determined as a prospective study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Children with CHD (n = 1125) were screened for malnutrition risk. The incidence of risk and the differences among various age groups and types of CHD were characterized. The optimal threshold for the tool to determine if there is a risk of malnutrition is score 2, while the Youden index was 79...
March 18, 2023: BMC Pediatrics
Xander Jacquemyn, Shelby Kutty, Preeta Dhanantwari, William J Ravekes, Aparna Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: A diabetic intrauterine environment has been proposed as a potential etiological mechanism for in utero programming of cardiac disease, and is associated with impaired fetal cardiac function. We aimed to assess cardiac function in offspring of mothers with diabetes mellitus (ODM) and determine whether fetal cardiac abnormalities persist during follow-up. METHODS: Longitudinal observational study to evaluate and compare myocardial function in 40 ODM to age-matched control offspring (CO)...
March 18, 2023: Pediatric Research
Gang Zhou, Hui Wu, Jian Yang, Ming Ye, Di Liu, Yunzhao Li, Dong Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qingzhuo Yang, Yanfang Liu
Necroptosis is a crucial programmed cell death that is tightly associated with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Liraglutide is an effective option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and has recently been reported to exert cardioprotective effects on MI/RI. Researchers do not know whether the cardioprotective effect of liraglutide is involved in regulating necroptosis. This study aimed to explore the effect of liraglutide on MI/RI-induced necroptosis and its potential mechanisms. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) was performed on H9c2 cells in vitro to simulate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and an MI/RI rat model was established in vivo by ligating the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery...
March 19, 2023: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Katharina Tarnutzer, Devanarayanan Siva Sankar, Joern Dengjel, Collin Y Ewald
Collagen has been postulated to be the most abundant protein in our body, making up one-third of the total protein content in mammals. However, a direct assessment of the total collagen levels of an entire mammal to confirm this estimate is missing. Here we measured hydroxyproline levels as a proxy for collagen content together with total protein levels of entire mice or of individual tissues. Collagen content normalized to the total protein is approximately 0.1% in the brain and liver, 1% in the heart and kidney, 4% in the muscle and lung, 6% in the colon, 20-40% in the skin, 25-35% in bones, and 40-50% in tendons of wild-type (CD1 and CB57BL/6) mice, consistent with previous reports...
March 18, 2023: Scientific Reports
Yeshai Schary, Itai Rotem, Tal Caller, Nir Lewis, Olga Shaihov-Teper, Rafael Y Brzezinski, Daria Lendengolts, Ehud Raanani, Leonid Sternik, Nili Naftali-Shani, Jonathan Leor
Inflammation and fibrosis limit the reparative properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). We hypothesized that disrupting the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene would switch hMSCs toward a reparative phenotype and improve the outcome of cell therapy for infarct repair. We developed and optimized an improved electroporation protocol for CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. This protocol achieved a 68% success rate when applied to isolated hMSCs from the heart and epicardial fat of patients with ischemic heart disease...
March 18, 2023: Scientific Reports
N Patel, M A Johnson, N Vapniarsky, M W Van Brocklin, T K Williams, S T Youngquist, R Ford, N Ewer, L P Neff, G L Hoareau
ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after hemorrhage is potentiated by aortic occlusion or resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). Given the central role of mitochondrial injury in shock, we hypothesized that Elamipretide, a peptide that protects mitochondria, would mitigate IRI after hemorrhagic shock and REBOA. Twelve pigs were subjected to hemorrhagic shock and 45 min of REBOA. After 25 min of REBOA, animals received either saline or Elamipretide. Animals were transfused with autologous blood during balloon deflation, and pigs were resuscitated with isotonic crystalloids and norepinephrine for 4...
March 18, 2023: Scientific Reports
Johannes Wirth, Nina Huber, Kelvin Yin, Sophie Brood, Simon Chang, Celia P Martinez-Jimenez, Matthias Meier
Spatially resolved transcriptomics of tissue sections enables advances in fundamental and applied biomedical research. Here, we present Multiplexed Deterministic Barcoding in Tissue (xDBiT) to acquire spatially resolved transcriptomes of nine tissue sections in parallel. New microfluidic chips were developed to spatially encode mRNAs over a total tissue area of 1.17 cm2 with a 50 µm resolution. Optimization of the biochemical protocol increased read and gene counts per spot by one order of magnitude compared to previous reports...
March 18, 2023: Nature Communications
Gustavo Cruz, Santiago Pedroza Gómez, Akemi Arango, Andrea Galvis, Joaquin O Lemos
CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of a 65-year-old patient who underwent heart transplantation. After the surgery, left proptosis, conjunctival chemosis, and ipsilateral palpebral ecchymosis were found while he was still intubated. A retrobulbar hematoma was suspected, confirmed by a computed tomography scan. Initially, expectant management was considered, but with the appearance of an afferent pupillary defect, the patient underwent orbital decompression and posterior collection drainage, which prevented visual impairment...
March 16, 2023: Transplantation Proceedings
Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Subhi J Al'Aref, Daniele Andreini, Andrea Baggiano, Arzu Canan, Joao L Cavalcante, Anjali Chelliah, Marcus Chen, Andrew Choi, Dey Damini, Carlo Nicola De Cecco, Kanwal M Farooqi, Maros Ferencik, Gudrun Feuchtner, Harvey Hecht, Heidi Gransar, Márton Kolossváry, Jonathon Leipsic, Michael T Lu, Mohamed Marwan, Ming-Yen Ng, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Prashant Nagpal, Ed Nicol, Jonathan Weir-McCall, Seamus P Whelton, Michelle C Williams, Anna Reid, Timothy A Fairbairn, Todd Villines, Rosemarie Vliegenthart, Armin Arbab-Zadeh
This review aims to summarize key articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (JCCT) in 2022, focusing on those that had the most scientific and educational impact. The JCCT continues to expand; the number of submissions, published manuscripts, cited articles, article downloads, social media presence, and impact factor continues to grow. The articles selected by the Editorial Board of the JCCT in this review highlight the role of cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) to detect subclinical atherosclerosis, assess the functional relevance of stenoses, and plan invasive coronary and valve procedures...
March 14, 2023: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
X N Zhong, Yja Tan, M Nakao, I L Chan, M L Heng, Sma Tan, Y L Ng, Jcm Lam
INTRODUCTION: Due to a national policy change in the management of unused platelet units from September 2018, there was a drastic increase in the number of platelet units wasted in our institution. METHODS: Using Quality Improvement (QI) tools, platelet wastages from pediatric heart surgeries was identified as a priority area to work on. An intervention based on the creation of 'Order Sets' for pediatric open-heart surgeries was implemented, standardizing standby platelet orders based on type of surgery and patient weight...
March 14, 2023: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
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