Matthew M Mille, Keith T Griffin, Roberto Maass-Moreno, Choonsik Lee
PURPOSE: To demonstrate an on-demand and nearly automatic method for fabricating tissue-equivalent physical anthropomorphic phantoms for imaging and dosimetry applications using a dual nozzle thermoplastic three-dimensional (3D) printer and two types of plastic. METHODS: Two 3D printing plastics were investigated: (a) Normal polylactic acid (PLA) as a soft tissue simulant and (b) Iron PLA (PLA-Fe), a composite of PLA and iron powder, as a bone simulant. The plastics and geometry of a 1-yr-old computational phantom were combined with a dual extrusion 3D printer to fabricate an anthropomorphic imaging phantom...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Ni Li, Linwen Zhu, Hua Zhou, Dawei Zheng, Guodong Xu, Lebo Sun, Jianqing Gao, Guofeng Shao
To determine whether up-regulation of miR-1183 targeting the gene for anti-apoptotic factor, B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) contributes to apoptosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Peripheral blood samples were isolated for miR-1183 characterization. The function of miRNA-1183 in RHD using miRNA mimic on PBMCs and THP-1 cell models. The binding of miR-1183 and Bcl-2 gene was confirmed by luciferase activity test.We also measured expression levels of BCL-2 in heart valve tissue from patients with RHD using ELISA and immunohistochemistry...
October 19, 2020: Bioscience Reports
Pramod Sagar, Kothandam Sivakumar
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery causes heart failure and death in infancy. In rare adult survivors with well-developed collaterals, surgical left coronary ligation to arrest steal is often combined with bypass grafting. Transcatheter left coronary artery closure in a symptomatic adult as an alternative to surgical ligation resulted in complete resolution of inducible ischaemia on myocardial perfusion imaging.
October 19, 2020: Cardiology in the Young
Valeska Toffolo Minski, Cristiane Garbinato, Nathana Thiel, Anna Maria Siebel
Due to the large volume of erythromycin continuously reaching waterbodies and its high persistence, this antibiotic drug has been detected in the aquatic environment at elevated concentrations. Although the problem of the presence of erythromycin in the environment is evident due to its influence in development of antimicrobial resistance, the toxicological consequences on non-target organisms remain to be determined. There are no apparent data on the impact of environmentally relevant concentrations of erythromycin on developing fish...
October 18, 2020: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Ricardo Governo, Ben Eden-Green, Thomas Dawes, Ifigeneia Mavridou, Julian Giles, Claire Rosten, Joe Rennie-Taylor, Charles Nduka
Aim: Assessing pain perception through self-reports may not be possible in some patients, for example, sedated. Our group considered if facial electromyography (fEMG) could provide a useful alternative, by testing on healthy participants subjected to experimental pain. Materials & methods: Activity of four facial muscles was recorded using fEMG alongside self-reported pain scores and physiological parameters. Results: The pain stimulus elicited significant activity on all facial muscles of interest as well as increases in heart rate...
October 19, 2020: Pain Management
H Z Shi, J C Zeng, S H Shi, H Giannakopoulos, Q Z Zhang, A D Le
Healthy aging is a complex biological process with progressive accumulation of senescent cells characterized by stable cell cycle arrest, resulting in impaired homeostasis, regenerative potential, and gradual functional decline in multiple tissues and organs, whereby the aberrant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling networks plays a central role. Herein, we explored the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC-EVs) on oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence in human endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts and their antiaging potentials...
October 17, 2020: Journal of Dental Research
Tianwen Lai, Fangfei Xiang, Jianfeng Zeng, Yingzi Huang, Liping Jia, Hui Chen, Jiayuan Wu, Jianfeng Xie, Shuna Liu, Wei Deng, Weiqiang Zheng, Yang Huang, Qinfu Zhang, Qingfeng Luo, Fan Mo, Lieming Long, Wuying Zhang, Wenna Chen, Huanqin Han
We previously reported that sputum induction was more sensitive than throat swabs for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in two convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; however, the value and safety of induced sputum testing require further study. We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study to compare induced sputum to throat swabs for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Confirmed COVID-19 patients from six hospitals in six cities across China who received one or more negative RT-PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled, and paired specimens (induced sputum and throat swabs; 56 cases) were assayed...
December 2020: Virulence
Mateo Leganes-Fonteneau, Jennifer F Buckman, Keisuke Suzuki, Anthony Pawlak, Marsha E Bates
Interoceptive processes emanating from baroreceptor signals support emotional functioning. Previous research suggests a unique link to fear: fearful faces, presented in synchrony with systolic baroreceptor firing draw more attention and are rated as more intense than those presented at diastole. This study examines whether this effect is unique to fearful faces or can be observed in other emotional faces. Participants ( n  = 71) completed an emotional visual search task (VST) in which fearful, happy, disgust and sad faces were presented during systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle...
October 19, 2020: Cognition & Emotion
Juan F Delgado, Juan Oliva, Álvaro González-Franco, Jose María Cepeda, Jose Ángel García-García, Almudena González-Domínguez, Albert Garcia-Casanovas, Silvia Jiménez Merino, Josep Comín-Colet
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of iron deficiency (ID) with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) improves the functional class and quality of life of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and reduces the rate of hospitalization due to worsening CHF. This study aims to evaluate the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) of treating ID in reduced LVEF CHF with FCM compared to non-iron treatment. METHODS: We simulated a hypothetical cohort of 1000 CHF patients with ID and reduced LVEF based on the Spanish population characteristics...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Medical Economics
Nima Vakilzadeh, Dusan Petrovic, Marc Maillard, Lucie Favre, Eric Grouzmann, Gregoire Wuerzner
PURPOSE: Sodium and water handling by the kidney and the sympathetic nervous system have been implicated in the development of obesity-related hypertension and kidney disease. They have seldom been studied together during stress conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the systemic, renal and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in adult healthy participants (H), obese normotensive (OBN) and obese hypertensive patients (OBH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study...
October 19, 2020: Blood Pressure
Raman Krishna Kumar, Manuel J Antunes, Andrea Beaton, Mariana Mirabel, Vuyisile T Nkomo, Emmy Okello, Prakash Raj Regmi, Boglarka Reményi, Karen Sliwa-Hähnle, Liesl Joanna Zühlke, Craig Sable
The global burden of rheumatic heart disease continues to be significant although it is largely limited to poor and marginalized populations. In most endemic regions, affected patients present with heart failure. This statement will seek to examine the current state-of-the-art recommendations and to identify gaps in diagnosis and treatment globally that can inform strategies for reducing disease burden. Echocardiography screening based on World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria holds promise to identify patients earlier, when prophylaxis is more likely to be effective; however, several important questions need to be answered before this can translate into public policy...
October 19, 2020: Circulation
Michael R Gold, Pier D Lambiase, Mikhael F El-Chami, Reinoud E Knops, Johan D Aasbo, Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Andrea M Russo, Jean Claude Deharo, Martin C Burke, Jay Dinerman, Craig S Barr, Naushad Shaik, Nathan Carter, Thomas Stoltz, Kenneth M Stein, Amy J Brisben, Lucas V Boersma
Background: The Subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) is safe and effective for sudden cardiac death prevention. However, patients in previous S-ICD studies had fewer comorbidities, less left ventricular dysfunction and received more inappropriate shocks (IAS) than in typical transvenous (TV)-ICD trials. The UNTOUCHED trial was designed to evaluate the IAS rate in a more typical, contemporary ICD patient population implanted with the S-ICD using standardized programming and enhanced discrimination algorithms. Methods: Primary prevention patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% and no pacing indications were included...
October 19, 2020: Circulation
Venkatesh L Murthy, Jared P Reis, Alexander R Pico, Robert Kitchen, João A C Lima, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Norrina B Allen, Mercedes Carnethon, Gregory D Lewis, Matthew Nayor, Ramachandran S Vasan, Jane E Freedman, Clary B Clish, Ravi V Shah
Background: Whereas cardiovascular disease (CVD) metrics define risk in individuals above age 40 years, the earliest lesions of CVD appear well before this age. Despite the role of metabolism in CVD antecedents, studies in younger, biracial populations to define precise metabolic risk phenotypes are lacking. Methods: We studied 2330 white and Black young adults (mean age 32 years, 45% Black) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to identify metabolite profiles associated with an adverse CVD phenome (myocardial structure/function, fitness, vascular calcification), mechanisms, and outcomes over two decades...
October 19, 2020: Circulation
Mariëlle Scheffer, Annet Driessen-Waaijer, Nazha Hamdani, Jochem W D Landzaat, Nini H Jonkman, Walter J Paulus, Loek van Heerebeek
AIMS: High myocardial stiffness in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is attributed to comorbidity-induced structural and functional remodelling through inflammation and oxidative stress affecting coronary microvascular endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, which augments interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte stiffness. In murine and human HFpEF myocardium, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition ameliorates cardiac microvascular endothelial cell and cardiomyocyte oxidative stress, while enhancing myocardial protein kinase G activity and lowering titin-based cardiomyocyte stiffness...
October 19, 2020: ESC Heart Failure
Carmine Rocca, Fedora Grande, Maria Concetta Granieri, Barbara Colombo, Anna De Bartolo, Francesca Giordano, Vittoria Rago, Nicola Amodio, Bruno Tota, Maria Carmela Cerra, Bruno Rizzuti, Angelo Corti, Tommaso Angelone, Teresa Pasqua
AIM: Chromogranin A (CgA), a 439-residue long protein, is an important cardiovascular regulator and a precursor of various bio-active fragments. Under stressful/pathological conditions, CgA cleavage generates the CgA1-373 proangiogenic fragment. The present work investigated the possibility that human CgA1-373 influences the mammalian cardiac performance, evaluating the role of its C-terminal sequence. METHODS: Hemodynamic assessment was performed on an ex vivo Langendorff rat heart model, while mechanistic studies were performed using perfused hearts, H9c2 cardiomyocytes, and in silico...
October 18, 2020: Acta Physiologica
Eric D Morris, Kate Aldridge, Ahmed I Ghanem, Simeng Zhu, Carri K Glide-Hurst
PURPOSE: Rising evidence suggests that cardiac substructures are highly radiosensitive. However, they are not routinely considered in treatment planning as they are not readily visualized on treatment planning CTs (TPCTs). This work integrated the soft tissue contrast provided by low-field MRIs acquired on an MR-linac via image registration to further enable cardiac substructure sparing on TPCTs. METHODS: Sixteen upper thoracic patients treated at various breathing states (7 end-exhalation, 7 end-inhalation, 2 free-breathing) on a 0...
October 18, 2020: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Julia C Schmidt, Sandra Vogt, Medea Imboden, Emmanuel Schaffner, Leticia Grize, Elisabeth Zemp, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Nicola U Zitzmann
In this cross-sectional study, the prevalences of tooth loss, prosthetic dental restorations, and probing pocket depths (PPDs) of ≥4 mm, and their relationship to sociodemographic factors, were investigated in older Swiss adults. There were up to 1,673 participants aged ≥55 yr in the fourth survey of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA4). Missing teeth, prosthetic dental restorations, and PPDs ≥4 mm were recorded in clinical examinations conducted by field workers and compared with self-reported information from questionnaires...
October 18, 2020: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Hirofumi Watanabe, Kazunori Kanemaru, Kazuhiro Hagikura, Taro Matsumoto, Mamoru Ayusawa, Ichiro Morioka
Interactions between tissues such as epicardial adipose (EAT), and myocardial tissues is important in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Changes in adipose tissues in obesity or diabetes impair preadipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion is higher in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes in diabetes and obesity. However, how undifferentiated cells committed to the adipose lineage directly influence cardiomyocytes is not yet understood. We used human-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells as models of undifferentiated cells committed to an adipose lineage...
October 19, 2020: Cell Biology International
Morgan K Morelli, Michael P Veve, William Lorson, Mahmoud A Shorman
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. infective endocarditis (CIE) although rare is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Risk factors include prosthetic heart valves and injection drug use (IDU). We reviewed all cases of CIE at our institution to describe the microbiology, treatment, and outcomes of patients focusing on IDU as a predisposing factor. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with definite CIE between 2013-2019 at a university hospital was analyzed. Demographic data collected included IDU, microbiologic, treatment, and mortality...
October 18, 2020: Mycoses
Yan Xue, Wenwen Fu, Yanzhe Liu, Ping Yu, Mingyang Sun, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Yu, Dayun Sui
The cardioprotective effects of ginsenoside Rb2 on oxidative stress, which is induced by hydrogen peroxide and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, have been studied. The mechanisms were associated with the inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a high concentration of antioxidant defense enzymes, and scavenging oxidative stress products. Because of the association with oxidative reaction and cardioprotection, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) was selected as a promising target for investigating whether MI/R injury can be alleviated by ginsenoside Rb2 pretreatment through SIRT1 activation...
October 18, 2020: Journal of Food Science
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