journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101002001/benralizumab-associated-with-histologic-response-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
SUMMARY
Nhat Hung Benjamin Lam, Kiera Liblik
1. In this randomized controlled trial, benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 receptor (anti-IL-5R) monoclonal antibody, demonstrated histologic depletion of eosinophils among patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) compared to placebo. 2. Patients receiving benralizumab did not experience fewer dysphagia symptoms when compared to those receiving a placebo.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: EoE is a chronic disease characterized by eosinophil-driven inflammation causing scarring and narrowing of the esophagus...
July 18, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101002000/reteplase-associated-with-improved-functional-outcomes-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#2
SUMMARY
Jayden Berdugo, Kiera Liblik
1. In a randomized controlled trial of patients who suffered an acute ischemic stroke, the reteplase group reported a greater number of patients experiencing an excellent functional score compared to the alteplase group. 2. A greater proportion of patients reported intracranial hemorrhages within 90 days in the reteplase group compared to the alteplase group.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: One proven intercession for ischemic strokes is reperfusion therapy, currently done by intravenous infusion of alteplase within 4...
July 17, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001999/dupilumab-reduces-exacerbations-in-copd-with-type-2-inflammation
#3
SUMMARY
Junghoon Ko, Kiera Liblik
1. In this randomized controlled trial, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and type 2 inflammation who received dupilumab had a lower annualized rate of moderate or severe exacerbations than those who received a placebo. 2. The change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline to week 12 and week 52 was significantly greater in the dupilumab group. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: COPD is a progressive disease of the lungs characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and associated with high morbidity and mortality...
July 16, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001998/pantoprazole-prophylaxis-for-individuals-on-mechanical-ventilation-with-stress-ulcers
#4
SUMMARY
Jayden Berdugo, Kiera Liblik
1. In this randomized controlled trial studying critically ill adults, pantoprazole use was associated with a lower risk of clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding compared to placebo use. 2. There was no significant increase in C. difficile infection, pneumonia infection, or mortality in the pantoprazole group compared to the placebo group.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Individuals with a chronic illness are at a higher risk of developing stress-induced gastrointestinal ulcerations, possibly leading to gastrointestinal bleeding...
July 16, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001997/image-guided-assessment-of-coronary-inflammation-improves-cardiac-risk-prediction-for-patients-without-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#5
SUMMARY
Neel Mistry, Teddy Guo
1. Individuals with elevated fat attenuation index scores without obstructive coronary artery disease had significantly increased rates of major adverse cardiac events. 2. Fat attenuation index score and AI-Risk classification showed an additive risk for cardiac mortality based on the number of involved coronary vessels. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is commonly used to assess chest pain, resulting in many patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) whose prognosis remains unclear...
July 16, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001996/tisotumab-vedotin-as-second-or-third-line-therapy-for-recurrent-cervical-cancer
#6
SUMMARY
Daniel Goldshtein, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. Median overall survival was 11.5 months in the tisotumab vedotin group and 9.5 months in the chemotherapy group, with an HR of 0.70 (significant). 2. Adverse events grade ≥3 occurred in 52.0% of the tisotumab vedotin group and 62.3% in the chemotherapy group. Evidence Rating Level : 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Immunotherapy alone or in combination with standard care has improved outcomes in recurrent cervical cancer however these outcomes remain suboptimal. Tisotumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate that targets tissue factor and carries a microtubule-disturbing payload, has shown some promising results in phase II trials...
July 15, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001995/oral-sebetralstat-provides-early-symptom-relief-for-hereditary-angioedema-attacks
#7
SUMMARY
Junghoon Ko, Kiera Liblik
1. In this randomized controlled trial, oral sebetralstat provided faster times to the beginning of symptom relief than placebo in individuals experiencing hereditary angioedema attacks. 2. Oral sebetralstat also provided larger reductions in attack severity and faster times to complete attack resolution. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that can lead to unpredictable and debilitating episodes of tissue swelling, especially if manifested by laryngeal edema attacks...
July 15, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001994/web-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-may-be-effective-for-treatment-of-bulimia-nervosa
#8
SUMMARY
Paary Balakumar, Alex Chan
1. Patients with bulimia nervosa randomized to receive web-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) were observed to experience fewer bulimic episodes and binge-eating episodes compared to control, and may be a viable and more accessible alternative to in-person CBT.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)  Despite 1-2% of the global population being affected by bulimia nervosa (BN) during their lifetime, accessing evidence-based treatments can be difficult due to logistical barriers. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be a viable intervention for BN...
July 13, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001993/comparison-of-different-types-of-ultrasound-probes-for-lung-ultrasound-in-neonates
#9
SUMMARY
Paary Balakumar, Alex Chan
1. Compared to the microconvex and echo probe, the linear probe is better for lung ultrasounds in neonates. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)   Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a powerful tool used in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units. LUS is often used to diagnose respiratory disorders and guide procedures sch as surfactant administration or chest tube placement. Unlike other ultrasound procedures such as echocardiography, the optimal probes have not been determined for LUS. This prospective, blinded, randomized study aimed to compare the performance of linear, microconvex, and echo (i...
July 12, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001992/financial-incentives-may-be-a-viable-option-to-promote-smoking-cessation
#10
SUMMARY
Paary Balakumar, Alex Chan
1. Incentivizing smoking cessation with financial rewards increased the likelihood of cessation through the first 12 weeks but did not increase cessation at 26 weeks. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)  Socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals are less likely to quit smoking. Contingency management uses positive reinforcement to promote drug and alcohol abstinence. Financial incentives could be used to promote smoking cessation in low socioeconomic status (SES) adults. This study aimed to compare long-term effects of low-cost financial incentives for smoking cessation relative to the usual care counseling and pharmacotherapy...
July 12, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001991/poor-cardiovascular-health-is-a-risk-factor-for-female-infertility
#11
SUMMARY
Paary Balakumar, Alex Chan
1. Cardiovascular health and infertility are negatively correlated with physical activity, BMI, and blood glucose being major indicators of cardiovascular health that impact fertility Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)  Female infertility affects around 10% of couples globally. There is emerging evidence that links female infertility with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which suggests infertility could be a sign of CVD later in life. Elevated triglyceride levels and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins have been observed in females with idiopathic infertility...
July 11, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001990/periodontitis-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-its-association-with-diabetes-related-complication
#12
SUMMARY
Paary Balakumar, Alex Chan
1. Periodontitis has a strong association with Type 2 Diabetes and is exacerbated by poor glycemic control. 2. Type 1 Diabetes and periodontitis are only associated in patient subgroups with poor glycemic control 3. Periodontitis confers an increased risk for retinopathy and albuminuria in both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.  Evidence Rating Level: 3 (Average) Periodontitis is an oral disorder comprised of soft tissue inflammation, loss of periodontal attachment, and potentially tooth loss which affects about 10% of adults worldwide...
July 10, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001989/immunotherapy-based-total-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#13
SUMMARY
Daniel Goldshtein, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. The complete response rates (pathological and clinical) were similar (~55%) in both groups. 2. Grade 3-4 adverse events rates were similar (~43%) in both groups with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia being the most common. Evidence Rating Level : 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) for locally advanced rectal cancer showed superiority compared to traditional approaches, however still have a low pathological complete response rate. Some recent studies have shown promise with a combination of TNT with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)...
July 8, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001988/poor-sleep-and-elevation-of-liver-function-biomarkers-may-be-predictive-of-liver-cancer
#14
SUMMARY
Alex Chan
1. Unhealthy sleep, as well elevations of liver enzymes and decreased levels of albumin and liver functional biomarkers, were significantly associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Poor sleep quality has been positively associated with cancer risk; however, the association between sleep and liver cancer risk specifically remains unclear. Studies examining routine liver function biomarkers and the risk of incident liver cancer in the general population with large sample sizes are also limited...
July 6, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001987/multivitamin-use-not-found-to-be-associated-with-mortality-benefit-at-20-years-follow-up
#15
SUMMARY
Alex Chan
1. In a cohort of healthy adults, multivitamin use was not associated with lower mortality risk at 20 years follow-up.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Approximately one-third of adults in the United States (US) use multivitamins (MV) to maintain or improve health and prevent chronic disease. However, the association between MV use and mortality have been mixed. This cohort study evaluated how self-reported daily MV use was associated with mortality risk in generally healthy adults. Data from three prospective cohort studies in the United States, with follow-up periods of over 20 years were analyzed...
July 6, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001986/metformin-may-reduce-all-cause-mortality-in-cancer-survivors
#16
SUMMARY
Alex Chan
1. Among US cancer survivors, metformin was associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases, all-cause mortality, and cardiometabolic mortality. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is the leading cause of noncancer deaths in the cancer survivor (CS) population. Previous studies have found metformin to improve cardiometabolic status in populations with obesity, diabetes, or psychiatric disorders, potentially by inhibiting oxidative stress. However, the relationship between metformin use and cardiometabolic status in the CS population is limited...
July 5, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001985/serum-interleukins-may-be-elevated-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
SUMMARY
Alex Chan
1. Serum interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were higher in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients compared to healthy controls. Evidence Rating Level: 3 (Average) Emerging evidence suggests immune dysregulation to be involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are crucial pro-inflammatory cytokines for regulating immune responses; however, their role in OCD is unclear. This case-control study of 58 OCD patients and 30 age-sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) (mean age = 32...
July 4, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001984/comparison-of-hip-fracture-risk-assessment-tools-for-elderly-patients
#18
SUMMARY
Alex Chan
1. Femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) alone discriminated 5-year hip fracture risk at least as well as FRAX and Garvan tools incorporating FNBMD. 2. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) modestly underpredicted observed hip fracture probability in intermediate-risk individuals and Garvan greatly overpredicted observed hip fracture probability in high-risk individuals. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Adults 80 years and older make up 70% of hip fractures in the United States. Tools to estimate absolute risk of hip fracture include the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and Garvan fracture risk calculator...
July 3, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001983/subcutaneous-amivantamab-with-lazertinib-is-non-inferior-to-intravenous-administration-with-fewer-adverse-reactions
#19
SUMMARY
Vanessa Giuliano, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. Subcutaneous amivantamab combined with lazertinib was non-inferior to intravenous amivantamab with lazertinib in terms of efficacy in treating refractory EGFR-mutated NSCLC. 2. Subcutaneous amivantamab resulted in fewer infusion-related reactions, allowed for shorter administration times, and increased patient convenience compared to the intravenous formulation Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: The present study is a randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of subcutaneous amivantamab with lazertinib compared to intravenous amivantamab with lazertinib...
July 1, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001982/amivantamab-and-lazertinib-in-untreated-egfr-mutated-advanced-nsclc
#20
SUMMARY
Daniel Goldshtein, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. The progression-free survival between the amivantamab–lazertinib group (23.7 months) and the osimertinib group (16.6 months) had an HR 0.70. 2. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 75% of the amivantamab–lazertinib group and 43% of the osimertinib group. Evidence Rating Level : 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Osimertinib is the current first-line therapy in EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLCs, although resistance eventually develops. This trial assessed the efficacy of combining amivantamab, an EGFR-MET bispecific antibody, with lazertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI, compared to osimertinib alone for treating EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC...
July 1, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
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