journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001776/early-de-escalation-from-intravenous-to-oral-antibiotics-may-be-appropriate-for-uncomplicated-gram-negative-bacteremia
#1
SUMMARY
Donika Yakoub, Alex Chan
1. In this cohort study, patients with uncomplicated gram-negative bacteremia who were switched from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics demonstrated similar 90-day all-cause mortality to those receiving prolonged IV antibiotic treatment.  2. Patients in the early switch arm were no more likely to experience infection recurrence or complications related to antibiotic use at 30 and 90 day follow-up.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)         Study Rundown: Gram-negative bacteremia poses a significant health concern, and clinicians are tasked with assigning the proper antibiotic treatment and duration for these patients...
February 28, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001775/dental-procedures-not-associated-with-increased-periprosthetic-joint-infections-for-knee-arthroplasty
#2
SUMMARY
Soroush Nedaie, Alex Chan
1. In this nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study, dental procedures did not increase the risk of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in patients who have undergone primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 2. Prophylactic antibiotics in these patients did not reduce the PJI risk, while posttraumatic arthritis was associated with PJI. Evidence Rating Level : 2 (Good) The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics before dental procedures to prevent PJI post-total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains uncertain despite multiple guideline revisions...
February 28, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001774/use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-should-not-delay-surgical-intervention-for-patients-with-hip-fractures
#3
SUMMARY
Soroush Nedaie, Alex Chan
1. In geriatric patients with hip fractures on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), surgical treatment within 48 hours of their last preoperative DOAC dose had comparable complication rates and 1-year mortality compared with patients with surgery delayed past 48 hours. 2. Patients who underwent surgical management within 48 hours required fewer transfusions and had decreased length of stay, compared with those who underwent surgery beyond 48 hours.  Evidence Rating Level : 2 (Good) Geriatric hip fractures are associated with 1-year mortality rates as high as 33%...
February 27, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001773/cannabis-consumption-associated-with-poorer-performance-in-driving-simulators-in-elderly-participants
#4
SUMMARY
Jayden Berdugo, Alex Chan
1. Elderly participants who consumed cannabis 30 minutes before driving in a simulator were found to have increased standard deviation in their lateral position (SDLP), which was used as a measure to determine the amount of swerving a driver experienced.  2.  Blood tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels were not significantly correlated with SDLP, though the study was limited by its smaller sample size.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (good) Study Rundown:   Although prior literature suggests that cannabis consumption increases risks of motor vehicle collisions while under the influence, specifics surrounding the role of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels remains unclear...
February 26, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001772/higher-quantity-of-rib-fractures-may-be-a-risk-factor-for-venous-thromboembolism
#5
SUMMARY
Soroush Nedaie, Alex Chan
Incidence and influence factors of venous thromboembolism in traumatic rib fracture patient: a multicenter study : https://read.qxmd.com/read/38395963 1. In patients with traumatic rib fractures, the number of rib fractures was an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). 2. Surgical fixation of isolated rib fractures involving ≥3 ribs reduced the incidence of VTE compared with conservative treatment. Evidence Rating Level :1 (Excellent) Traumatic rib fractures increase VTE risk due to reduced mobility, trauma impact, and treatment interventions...
February 26, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001771/history-of-infertility-may-be-associated-with-worse-cardiovascular-health-at-mid-life
#6
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. Among parous individuals, experiencing infertility was associated with lower scores for cardiovascular health at mid-life . Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, is known to have great impacts on both physical and emotional health; however, the relationship between infertility and cardiovascular health is not well understood. Researchers aimed to assess whether there is an association between infertility and cardiovascular health at midlife among parous individuals...
February 24, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001770/early-physical-activity-post-injury-may-result-in-lower-post-concussive-symptom-burden-in-children
#7
SUMMARY
Jayden Berdugo, Alex Chan
1. In a secondary analysis of a prior study consisting of children and adolescents with concussions, engaging in higher volumes of cumulative moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (cMVPA) within the first 2 weeks of injury was associated with a lower burden of postconcussion symptoms.  2. Patients who returned to physical activity within the first week had a 25% risk of persisting symptoms at four weeks compared to 44% in those who did not.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown:  Concussions not only have a burden on the individual experiencing them but also on the economy and health of the population...
February 23, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001769/penetrating-traumatic-brain-injuries-associated-with-greater-risk-of-brain-cancer-amongst-veterans
#8
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. Among United States veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, the experience of a moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury was associated with a greater risk of developing brain cancer.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Primary brain cancer is uncommon, affecting 7.02 per 100,000 persons in the United States. Little is known about the risk factors for primary brain cancer. In this retrospective cohort study, researchers aimed to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the development of primary brain cancer...
February 23, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001768/supplementation-of-folic-acid-in-later-stages-of-pregnancy-may-help-prevent-kawasaki-disease-in-offspring
#9
SUMMARY
Donika Yakoub, Alex Chan
1. In this large Japanese birth cohort, supplementing with folic acid at least once weekly and higher serum folic acid levels (≥10 ng/mL) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy were associated with significantly decreased risk for developing Kawasaki disease (KD) in the first 12 months of life.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)         Study Rundown: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that most often affects children under the age of 5. There has been a rise in KD incidence among infants below the age of 1 in Japan despite a declining birth rate...
February 22, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001767/presence-of-unmet-social-needs-associated-with-lower-utilization-of-breast-cancer-screening-programs
#10
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. Having a greater number of unmet social needs was associated with lower utilization of screening mammography services, as well as a later stage of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Social determinants of health (SDOH) are important drivers of health inequities. Unmet social needs, such as housing and food insecurity, are known to be associated with worse health outcomes. In this study, researchers aimed to determine whether unmet social needs are associated with the use of screening mammography programs and the stage of breast cancer diagnosis...
February 22, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001766/ticagrelor-with-aspirin-may-be-superior-to-clopidogrel-and-aspirin-for-preventing-stroke-in-certain-patients
#11
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. In this post-hoc analysis of the CHANCE-2 trial, ticagrelor-acetylsalicylic acid was more beneficial compared to clopidogrel-acetylsalicylic acid for preventing recurrent stroke among those with elevated levels of homocysteine and CYP2C19 LOF mutations.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)  Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with increased hemostasis, progression of atherosclerosis, and greater risk of initial or recurrent stroke. Little is known about whether homocysteine levels impact the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet treatments for preventing stroke...
February 21, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001765/avocado-consumption-was-associated-with-lower-cardiometabolic-risk-measures
#12
SUMMARY
Yidi Wang, Flaviu Trifoi
1. Participants who identified themselves as avocado consumers had lower body mass index, waist circumference, plasma glucose, and cholesterol level compared with non-consumers. 2. Avocado consumers also consumed more fruit and vegetables compared to non-consumers. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Cardiovascular disease affects a large population worldwide, with many efforts aimed at establishing interventions that prevent development of high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and blood glucose, which all increase the risk for cardiovascular disease...
February 20, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001764/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-use-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-linked-to-decreased-risk-of-nephrolithiasis
#13
SUMMARY
Yasin Avci, Yuchen Dai
1. A reduced risk of nephrolithiasis was linked with patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initiating sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) treatment compared to starting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i). 2. The results of the study remained consistent across various predetermined sensitivity analyses and subgroup evaluations (some being race, sex, and lifestyle factors). Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Kidney stone prevalence is increasing globally, posing significant costs and health risks...
February 20, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001763/use-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-for-inpatient-care-may-improve-patient-satisfaction
#14
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. The use of POCUS in an adult inpatient setting improved patient satisfaction with their overall care and perceived  Evidence Rating Level: 3 (Average) Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a tool used to aid in decision-making at the bedside. While POCUS is used frequently in emergency departments, with increasing use in inpatient settings. Aside from the known diagnostic benefits, recent studies have shown that POCUS has socioemotional benefits as well. There is thought to be a placebo-like “POCUS positive care effect” (PPCE)...
February 20, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001762/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-increases-cardiovascular-and-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-diabetes
#15
SUMMARY
Rhianna Davis, Alex Chan
1. The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause death for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased for those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compared to those without NAFLD.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in prevalence globally. Patients with NAFLD are at an increased risk for developing cirrhosis, as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death for individuals with NAFLD. In this longitudinal cohort study, researchers aimed to assess the risk of NAFLD on CVD and all-cause mortality among participants with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
February 20, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001761/maternal-iron-and-vitamin-d-status-was-associated-with-maternal-depression-during-pregnancy
#16
SUMMARY
Yidi Wang, Flaviu Trifoi
1. Higher serum levels of iron and vitamin D during the second trimester was associated with lower maternal depression scores during the third trimester. 2. Compared with participants who were iron and vitamin D replete, those who were either low in iron, vitamin D or both had significantly higher depression score during third trimester. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Adequate iron and vitamin D intake is an important part of proper nutrition during pregnancy since these micronutrients are associated with fetal neurodevelopment and maternal health...
February 19, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001760/one-low-glycemic-index-meal-had-similar-effect-on-glycemic-control-as-fasting-during-night-shift
#17
SUMMARY
Yidi Wang, Flaviu Trifoi
1. Consumption of 1 or 3 low-glycemic index meals did not lead to significant changes in glucose homeostasis compared to fasting overnight. 2. Consumption of 1 high-glycemic index meal significantly increased all glycemic control variables not only during the night shifts but also in the morning. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Night-shift workers make up a significant portion of our workforce but have significantly higher risks of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality compared to day-time workers...
February 19, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001759/enobosarm-in-ar-positive-er-positive-and-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer
#18
SUMMARY
Daniel Goldshtein, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. The clinical benefit rate was 32% in the 9 mg group and 29% in the 18 mg group. 2. Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events occurred in 8% of the 9 mg group and 16% in the 18 mg group. Evidence Rating Level : 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Androgen receptors (AR) have been shown to act as a tumour suppressor in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, however, their use was limited due to virilizing side effects. Recent developments in selective AR modulators (SARMs), such as enobosarm, have prompted a reevaluation of AR agonism in ER-positive breast cancer...
February 19, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001758/tabelecleucel-is-a-therapeutic-option-for-ebv-related-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disease
#19
SUMMARY
Vanessa Giuliano, Sze Wah Samuel Chan
1. Tabelecleucel provided clinical improvement in patients with EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. 2. There were no fatal treatment related adverse events in those treated with tabelecleucel. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: The present study was a phase 3 multicenter trial that assessed the impact of tabelecleucel (a T-cell based immunotherapy directed against EBV) on patients with EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.  Patients included in the trial had EBV-positive post-transplant disease...
February 19, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/101001757/egfr-is-more-strongly-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-when-cystatin-c-is-included
#20
SUMMARY
Thomas Su, Kiera Liblik
1. In this cohort study, estimated glomerular filtration rate based on both creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys   ) was more strongly associated with cardiovascular events than estimates based on creatinine alone (eGFRcr). 2. Nearly one-third of individuals were reclassified into a different severity category after recalculation. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: GFR is used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is typically estimated using serum creatinine. However, loss of muscle mass in old age can depress circulating creatinine levels, creating the illusion of better renal function...
February 16, 2024: 2 Minute Medicine
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