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Oncology and Therapy

Harri Visapää
INTRODUCTION: Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues are widely used for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. However, there are currently no clinical guidelines for switching between LHRH analogues. It has been reported that there may be clinical benefits for patients switching between different formulations of LHRH agonists, as well as from an LHRH agonist to LHRH antagonist, but there are no published data on switching from an LHRH antagonist to an LHRH agonist...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Adrien Quintela, Pierre Sujobert, Isabelle Tigaud, Sandrine Hayette, Martine Ffrench, Gilles Salles, Xavier Thomas, Adriana Plesa
Bone marrow necrosis (BMN) in acute leukemia is a rare histopathological entity at the time of initial diagnosis. However, it represents an important diagnostic and prognostic challenge. Two cases of BMN are reported: a 44-year-old patient with B cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a 27-year-old man with FAB-M5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who both presented with bone marrow failure and extensive necrosis. From these clinical cases, we conducted a brief review of the literature.
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Edward S Kim, Balazs Halmos, Ingrid F Kohut, Taral Patel, Regan D Rostorfer, Alexander I Spira, Agnieszka Cseh, John McKay, Gudrun Wallenstein, Kathryn F Mileham
INTRODUCTION: Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker approved for first-line treatment of metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expanded access program (EAP) allowed early access to afatinib and provided additional data on its safety, tolerability, and efficacy. METHODS: The afatinib EAP was an open-label, multicenter, single-arm program in the United States that treated and followed patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Adouda Adjiri
Cancer is the most challenging disease of our time with increasing numbers of new cases each year, worldwide. Great achievements have been reached in cancer research through deep sequencing which helped define druggable targets. However, the still-evolving targeted therapy suffers resistance suggesting that DNA mutations considered as drivers may not have a role in tumor initiation. The present work discusses the role of DNA mutations as drivers and passengers in cancer initiation and development. First, it is important to discern the role of these DNA mutations as initiating events causing cancer or as contributors crucial for the development of a tumor once it has initiated...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Derek Maule, Mark Boccola, Reginald V Lord
This article is co-authored by a patient with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and his physician, who performed oesophagectomy. The patient relates his pre-operative preparation and post-operative experience. The physician comments on the alarming increase in the incidence of this cancer, risk factors, and treatment. As illustrated by the patient's report, the physician also discusses the importance of maintaining adequate nutrition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and a positive psychological attitude.
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Marc-Oliver Grimm, Viktor Grünwald
The phase III, randomized, open-label CheckMate 025 study showed an overall survival benefit in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with nivolumab versus everolimus. Here, we review the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results of this trial, in which nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in HRQoL, with more patients having a clinically meaningful HRQoL improvement and a shorter time to onset of improvement compared with everolimus. Further exploratory analysis suggests a positive correlation between baseline HRQoL scores and overall survival...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Frank E Mott
Patient reported outcomes (PROs) are commonly integrated into clinical trials for new cancer therapies or treatment modalities; however, beyond a cursory review during the registration process for a new drug, these important measures of patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness are often under-used in daily practice. We cite literature under-scoring the value of PROs not only in clinical trials, but in practical decision making and how such metrics can help guide the oncologist and the patient in choosing the best and most cost-effective therapy for their cancer...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Rebecca C Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and remains difficult to cure. There is currently no recommended therapy for second-line AGC in the UK despite the availability of various interventions. This paper aims to compare different interventions for treatment of second-line AGC using more complex methods to estimate relative efficacy, fitting various parametric models and to compare results to those published adopting conventional methods of synthesis...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Emma M Richardson, Jennifer L Scott, Natalie Schüz, Kristy Sanderson, Benjamin Schüz
INTRODUCTION: Research rarely considers the origin or history of a cancer patient's anxiety and/or depression, instead assuming that these illnesses are related to the cancer experience. The aim of this study was to compare differences in the support needs of people who have experienced anxiety/depression as part of the cancer experience and people who have not, as well as between people who have experienced episodic anxiety/depression and people who have experienced long-term anxiety/depression...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Steve Schey, Luis Felipe Casado Montero, Chloe Stengel-Tosetti, Craig J Gibson, Sujith Dhanasiri
INTRODUCTION: Lenalidomide is an active agent that was approved for use in the EU in 2015 as a first-line therapy for previously untreated, non-transplant eligible multiple myeloma patients. Our objective was to assess the cost impact of lenalidomide when selected as a first-line treatment for transplant-ineligible patients in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (EU5). METHODS: We developed a cost-impact model of the total costs associated with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma over 5 years in the EU5 based on treatment duration and time to progression (TTP) (taken from trial data)...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Mark R Nathan, Peter Schmid
Fulvestrant is a selective estrogen receptor degrader that binds, blocks and degrades the estrogen receptor (ER), leading to complete inhibition of estrogen signaling through the ER. This review article further explains the mechanism of action of the drug and goes on to review the trials carried out to optimize its dosing. Multiple trials have been undertaken to compare fulvestrant with other endocrine treatments, and results have shown it to have similar efficacy to anastrozole, tamoxifen and exemestane at 250 mg every 28 days...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Ellen E Korol, Sisi Wang, Karissa Johnston, Farhad Ravandi-Kashani, Mark Levis, Floortje van Nooten
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially those with relapsed or refractory AML, have poor clinical prognosis and outcomes. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments have become increasingly important in oncology, aiding in identifying and informing supportive therapy needs during treatment and beyond; however, HRQoL in hematology, and AML in particular, has received relatively minor attention. The aim was to identify and summarize estimates of HRQoL in patients with AML, including patients with relapsed or refractory AML...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
Stefanie Arroyo-Camarena, Judith Domínguez-Cherit, Lorena Lammoglia-Ordiales, Diego A Fabila-Bustos, Abraham Escobar-Pio, Suren Stolik, Alma Valor-Reed, José de la Rosa-Vázquez
INTRODUCTION: Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide. Differentiating between malignant and benign skin tumors, however, can be challenging. As a result, various auxiliary tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms. Here, skin tumors were investigated through analysis of their digital image histograms and spectroscopic response under ultraviolet (UV) and white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). METHODS: Fifty tumoral lesions were spectroscopically and histologically studied...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Najlaa Maddin, Azlan Husin, Siew Hua Gan, Baba Abdul Aziz, Ravindran Ankathil
INTRODUCTION: Imatinib mesylate (IM), a selective inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, is a well-established first-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). IM is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver, specifically the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes. Polymorphisms in these genes can alter the enzyme activity of IM and may affect its response. In this study, the impact of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) and CYP3A4*18 (878T>C), on IM treatment response in CML patients (n = 270; 139 IM resistant and 131 IM good responders) was investigated...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Rachid C Baz, Jeffrey A Zonder, Cristina Gasparetto, Frederic J Reu, Vincent Strout
INTRODUCTION: BIW-8962 is a monoclonal antibody to GM2 ganglioside that shows preclinical activity towards multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and in animal models bearing MM xenografts. The objective of this study was to determine the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, potential immunogenicity, and preliminary clinical efficacy of BIW-8962 in patients with heavily pretreated MM. METHODS: Patients ( n  = 23) received escalating doses of BIW-8962 (0...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Serafino Conforti, Stefano Minardi, Ludovica Conforti, Salvatore Turano, Stefania Bilotta, Emmanuelle Vilardo, Salvatore Palazzo
INTRODUCTION: Stomatitis is a common and potentially dose-limiting adverse event of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor therapy. To minimize dose reductions or treatment delays that may affect therapeutic outcomes, management includes patient education, pain management strategies, and drug treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a topically-applied galenical preparation to minimize the impact of everolimus-associated oral mucositis in patients with advanced cancer...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Wafaa Hassan, Kenny Chitcholtan, Peter Sykes, Ashley Garrill
INTRODUCTION: Advanced ovarian cancer is often a fatal disease as chemotherapeutic drugs have limited effectiveness. Better targeted therapy is needed to improve the survival and quality of life for these women. Receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR, Her-2 and c-Met are associated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Therefore, the co-activation of these receptors may be crucial for growth promoting activity. In this study, we explored the effect of combining two small molecule inhibitors that target the EGFR/Her-2 and c-Met receptor tyrosine kinases in two ovarian cancer cell lines...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Jordan Amdahl, Lei Chen, Thomas E Delea
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to inform an economic evaluation of dabrafenib and trametinib combination as first-line treatment of metastatic melanoma in a Canadian setting. A network meta-analysis was conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS) of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus other first-line treatments of BRAF mutation-positive metastatic melanoma including dabrafenib, trametinib, vemurafenib, ipilimumab, and dacarbazine (DTIC)...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Erin L Tomaszewski, Catherine E Fickley, LeAnne Maddux, Robert Krupnick, Erkut Bahceci, Jean Paty, Floortje van Nooten
INTRODUCTION: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) imposes significant burden on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. Published literature has reported many AML signs and symptoms, as well as their impact on patients. However, there are no publications on the experience of living with AML from the patient's perspective. In this study, we performed qualitative interviews with patients with AML to understand their experience. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the US and Japan...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
Véronique Diéras, Thomas Bachelot, Mario Campone, Nicolas Isambert, Florence Joly, Christophe Le Tourneau, Philippe Cassier, Emmanuelle Bompas, Pierre Fumoleau, Sabine Noal, Christine Orsini, Marta Jimenez, Diane Charlotte Imbs, Etienne Chatelut
INTRODUCTION: To determine the feasibility, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) of pazopanib in combination with cisplatin. METHODS: Patients with advanced malignancies were included in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation phase I study. Pazopanib administration started 8 days before the first infusion of cisplatin; some patients were treated according to a reverse sequence (cisplatin first). Five dose levels (DLs) were planned. MTD was based on DLT observed during cycles 1 and 2...
2016: Oncology and Therapy
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