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Nature Human Behaviour

Lisa G Smithers, Alyssa C P Sawyer, Catherine R Chittleborough, Neil Davies, George Davey Smith, John Lynch
Success in school and the labour market relies on more than high intelligence. Associations between "non-cognitive" skills in childhood, such as attention, self-regulation, and perseverance, and later outcomes have been widely investigated. In a systematic review of this literature, we screened 9553 publications, reviewed 554 eligible publications, and interpreted results from 222 better quality publications. Better quality publications comprised randomised experimental and quasi-experimental studies (EQIs), and observational studies that made reasonable attempts to control confounding...
November 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Maxwell A Bertolero, B T Thomas Yeo, Danielle S Bassett, Mark D'Esposito
The human brain network is modular-comprised of communities of tightly interconnected nodes1 . This network contains local hubs, which have many connections within their own communities, and connector hubs, which have connections diversely distributed across communities2,3 . A mechanistic understanding of these hubs and how they support cognition has not been demonstrated. Here, we leveraged individual differences in hub connectivity and cognition. We show that a model of hub connectivity accurately predicts the cognitive performance of 476 individuals in four distinct tasks...
October 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Ann E Sizemore, Elisabeth A Karuza, Chad Giusti, Danielle S Bassett
Understanding language learning, and more general knowledge acquisition, requires characterization of inherently qualitative structures. Recent work has applied network science to this task by creating semantic feature networks, in which words correspond to nodes and connections to shared features, then characterizing the structure of strongly inter-related groups of words. However, the importance of sparse portions of the semantic network - knowledge gaps - remains unexplored. Using applied topology we query the prevalence of knowledge gaps, which we propose manifest as cavities within the growing semantic feature network of toddlers...
September 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Ji Won Bang, Kazuhisa Shibata, Sebastian M Frank, Edward G Walsh, Mark W Greenlee, Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Jessica J Chiang, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Caroline M Moscatelli, Michael D Evans, Lila Davachi, Elizabeth A Phelps
Fear memories are characterized by their permanence and a fierce resistance to unlearning by new experiences. We considered whether this durability involves a process of memory segmentation that separates competing experiences. To address this question, we used an emotional learning task designed to measure recognition memory for category exemplars encoded during competing experiences of fear-conditioning and extinction. Here we show that people recognized more fear-conditioned exemplars encoded during conditioning than conceptually related exemplars encoded immediately after a perceptual event boundary separating conditioning from extinction...
April 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Maciej Trzaskowski, Jonathan R I Coleman, Saskia Selzam, Philip S Dale, Tonu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Robert Plomin
The etiology of individual differences in educational attainment and occupational status includes genetic as well as environmental factors1-5 and can change as societies change3,6,7. The extent of genetic influence on these social outcomes can be viewed as an index of success in achieving meritocratic values of equality of opportunity by rewarding talent and hard work, which are to a large extent influenced by genetic factors, rather than rewarding environmentally driven privilege. To the extent that the end of the Soviet Union and the independence of Estonia led to an increase in meritocratic selection of individuals in education and occupation, genetic influence should be higher in the post-Soviet era than in the Soviet era...
April 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
James B Heald, James N Ingram, J Randall Flanagan, Daniel M Wolpert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
William T Riley, Melissa Riddle, Michael Lauer
The U.S. National Institutes of Health clinical trials policies will apply broadly to studies involving experimental manipulations of humans. These studies will require registration and reporting in, grant application submission under a clinical trials funding opportunity announcement, and Good Clinical Practice training for investigators.
February 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Neil M Davies, Matt Dickson, George Davey Smith, Gerard J van den Berg, Frank Windmeijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
John D Medaglia, Weiyu Huang, Elisabeth A Karuza, Apoorva Kelkar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Alejandro Ribeiro, Danielle S Bassett
Cognitive flexibility describes the human ability to switch between modes of mental function to achieve goals. Mental switching is accompanied by transient changes in brain activity, which must occur atop an anatomical architecture that bridges disparate cortical and subcortical regions by underlying white matter tracts. However, an integrated perspective regarding how white matter networks might constrain brain dynamics during cognitive processes requiring flexibility has remained elusive. To address this challenge, we applied emerging tools from graph signal processing to examine whether BOLD signals measured at each point in time correspond to complex underlying anatomical networks in 28 individuals performing a perceptual task that probed cognitive flexibility...
2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Tae-Ho Lee, Steven G Greening, Taiji Ueno, David Clewett, Allison Ponzio, Michiko Sakaki, Mara Mather
In younger adults, arousal amplifies attentional focus to the most salient or goal-relevant information while suppressing other information. A computational model of how the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system can implement this increased selectivity under arousal and an fMRI study comparing how arousal affects younger and older adults' processing indicate that the amplification of salient stimuli and the suppression of non-salient stimuli are separate processes, with aging affecting suppression without impacting amplification under arousal...
2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Terrie E Moffitt
Male antisocial behavior is concentrated in the adolescent period of the life course, as documented by the curve of crime over age. This article reviews recent evidence regarding the hypothesis that the age-crime curve conceals two groups with different causes. Life-course persistent males show extreme, pervasive, persistent antisocial behavior from early childhood to adulthood. They are hypothesized to be rare, with pathological risk factors and poor life outcomes. In contrast, adolescence-limited males show similar levels of antisocial behavior but primarily during the adolescent stage of development...
2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Malinda J McPherson, Josh H McDermott
Pitch conveys critical information in speech, music, and other natural sounds, and is conventionally defined as the perceptual correlate of a sound's fundamental frequency (F0). Although pitch is widely assumed to be subserved by a single F0 estimation process, real-world pitch tasks vary enormously, raising the possibility of underlying mechanistic diversity. To probe pitch mechanisms we conducted a battery of pitch-related music and speech tasks using conventional harmonic sounds and inharmonic sounds whose frequencies lack a common F0...
January 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Matar Haller, John Case, Nathan E Crone, Edward F Chang, David King-Stephens, Kenneth D Laxer, Peter B Weber, Josef Parvizi, Robert T Knight, Avgusta Y Shestyuk
How do humans flexibly respond to changing environmental demands on a sub-second temporal scale? Extensive research has highlighted the key role of the prefrontal cortex in flexible decision-making and adaptive behavior, yet the core mechanisms that translate sensory information into behavior remain undefined. Utilizing direct human cortical recordings, we investigated the temporal and spatial evolution of neuronal activity, indexed by the broadband gamma signal, while sixteen participants performed a broad range of self-paced cognitive tasks...
January 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Vadim Axelrod, Geraint Rees, Moshe Bar
Self-generated cognitions, such as recalling personal memories or empathizing with others, are ubiquitous and essential for our lives. Such internal mental processing is ascribed to the Default Mode Network, a large network of the human brain, though the underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that our mental experience is mediated by a combination of activities of multiple cognitive processes. Our study included four functional MRI experiments with the same participants and a wide range of cognitive tasks, as well as an analytical approach that afforded the identification of cognitive processes during self-generated cognition...
December 4, 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Joaquin Navajas, Chandni Hindocha, Hebah Foda, Mehdi Keramati, Peter E Latham, Bahador Bahrami
Confidence is the 'feeling of knowing' that accompanies decision making. Bayesian theory proposes that confidence is a function solely of the perceived probability of being correct. Empirical research has suggested, however, that different individuals may perform different computations to estimate confidence from uncertain evidence. To test this hypothesis, we collected confidence reports in a task where subjects made categorical decisions about the mean of a sequence. We found that for most individuals, confidence did indeed reflect the perceived probability of being correct...
November 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Felix C Tropf, S Hong Lee, Renske M Verweij, Gert Stulp, Peter J van der Most, Ronald de Vlaming, Andrew Bakshi, Daniel A Briley, Charles Rahal, Robert Hellpap, Anastasia Nyman, Tõnu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Nicola Barban, Harold Snieder, Matthew R Robinson, Melinda C Mills
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which dominate genetic discovery are based on data from diverse historical time periods and populations. Genetic scores derived from GWAS explain only a fraction of the heritability estimates obtained from whole-genome studies on single populations, known as the 'hidden heritability' puzzle. Using seven sampling populations (N=35,062), we test whether hidden heritability is attributed to heterogeneity across sampling populations and time, showing that estimates are substantially smaller from across compared to within populations...
October 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Simon Gächter, Felix Kölle, Simone Quercia
Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision...
September 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Andre F Marquand, Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
Anatomical tracing studies in non-human primates have suggested that corticostriatal connectivity is topographically organized: nearby locations in striatum are connected with nearby locations in cortex. The topographic organization of corticostriatal connectivity is thought to underpin many goal-directed behaviours, but these topographies have not been completely characterised in humans and their relationship to uniquely human behaviours remains to be fully determined. Instead, the dominant approach employs parcellations that cannot model the continuous nature of the topography, nor accommodate overlapping cortical projections in the striatum...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
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