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Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

Jessica M Choplin, Debra Pogrund Stark
Home loans are the largest financial transaction consumers typically enter and the consequences from entering overpriced or unaffordable home loans can devastate individuals and entire communities. This article reviews how insights from research in experimental psychology can be utilized to protect consumers. Current policy relies too much on disclosures, which-among other limitations-can be undermined by verbal behaviors on the part of salespeople. In particular, salespeople such as mortgage brokers and lenders can exploit the fact that consumers do not know where to look for information on disclosure forms by violating conversational norms, introducing confirmation biases, and using dual tasks such as talking to consumers while they are reviewing forms...
February 13, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Janet Metcalfe, Teal S Eich
In five experiments, we examined the conditions under which participants remembered true and false information given as feedback. Participants answered general information questions, expressed their confidence in the correctness of their answers, and were given true or false feedback. In all five experiments, participants hypercorrected when they had made a mistake; that is, they remembered better the correct feedback to errors made with high compared to low confidence. However, in none of the experiments did participants hyper'correct' when false feedback followed an initially correct response...
February 13, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Annina Brügger, Kai-Florian Richter, Sara Irina Fabrikant
Navigation systems are ubiquitous tools to assist wayfinders of the mobile information society with various navigational tasks. Whenever such systems assist with self-localization and path planning, they reduce human effort for navigating. Automated navigation assistance benefits navigation performance, but research seems to show that it negatively affects attention to environment properties, spatial knowledge acquisition, and retention of spatial information. Very little is known about how to design navigation systems for pedestrian navigation that increase both navigation performance and spatial knowledge acquisition...
February 13, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Frank Papenmeier, Alisa Brockhoff, Markus Huff
The comprehension of dynamic naturalistic events poses at least two challenges to the cognitive system: filtering relevant information with attention and dealing with information that was missing or missed. With four experiments, we studied the completion of missing information despite full attention. Participants watched short soccer video clips and we informed participants that we removed a critical moment of ball contact in half of the clips. We asked participants to detect whether these moments of ball contact were present or absent...
January 28, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Julie Y L Chow, Ben Colagiuri, Evan J Livesey
Illusory causation refers to a consistent error in human learning in which the learner develops a false belief that two unrelated events are causally associated. Laboratory studies usually demonstrate illusory causation by presenting two events-a cue (e.g., drug treatment) and a discrete outcome (e.g., patient has recovered from illness)-probabilistically across many trials such that the presence of the cue does not alter the probability of the outcome. Illusory causation in these studies is further augmented when the base rate of the outcome is high, a characteristic known as the outcome density effect...
January 28, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Mario J Baldassari, Justin Kantner, D Stephen Lindsay
ᅟ: We report on research on individual-difference measures that could be used to assess the validity of eyewitness identification decisions. BACKGROUND: The predictive utility of face recognition tasks for eyewitness identification has received some attention from psychologists, but the previous research focused primarily on witnesses' likelihood of correctly choosing the culprit when present in a lineup. Far less discussed has been individual differences in witnesses' proclivity to choose from a lineup that does not contain the culprit...
January 28, 2019: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Michelle L Eisenberg, Jeffrey M Zacks, Shaney Flores
The ability to predict what is going to happen in the near future is integral for daily functioning. Previous research suggests that predictability varies over time, with increases in prediction error at those moments that people perceive as boundaries between meaningful events. These moments also tend to be points of rapid change in the environment. Eye tracking provides a method for noninterruptive measurement of prediction as participants watch a movie of an actor performing a series of actions. In two studies, we used eye tracking to study the time course of prediction around event boundaries...
December 29, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Nikolina Mitev, Patrick Renner, Thies Pfeiffer, Maria Staudte
Referential success is crucial for collaborative task-solving in shared environments. In face-to-face interactions, humans, therefore, exploit speech, gesture, and gaze to identify a specific object. We investigate if and how the gaze behavior of a human interaction partner can be used by a gaze-aware assistance system to improve referential success. Specifically, our system describes objects in the real world to a human listener using on-the-fly speech generation. It continuously interprets listener gaze and implements alternative strategies to react to this implicit feedback...
December 29, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Gabriel King Smith, Caitlin Mills, Alexandra Paxton, Kalina Christoff
Previous research has demonstrated reliable fluctuations in attentional processes during the course of the day. Everyday life experience sampling, during which participants respond to "probes" delivered at random intervals throughout the day on their mobile devices, is an effective tool for capturing such diurnal fluctuations in a naturalistic way. The existence of diurnal fluctuations in the case of mind-wandering, however, has not been examined to date. We did so in two studies. In the first study, we employed everyday experience sampling to obtain self-reports from 146 university students who rated the degree of free movement in their thoughts multiple times per day over five days...
December 29, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Jonathan Baron
Explanations from neuroscience are threatening to replace those from psychology in the eyes and hands of journalists, university administrators, granting agencies, and research students. If replacement happens, much of psychology will exist only as part of the historical record. It, thus, may be useful to understand what forms of explanation are used by the two fields. Such an understanding may help us explain how each field can contribute to the other and why they are different. I review several templates of psychological and neuroscientific explanation, and criticize some others...
December 29, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Daniel T Levin, Adriane E Seiffert, Sun-Joo Cho, Kelly E Carter
Although phenomena such as change blindness and inattentional blindness are robust, it is not entirely clear how these failures of visual awareness are related to failures to attend to visual information, to represent it, and to ultimately learn in visual environments. On some views, failures of visual awareness such as change blindness underestimate the true extent of otherwise rich visual representations. This might occur if people did represent the changing features but failed to compare them across views...
December 27, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Tom Lowrie, Tracy Logan, Danielle Harris, Mary Hegarty
BACKGROUND: Spatial reasoning skill has consistently been found to be malleable. However, there is little research to date on embedding spatial training within learning frameworks. This study evaluated the effects of a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention on middle school children's spatial reasoning. Participants included 337 students from 15 classrooms across 6 schools with 8 experimental and 7 control classes. The program was designed for grades 3, 4, 5, and 6. The intervention program was delivered within the Experience-Language-Pictorial-Symbolic-Application (ELPSA) framework and was delivered across 10 weeks by classroom teachers, while the control group received standard mathematics instruction...
December 26, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Li Z Sha, Roger W Remington, Yuhong V Jiang
The visual environment contains predictable information - "statistical regularities" - that can be used to aid perception and attentional allocation. Here we investigate the role of statistical learning in facilitating search tasks that resemble medical-image perception. Using faux X-ray images, we employed two tasks that mimicked two problems in medical-image perception: detecting a target signal that is poorly segmented from the background; and discriminating a candidate anomaly from benign signals...
December 13, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Joshua L Fiechter, Caitlan Fealing, Rachel Gerrard, Nate Kornell
Video job interviews have become a common hiring practice, allowing employers to save money and recruit from a wider applicant pool. But differences in job candidates' internet connections mean that some interviews will have higher audiovisual (AV) quality than others. We hypothesized that interviewers would be impacted by AV quality when they rated job candidates. In two experiments, participants viewed two-minute long simulated Skype interviews that were either unedited (fluent videos) or edited to mimic the effects of a poor internet connection (disfluent videos)...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Stephen J Hinde, Tim J Smith, Iain D Gilchrist
Attention in the "real world" fluctuates over time, but these fluctuations are hard to examine using a timed trial-based experimental paradigm. Here we use film to study attention. To achieve short-term engagement, filmmakers make use of low-level cinematic techniques such as color, movement and sound design to influence attention. To engage audiences over prolonged periods of time, narrative structure is used. In this experiment, participants performed a secondary auditory choice reaction time (RT) task to measure attention while watching a film...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Maria Wirzberger, Robert Herms, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Maximilian Eibl, Günter Daniel Rey
Schema acquisition processes comprise an essential source of cognitive demands in learning situations. To shed light on related mechanisms and influencing factors, this study applied a continuous multi-measure approach for cognitive load assessment. In a dual-task setting, a sample of 123 student participants learned visually presented symbol combinations with one of two levels of complexity while memorizing auditorily presented number sequences. Learners' cognitive load during the learning task was addressed by secondary task performance, prosodic speech parameters (pauses, articulation rate), and physiological markers (heart rate, skin conductance response)...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Thao B Nguyen, Erica Abed, Kathy Pezdek
If testing conditions are uncontaminated, confidence at test reliably predicts eyewitness memory accuracy. Unfortunately, information about eyewitness postdictive confidence (at the time of the identification test) is frequently unavailable or not well documented. In cases where postdictive confidence is unavailable, a useful indicator of eyewitness accuracy might be an eyewitness's predictive confidence made shortly after the event. How do the accuracy of predictive and postdictive confidence judgments compare; and do variables reported to affect memory (e...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Lace M Padilla, Sarah H Creem-Regehr, Mary Hegarty, Jeanine K Stefanucci
Visualizations-visual representations of information, depicted in graphics-are studied by researchers in numerous ways, ranging from the study of the basic principles of creating visualizations, to the cognitive processes underlying their use, as well as how visualizations communicate complex information (such as in medical risk or spatial patterns). However, findings from different domains are rarely shared across domains though there may be domain-general principles underlying visualizations and their use...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Melina A Kunar, Louise Cole, Angeline Cox, Jessica Ocampo
It is well-documented that telephone conversations lead to impaired driving performance. Kunar et al. (Psychon Bull Rev 15:1135-1140, 2008) showed that this deficit was, in part, due to a dual-task cost of conversation on sustained visual attention. Using a multiple object tracking (MOT) task they found that the act of conversing on a hands-free telephone resulted in slower response times and increased errors compared to when participants performed the MOT task alone. The current study investigates whether the dual-task impairment of conversation on sustained attention is affected by conversation difficulty or task difficulty, and whether there was a dual-task deficit on attention when participants overheard half a conversation...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Michael D Chin, Karla K Evans, Jeremy M Wolfe, Jonathan Bowen, James W Tanaka
A hallmark of a perceptual expert is the ability to detect and categorize stimuli in their domain of expertise after brief exposure. For example, expert radiologists can differentiate between "abnormal" and "normal" mammograms after a 250 ms exposure. It has been speculated that rapid detection depends on a global analysis referred to as holistic perception. Holistic processing in radiology seems similar to holistic perception in which a stimulus like a face is perceived as an integrated whole, not in terms of its individual features...
December 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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