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Physiology International

M Eslami-Farsani, A Moslehi, A Hatami-Shahmir
PURPOSE: Gastritis is found to be one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. However, current therapeutic agents cause side effects, interaction, and recurrence. Allantoin has anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. In this study, the therapeutic effect of allantoin has been assessed on the histopathological indices and gastric mucosal barrier of male rats. METHODS: Male rats were equally divided into control, ethanol-induced gastritis, and allantoin groups...
December 23, 2018: Physiology International
Z Z Taralov, K V Terziyski, P K Dimov, B I Marinov, S S Kostianev
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish the alterations in the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) via heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects exposed to 1 h of exogenous hypoxia for 10 consecutive days. METHODS: Twelve healthy non-smoker males at mean age of 29.8 ± 7.4 (mean ± SD) breathed hypoxic air delivered through hypoxicator (FiО2  = 12.3% ± 1.5%) for 1 h in 10 consecutive days. Pulse oximetry and electrocardiography were monitored during the visit and HRV was calculated for the entire 1-h hypoxic period...
December 19, 2018: Physiology International
C Ünsal, H Ünsal, M Ekici, E Koç Yildirim, A G Üner, M Yildiz, Ö Güleş, G S Ekren Aşici, M Boyacioğlu, M Balkaya, F Belge
The duration and intensity of exercise are significant factors in oxidative, morphological, and functional changes of the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate the effects of both exhaustive swimming and probiotic VSL#3 on rats that had been previously trained with moderate swimming. The rats were divided into four groups labeled: control (C), probiotic (P), exercise (E), and probiotic-exercise (PE). Groups P and PE were fed with probiotic mixture VSL#3. Groups E and PE had a 5-week moderate swimming program (1 h/day for 5 days/week), followed by a 1-week exhaustive swimming program (trained like in moderate program but 3 times with 150 min resting sessions, for 5 days/week)...
December 19, 2018: Physiology International
M A Farjallah, O Hammouda, M Zouch, K Ghattassi, A Graja, T Driss, K Chamari, N Souissi
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue is a limiting factor for sport performance. For this reason, optimal recovery after training is just as critical as the training program itself, if not more. Indeed, there is a need for strategies that can facilitate recovery after training, and one such strategy is the ingestion of supplements like melatonin (MEL). This study aimed to evaluate if MEL intake could improve recovery of athletes after an intermittent training session (ITS). METHODS: Fifteen elite female athletes (17...
December 18, 2018: Physiology International
J Nemcsik, Á Tabák, D Batta, O Cseprekál, J Egresits, A Tislér
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop an integrated central blood pressure-aortic stiffness (ICPS) risk score to predict cardiovascular events. METHODS: It was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 100 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on conservative therapy were included. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), and central pulse pressure (cPP) were measured. A score was assigned to tertiles of PWV (0-2), cPP (0-2), and cSBP (0 to the first and second and 1 to the third tertile) based on each parameter's ability to individually predict cardiovascular outcome...
December 17, 2018: Physiology International
P D Loprinzi, P Ponce, E Frith
Emerging research demonstrates that exercise is favorably associated with several cognitive outcomes, including episodic memory function. The majority of the mechanistic work describing the underlying mechanisms of this effect has focused on chronic exercise engagement. Such mechanisms include, e.g., chronic exercise-induced neurogenesis, gliogenesis, angiogenesis, cerebral circulation, and growth factor production. Less research has examined the mechanisms through which acute (vs. chronic) exercise subserves episodic memory function...
December 10, 2018: Physiology International
A Yabluchanskiy, Z Ungvari, A Csiszar, S Tarantini
Aging remains the most pervasive risk factor for a wide range of chronic diseases that afflict modern societies. In the United States alone, incidence of age-related diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, cancer, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and osteoarthritis) is on the rise, posing an unsustainable socioeconomic burden even for the most developed countries. Tackling each and every age-related disease alone is proving to be costly and ineffective...
December 1, 2018: Physiology International
T Nakagata, Y Yamada, H Naito
The benefit of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement (BWRE-slow) for muscle function is well-documented, but not for energy metabolism. We aimed to examine physiological responses [e.g., energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (La)] during and after BWRE-slow compared to EE-matched treadmill walking (TW). Eight healthy young men (23.4 ± 1.8 years old, 171.2 ± 6.2 cm, 63.0 ± 4.8 kg) performed squat, push-up, lunge, heel-raise, hip-lift, and crunch exercises with BWRE-slow modality...
December 1, 2018: Physiology International
Á Haris, K Polner
The aim of this study is to summarize the beneficial effects of the holistic approach to patients living with chronic renal failure, including multidisciplinary education and psychosocial care. By education, we enable our patients to reach self-management, appropriate compliance, and coping, which may decrease progression of renal failure, avoid urgent need for starting dialysis and may facilitate better modality selection, access planning, renal transplantation activity, and rehabilitation. Psychosocial care reduces anxiety and fear, modifies perception of illness' burden, and increases quality of life...
December 1, 2018: Physiology International
R Indriawati, S Aswin, R Susilowati, G Partadiredja
Prenatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of mortality and chronic neurological diseases in newborns. HI contributes to the emergence of several neurological disorders such as cognitive and behavioral deficits due to the atypical brain development. This study aimed at assessing the effects of prenatal HI on the spatial memory and aggression of rats during adolescence. Pregnant rats were divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of the treatment groups underwent unilateral ligation of the uterine artery on pregnancy day 7, 12, or 17...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
I C Chiş, D Baltaru, A Dumitrovici, A Coseriu, B C Radu, R Moldovan, A Mureşan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to high altitude in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is considered to be a physiological oxidative/nitrosative stress. Quercetin (Que) is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against oxidative/nitrosative stress. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Que in animals exposed to intermittent HH (IHH) and therefore exposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino male rats were exposed to short-term (2 days) or long-term (4 weeks; 5 days/week) IHH in a hypobaric chamber (5,500 m, 8 h/day, 380 mmHg, 12% O2 , and 88% N2 )...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
J J McCormick, T A VanDusseldorp, C G Ulrich, R L Lanphere, K Dokladny, P L Mosely, C M Mermier
Autophagy is a lysosome degradation pathway through which damaged organelles and macromolecules are degraded within the cell. A decrease in activity of the autophagic process has been linked to several age-associated pathologies, including triglyceride accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and cardiac malfunction. Here, we examined the differences in the autophagic response using autophagy-inducer rapamycin (Rapa) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from young (21.8 ± 1...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
S D Soligon, M E Lixandrão, Tmpc Biazon, V Angleri, H Roschel, C A Libardi
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) promotes similar adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE). Interestingly, BFR has been demonstrated to be effective for a wide range of occlusion pressures. However, the occlusion pressure magnitude may alter the psychophysiological stress related to BFR as measured by rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) and rating of pain. We aimed to compare the RPE and pain levels across different magnitudes of occlusion pressures, promoting new knowledge regarding occlusion pressure on stress related to BFR...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
D R Monks, S J Bund
PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the influence of α-adrenoceptor subtypes upon ureteral smooth muscle contractile responses. METHODS: Rat ureters were challenged in vitro with noradrenaline (NA), the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE), and the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (CLON). The influences of the agonists on the magnitude and frequency of acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated phasic contractile responses were recorded. RESULTS: The magnitude of the phasic contractile responses effected by ACh was not significantly influenced by the adrenoceptor agonists, but the frequency of the response was significantly enhanced by all three agonists (p < 0...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
K Galamb, B Szilágyi, O M Magyar, T Hortobágyi, R Nagatomi, M Váczi, J Négyesi
AIMS: Right- and left-side-dominant individuals reveal target-matching asymmetries between joints of the dominant and non-dominant upper limbs. However, it is unclear if such asymmetries are also present in lower limb's joints. We hypothesized that right-side-dominant participants perform knee joint target-matching tasks more accurately with their non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants. METHODS: Participants performed position sense tasks using each leg by moving each limb separately and passively on an isokinetic dynamometer...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
S G Gabnai, L Kósa, E Tóth, N Schulteisz, J Gangl, M Othman, F Ihász
Several Hungarian and foreign researchers have already studied the cardiorespiratory parameters of elite handball players. There are only a few studies though, which would separately review the changes in the functions of different organ systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of an intervention (physical activity) on the cardiorespiratory system. In this study, 16 elite female handball players participated, whose body compositions were measured and took two vita maxima tests. During the analysis, each cardiorespiratory parameter was monitored for every 20 s...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
M Rajabi, G Mohaddes, F Farajdokht, S Nayebi Rad, M Mesgari, S Babri
Behavioral disturbances are observed in most patients suffering from diabetes. According to some evidence, pro-inflammatory cytokines have a key role both in diabetes and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of loganin, as a bioflavonoid, was investigated on pro-inflammatory cytokines and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method...
September 1, 2018: Physiology International
B Sági, I Késői, B Késői, T Vas, B Csiky, T Kovács, J Nagy
Background and aims Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The most important cause of death among ADPKD patients is cardiovascular (CV). The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of arterial stiffness on CV and renal outcomes in ADPKD. Methods A total of 55 patients with ADPKD were examined. Pulse wave velocity was determined and stiffness index (SIDVP ) was calculated. Combined primary endpoints (CV and renal) were major CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and CV intervention) as CV endpoints, and attaining of ESRD or start of renal replacement therapy as renal endpoints...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
M Wang, Y Song, J S Baker, G Fekete, Y Gu
Background and aims Sedentary lifestyles have recently been identified as potential mechanism for obesity and associated metabolic diseases linked to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of standing and sitting-standing positional changes on energy cost and consequently interrupting sedentary sitting time while working. Methods A total of 26 healthy male volunteers performed normal typing and editing work for 100 min under three conditions. The conditions included sustained sitting, sustained standing, and sitting-standing alternation every 20 min using a sit-stand desk...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
R Matsuura, K Hirakoba, K Takahashi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of submaximal cycling at different exercise intensities on maximal isometric force output of the non-exercised elbow flexor muscles after the cycling. A total of 8 healthy young men performed multiple maximal voluntary contractions by the right elbow flexion before, immediately after, 5 min after, and 10 min after a 6-min submaximal cycling at ventilatory threshold (LI), 70% [Formula: see text] (MI), and 80% [Formula: see text] (HI) with both arms relaxed in the air...
June 1, 2018: Physiology International
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