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Rand Health Quarterly

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October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Liisa Ecola, Steven W Popper, Richard Silberglitt, Laura Fraade-Blanar
Imagine that, in 2050, not a single person in the United States dies in a traffic crash. This is the scenario described in this article, in which RAND researchers set forth a vision and strategy for achieving zero roadway deaths by 2050. The authors propose that a combination of three approaches can realize this scenario. The first is doubling down on programs and policies that have already been shown to be effective, including laws and enforcement, changes to roadway infrastructure designed to reduce traffic conflicts, reductions in speeds where crashes are likely, improvements to emergency response and trauma care, and more safety education and outreach...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Ramya Chari, Amii M Kress, Jaime Madrigano
Agriculture remains one of America's oldest and most valued industries, but is also one of the most hazardous, with farmworkers experiencing high rates of injuries and illnesses. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) Program provides leadership to prevent harm to workers in the three named sectors. Since its inception, the AgFF Program has spearheaded numerous surveillance initiatives to understand the magnitude of injuries and illnesses among agricultural worker populations, identify vulnerable groups, and evaluate the effectiveness of intervention measures...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Liisa Ecola, Jeanne S Ringel, Kathryn Connor, David Powell, Connor P Jackson, Paul Ng, Candice Miller
Motor vehicle crashes account for a large number of deaths and injuries. In the United States, in 2015, more than 35,000 people were killed and approximately 2.44 million were injured in motor vehicle crashes. In 2010, the economic costs associated with motor vehicle crashes in the United States were substantial, estimated to be $242 billion. Fortunately, a wide range of evidence-based interventions, including both policies and programs, can help prevent motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. In 2014, RAND researchers developed an online tool, the Motor Vehicle Prioritizing Interventions and Cost Calculator for States (MV PICCS), to help determine the costs and effectiveness of various interventions to reduce injuries and deaths from motor vehicle crashes and what interventions together generate the largest reductions in injuries and deaths for a given implementation budget...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Kate Cox, Sarah Grand-Clement, Katerina Galai, Richard Flint, Alexandra Hall
There has been growing interest among policy officials, charity representatives and academic experts in understanding the transition process of UK Service leavers. While recent evidence suggests that resilience is important for a successful transition, no systematic review has been undertaken on this topic before this study. FiMT commissioned RAND Europe to research whether - and how - resilience can affect individual transition pathways and outcomes for UK Service leavers.
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Miriam Matthews, Coreen Farris, Margaret Tankard, Michael Stephen Dunbar
In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, Congress included a requirement to improve prevention of and response to sexual assaults in which the victim is a male member of the U.S. armed forces. To support this effort, RAND researchers reviewed previous research on male sexual assault and specifically considered research on male sexual assault in the U.S. military. The researchers also conducted interviews with individuals who provide support services to U.S. military personnel and with civilian experts who study male sexual assault or provide services to male victims...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Thomas E Trail, Laurie T Martin, Lane F Burgette, Linnea Warren May, Ammarah Mahmud, Nupur Nanda, Anita Chandra
This study evaluates two programs offered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) that provide short-term, solution-focused counseling for common personal and family issues to members of the U.S. military and their families. These counseling services are collectively called non-medical counseling within the DoD and are offered through the Military and Family Life Counseling (MFLC) and Military OneSource programs. RAND's National Defense Research Institute was asked to evaluate these programs to determine whether they are effective in improving outcomes and whether effectiveness varies by problem type and/or population...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Sarah O Meadows, Charles C Engel, Rebecca L Collins, Robin L Beckman, Matthew Cefalu, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Molly Doyle, Amii M Kress, Lisa Sontag-Padilla, Rajeev Ramchand, Kayla M Williams
The Health Related Behaviors Survey (HRBS) is the U.S. Department of Defense's flagship survey for understanding the health, health-related behaviors, and well-being of service members. In 2014, the Defense Health Agency asked the RAND Corporation to review previous iterations of the HRBS, update survey content, administer a revised version of the survey, and analyze data from the resulting 2015 HRBS of active-duty personnel, including those in the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard. This study details the methodology, sample demographics, and results from that survey in the following domains: health promotion and disease prevention; substance use; mental and emotional health; physical health and functional limitations; sexual behavior and health; sexual orientation, transgender identity, and health; and deployment experiences and health...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Lisa Sontag-Padilla, Michael Stephen Dunbar, Rachana Seelam, Courtney Ann Kase, Claude Messan Setodji, Bradley D Stein
This study determines the preliminary impact of CalMHSA's prevention and early intervention activities on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of California community college faculty and staff regarding supporting students' mental health needs.
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Maria Orlando Edelen, Adam J Rose, Elizabeth Bayliss, Lesley Baseman, Emily Butcher, Rosa-Elena Garcia, David Tabano, Brian D Stucky
As measures of health care quality have become more sophisticated, the goals of patient care have expanded into helping patients optimize their functional status and well-being. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) based performance measures (PMs) can measure how well these aspects of care are being delivered and compare the performance of health care systems and different provider groups. Most PMs focus on technical quality of care or such outcomes as survival. For older adults, especially those over age 80 with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), it might be equally important or even more important to have a good quality of life...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Justin W Timbie, Ammarah Mahmud, Christine Buttorff, Erika Meza
In an effort to provide care that is more accessible, team-based, coordinated, and patient-focused, primary care practices are increasingly adopting patient-centered medical home (PCMH) models of care. In 2008, the Indian Health Service (IHS) launched its own PCMH initiative, Improving Patient Care (IPC), to improve the quality of care for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) who seek care in its clinics. The IHS provides comprehensive health care services to roughly 2.2 million AI/ANs from more than 567 federally recognized tribes across the United States...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
C Ross Anthony, Melinda Moore, Lee H Hilborne, Anne Rooney, Scot Hickey, Youngbok Ryu, Laura Botwinick
Since 2010, the RAND Corporation has worked with the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Planning of the Kurdistan Regional Government to develop and implement initiatives for improving the region's health care system through analysis, planning, and development of analytical tools. This third phase of the project (reflecting work completed in 2013-2015) focused on development and use of a primary care management information system; health financing reform, focusing on policy reform options to solve the problem of physician dual practice, in which physicians practice in both public and private settings; and hospital patient safety training within the context of health quality improvement...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Andrew Morrall
The RAND Corporation's Gun Policy in America initiative is a unique attempt to systematically and transparently assess available scientific evidence on the real effects of firearm laws and policies. Good gun policies require consideration of many factors, including the law and constitutional rights, the interests of various stakeholder groups, and information about the likely effects of different laws or policies on a range of outcomes. This study seeks to provide the third-objective information about what the scientific literature examining gun policy can tell us about the likely effects of laws...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Laura Schmitt Olabisi, Gulrez Shah Azhar, Michele Abbott, Robert J Lempert
Participatory modeling aims to incorporate stakeholders into the process of developing models for the purpose of eliciting information, appropriately reflecting stakeholder interests and concerns, and improving stakeholder understanding, and acceptance of the analysis. Participatory modeling, using causal loop diagramming (CLD), was used to explore the impact of climate change on public health in Long Beach, California. CLD, commonly used in participatory modeling, provided useful information to serve as the basis for a quantitative system dynamics model to protect the citizens of Long Beach, and potentially other cities or regions affected by climate change...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Regina A Shih, Joie D Acosta, Emily K Chen, Eric G Carbone, Lea Xenakis, David M Adamson, Anita Chandra
This study uses interview data collected from public health departments and aging-in-place efforts-specifically, from coordinators of age-friendly communities and village executive directors-to explore how current aging-in-place efforts can be harnessed to strengthen the disaster resilience of older adults and which existing programs or new collaborations among public health departments and these organizations show promise for improving disaster resilience for older populations. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that most age-friendly communities and senior villages did not place a high priority on promoting disaster preparedness...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
J Scott Ashwood, Sheryl H Kataoka, Nicole K Eberhart, Elizabeth Bromley, Bonnie T Zima, Lesley Baseman, F Alethea Marti, Aaron Kofner, Lingqi Tang, Gulrez Shah Azhar, Margaret Chamberlin, Blake Erickson, Kristen Choi, Lily Zhang, Jeanne Miranda, M Audrey Burnam
Los Angeles County used Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) funds to greatly expand access to Full-Service Partnership (FSP) services and offer new prevention and early intervention (PEI) services. This study examines the reach of key MHSA-funded activities and what the impact of those activities has been, with a focus on PEI programs for children and transition-age youth (TAY) and FSP programs for children, TAY, and adults. The evaluation found evidence that the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (LAC DMH) is reaching the highly vulnerable population it seeks to reach with its FSP and youth PEI programs...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Benjamin M Miller, David Metz, Troy D Smith, Jesse Lastunen, Eric Landree, Christopher Nelson
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) asked the RAND Corporation to develop an approach, reported here, for estimating the economic benefit of NIOSH research, using three case studies. The cases provide concrete illustrations of the ways in which NIOSH research could affect worker health and safety practices and outcomes, as well as some initial estimates of the economic benefit associated with those impacts. The authors selected the case studies to illustrate variation in types of NIOSH research and in intended users...
August 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Michael Dworsky, Carrie M Farmer, Mimi Shen
This article describes the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) effects on nonelderly veterans' insurance coverage and demand for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care and assesses the coverage and VA utilization changes that could result from repealing the ACA. Although prior research has shown that the number of uninsured veterans fell after the ACA took effect, the implications of ACA repeal for veterans and, especially, for VA have received less attention. Besides providing a new coverage option to veterans who are not enrolled in VA, the ACA also had the potential to affect health care use among VA patients...
April 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
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