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Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

Wesley M Raup-Konsavage, Megan Johnson, Christopher A Legare, Gregory S Yochum, Daniel J Morgan, Kent E Vrana
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and new therapeutic strategies are still required. Here we screened a synthetic cannabinoid library to identify compounds that uniformly reduce the viability of seven CRC cell lines. Material and Methods: Seven distinct CRC cell lines were treated with 10 μM cannabinoid compounds (from a library of 370 molecules) for 48 h, and cell viability was subsequently measured with MTS assay. Dose-response curves were conducted for compounds that were found to reproducibly reduce cell viability of one or more cell lines...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Thomas M Clark, Jessica M Jones, Alexis G Hall, Sara A Tabner, Rebecca L Kmiec
Introduction: Obesity is treatment-resistant, and is linked with a number of serious, chronic diseases. Adult obesity rates in the United States have tripled since the early 1960s. Recent reviews show that an increased ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids contributes to obesity rates by increasing levels of the endocannabinoid signals AEA and 2-AG, overstimulating CB1 R and leading to increased caloric intake, reduced metabolic rates, and weight gain. Cannabis , or THC, also stimulates CB1 R and increases caloric intake during acute exposures...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Ruth Gallily, Zhannah Yekhtin, Lumír Ondřej Hanuš
Introduction: Cannabinoids are well known to have anti-inflammatory effects in mammalians; however, the Cannabis plant also contains other compounds such as terpenoids, whose biological effects have not yet been characterized. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory properties of terpenoids with those of cannabidiol (CBD). Materials and Methods: Essential oils prepared from three monoecious nonpsychoactive chemotypes of Cannabis were analyzed for their terpenoid content and subsequently studied pharmacologically for their anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Sri Sujana Immadi, Rachel Dopart, Zhixing Wu, Boqiao Fu, Debra A Kendall, Dai Lu
Introduction and Objective: Org27569 is a prototypical allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ). It belongs to the indole-2-carboxamide scaffold and has been intensively investigated in pharmacology and in structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Although azaindoles are rare in natural products and differ only by the presence of an extra ring nitrogen, they were demonstrated as valuable bioisosteres in many pharmacologically important molecules. To extend the SAR investigation of the indole-2-carboxamide class of CB1 allosteric modulators, azaindole (pyrrolopyridine) rings were used to replace the indole ring of Org27569 analogs to explore the potential of azaindole-2-carboxamides as CB1 allosteric modulators...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Alison C Burggren, Prabha Siddarth, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Edythe D London, Theresa M Harrison, David A Merrill, Gary W Small, Susan Y Bookheimer
Background and Aims: Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. A critical brain region is the hippocampus (HC), where there is a striking intersection between high concentrations of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors and age-related pathology...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Emma Leishman, Meera Manchanda, Rachel Thelen, Sally Miller, Ken Mackie, Heather B Bradshaw
Introduction: Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are bioactive cannabinoids. We recently showed that acute THC administration drives region-dependent changes in the mouse brain lipidome. This study tested the hypothesis that cell lines representing cell types present in the central nervous system (CNS), neurons (N18 cells), astrocytes (C6 glioma cells), and microglia (BV2 cells) would respond differently to THC, CBD, or their combination. This experimental strategy also allowed us to test the hypothesis that THC and CBD are metabolized differently if presented in combination and to test the hypothesis that responses to CBD are not like the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Olugbenga Akinola, Elizabeth O Ogbeche, Hidayah A Olumoh-Abdul, Abdulmusawwir O Alli-Oluwafuyi, Aboyeji L Oyewole, Abdulbasit Amin, Wahab Imam AbdulMajeed, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Abdurrazaq B Nafiu, Anoka A Njan, Olufunke E Olorundare, Grace O Gbotosho
Background: The emergence of a multidrug-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf Pailin ) raises concern about malaria control strategies. Unfortunately, the role(s) of natural plants/remedies in curtailing malaria catastrophe remains uncertain. The claims of potential antimalarial activity of Cannabis sativa in vivo have not been well established nor the consequences defined. This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the effects of whole cannabis consumption on malaria-infected host. Methods: Thirty mice were inoculated with dose of 1×107 chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected erythrocyte and divided into six treatment groups...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
John M McPartland
New concepts are reviewed in Cannabis systematics, including phylogenetics and nomenclature. The family Cannabaceae now includes Cannabis , Humulus , and eight genera formerly in the Celtidaceae . Grouping Cannabis , Humulus , and Celtis actually goes back 250 years. Print fossil of the extinct genus Dorofeevia (= Humularia ) reveals that Cannabis lost a sibling perhaps 20 million years ago (mya). Cannabis print fossils are rare ( n =3 worldwide), making it difficult to determine when and where she evolved...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Dylan Zylla, Grant Steele, Justin Eklund, Jeanne Mettner, Tom Arneson
Background: Medical cannabis has been available in the State of Minnesota since July 2015 through the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program (MMCP). Objectives: Our study aimed to delineate oncology providers' views on medical cannabis, identify barriers to patient enrollment, and assess clinicians' interest in a clinical trial of medical cannabis in patients with stage IV cancer. Methods: From June to August 2017, we distributed a 14-question survey to Minnesota oncology physicians, advanced practice nurses, and physician assistants who care for adults and children with cancer...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
John H Kindred, Justin M Honce, Jennifer J Kwak, Thorsten Rudroff
Introduction: Long-term consequences of medicinal cannabis use in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are unknown. This study investigated whether PwMS using cannabis had lower resting brain glucose uptake (GU) and worse clinical test results compared with nonusers. Methods: Sixteen PwMS, eight users, underwent clinical testing followed by [18 F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Results: Users had lower cognitive function test scores, but performed similarly on the other clinical evaluations...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Jamie Corroon, Rod Kight
Cannabidiol (CBD) is 1 of > 100 cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa L. ( Cannabis spp. or Cannabis ). Despite its complex and rapidly evolving regulatory status in the United States, projected retail sales of CBD products-hemp, Cannabis and pharmaceutical-are as high as $1.9 billion by 2020. CBD products can currently be purchased online, over the counter, and at Cannabis-specific dispensaries throughout most parts of the country, despite the fact that CBD is presently deemed a Schedule I controlled substance by the U...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Manuel Portavella, Nieves Rodriguez-Espinosa, Pablo Galeano, Eduardo Blanco, Juan I Romero, Mariana I Holubiec, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Emilio Fernández-Espejo
Introduction: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is defined as a neurological syndrome where the newborn suffers from acute ischemia and hypoxia during the perinatal period. New therapies are needed. The acylethanolamides, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), possess neuroprotective properties, and they could be effective against perinatal HI. These lipid mediators act through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors subtype α (PPARα), or transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV), such as TRPV subtype 1 and 4...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Beth Wiese, Adrianne R Wilson-Poe
Introduction: The opioid epidemic has become an immense problem in North America, and despite decades of research on the most effective means to treat opioid use disorder (OUD), overdose deaths are at an all-time high, and relapse remains pervasive. Discussion: Although there are a number of FDA-approved opioid replacement therapies and maintenance medications to help ease the severity of opioid withdrawal symptoms and aid in relapse prevention, these medications are not risk free nor are they successful for all patients...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Marci R Mitchell, Kent C Berridge, Stephen V Mahler
Introduction: Stimulating either endogenous cannabinoids or opioids within a restricted dorsomedial "hedonic hotspot" in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell enhances hedonic impact, or "liking" reactions to sweet tastes. In this study, we probed within this hotspot the relationship between endocannabinoid and opioid signals in hedonic enhancement. Materials and Methods: Specifically, we asked whether enhancement of sucrose "liking" by intra-NAc microinjections of the endocannabinoid anandamide requires concurrent endogenous opioid signaling...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
John D Roberts, Jonathan Spodick, Joanna Cole, Janis Bozzo, Susanna Curtis, Ariadna Forray
Introduction: Legal access to marijuana, most frequently as "medical marijuana," is becoming more common in the United States, but most states do not specify sickle cell disease as a qualifying condition. We were aware that some of our patients living with sickle cell disease used illicit marijuana, and we sought more information about this. Materials and Methods: We practice at an urban, academic medical center and provide primary, secondary, and tertiary care for ∼130 adults living with sickle cell disease...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Jamie Corroon, Joy A Phillips
Introduction: Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) found in Cannabis spp. has broad therapeutic value. CBD products can currently be purchased online, over the counter and at Cannabis-specific dispensaries throughout most of the country, despite the fact that CBD is generally deemed a Schedule I controlled substance by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and renounced as a dietary supplement ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consumer demand for CBD is high and growing, but few studies have examined the reasons for increasing CBD use...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Marjolein Soethoudt, Georgios Alachouzos, Eva J van Rooden, María Dolores Moya-Garzón, Richard J B H N van den Berg, Laura H Heitman, Mario van der Stelt
Introduction: Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principle psychoactive ingredient in Cannabis , is widely used for its therapeutic effects in a large variety of diseases, but it also has numerous neurological side effects. The cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are responsible to a large extent for these, but not all biological responses are mediated via the CBRs. Objectives: The identification of additional target proteins of THC to enable a better understanding of the (adverse) physiological effects of THC. Methods: In this study, a chemical proteomics approach using a two-step photoaffinity probe is applied to identify potential proteins that may interact with THC...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Rameshprabu Nallathambi, Moran Mazuz, Dvory Namdar, Michal Shik, Diana Namintzer, Ajjampura C Vinayaka, Aurel Ion, Adi Faigenboim, Ahmad Nasser, Ido Laish, Fred M Konikoff, Hinanit Koltai
Introduction: Colorectal cancer remains the third most common cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Purified cannabinoids have been reported to prevent proliferation, metastasis, and induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell types. However, the active compounds from Cannabis sativa flowers and their interactions remain elusive. Research Aim: This study was aimed to specify the cytotoxic effect of C. sativa -derived extracts on colon cancer cells and adenomatous polyps by identification of active compound(s) and characterization of their interaction...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Manuel Guzmán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Daniele Piomelli, Susan Weiss, Graham Boyd, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Ziva Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
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