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Veterinary Medicine and Science

Shouchuan Jiang, Nini Zhou, Yufeng Li, Jiahui An, Tianhao Chang
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3), a recently discovered virus, has spread widely in pigs throughout the world. In order to investigate the possibility of mice used to study the infection of PCV3, commercially sourced Balb/C and ICR mice were screened for PCV3 infection. Blood samples were collected from 20 mice (10 each of Balb/c and ICR), DNA was extracted, and subjected to PCR with PCV3 specific primers. We found all 20 serum samples tested positive for PCV3 DNA. From four mice, the complete genomes of PCV3 were amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed...
February 19, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Sonevilay Nampanya, Syseng Khounsy, Navneet K Dhand, Russell D Bush, Peter A Windsor
Blackleg (BL) is an acute to peracute highly fatal infectious disease of mainly large ruminants characterised by lesions of myonecrosis caused by Clostridium chauvoei, usually presenting as a sudden onset of sporadic mortalities. In Southeast Asia, 'BL' is considered a cause of occasional outbreaks of a subacute febrile illness, although there are few published reports available. Investigation of a major outbreak of clinically diagnosed BL occurring in large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) in three neighbouring villages in central Laos in mid-2017, was conducted to determine the financial impacts of BL on smallholder livelihoods...
February 19, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Michael Morrice, Gerry Polton, Sam Beck
There is currently a lack of evidence-based guidance when determining surgical margins for small intestinal tumours in dogs. The purpose of this study is to help the surgeon make informed clinical decisions about margins when confronted with a small intestinal mass. Twenty-seven canine small intestinal tumours were histologically diagnosed and then had further histological assessment at every centimeter from the edge of the palpable tumour to the surgical margin in oral, aboral and mesenteric directions. In all 10 carcinomas a 3 cm tissue margin in oral, aboral and mesenteric directions would have resulted in complete tumour resection...
February 19, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Taher Zaid, Suheir Ereqat, Abdelmajeed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Ahmad Abdelkader, Ziad Abdeen
Tick-borne anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are clinically important emerging zoonoses usually overlooked by veterinarians and physicians alike. This study aimed at detecting and genetically characterizing Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species in ixodid ticks and their animal hosts from the West Bank, Palestine. A total of 723 ixodid ticks belonging to three genera (Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis) were collected from dogs, sheep, goats and camels. In addition, 189 blood samples were collected from dogs, sheep, camels, horses and a goat from the West Bank, Palestine...
February 14, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
John R White, David T Williams, Jianning Wang, Honglei Chen, Lorna F Melville, Steven S Davis, Richard P Weir, Andrea Certoma, Antonio Di Rubbo, Gemma Harvey, Ross A Lunt, Debbie Eagles
Bluetongue virus (BTV), transmitted by midges (Culicoides sp), is distributed worldwide and causes disease in ruminants. In particular, BT can be a debilitating disease in sheep causing serious trade and socio-economic consequences at both local and global levels. Across Australia, a sentinel cattle herd surveillance program monitors the BTV activity. Prior to 2014, BTV-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -15, -16, -20, -21 and -23 had been isolated in Australia, but no bluetongue disease has occurred in a commercial Australian flock...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Christine E Bryan, Jeb C Cade, Andrew J Mackin, Alyssa M Sullivant
Diagnostic investigation and management of chronic diarrhoea in dogs can be cost-prohibitive to many owners. The objectives of this study were to evaluate evidence-based, individualised diagnostic and therapeutic protocols for management of dogs with chronic diarrhoea, where financial constraints dictate a budget-limited approach and where more expensive approaches are deferred until simple affordable protocols are unsuccessful. Twenty-two client-owned dogs with chronic (minimum 2 weeks duration) untreated small, large or mixed small/large bowel diarrhoea were enrolled in a budget-limited step-wise management protocol (maximum expenditure $300 over 6 weeks), with diagnostic testing and therapeutic trials managed in an individualised and evidence-based fashion...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Juliana S P Ferrão, Antenor P Bonfim Neto, Vanessa U da Fonseca, Liza M M de C Sousa, Paula de C Papa
Spontaneous lymphatic revascularization is a challenge and the establishment of new therapeutic strategies may improve life quality for patients suffering from lymphatic disorders. This study was designed to verify if VEGFC treatment improves lymphatic vascularization in a time-dependent manner in mouse hindlimb (HL) after resection of the inguinal lymph node. Lymphatic vascular density (Vv) and length (Lv) were evaluated by stereology after immunohistochemistry. The control Group (CG) was not manipulated but received saline instead of VEGFC treatment...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Amaury Briand, Noelle Cochet-Faivre, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Ambre Jaraud-Darnault, Laurent Tiret, Lucie Chevallier
Ichthyoses represent a heterogeneous group of hereditary cornification disorders characterized by generalized scaling of the skin. An autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) has been described in American Bulldogs and is caused by a variant in the NIPAL4 gene encoding for the ICHTHYIN protein. So far, this variant has not been described in other breeds. A 1.5-year-old female pedigreed American Bully was referred for generalized scaling and bad coat quality since adoption at 8 weeks of age. Clinical examination, cytological and histopathological examination, and DNA testing were performed...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Diana S Vargas-Bermudez, Fabricio S Campos, Laura Bonil, Darío Mogollon, Jairo Jaime
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) was recently discovered and is a new species of the genus circovirus. Clinically, it is associated with absence of symptoms or with different clinical syndromes. It has been reported in different countries of America, Europe and Asia. Last year, in Colombia, some farms have reported symptoms similar to those caused by PCV2. Samples were taken from two farms located in the centre of the country, and the presence of PCV3 was determined by PCR in two samples, one from a pool of sera and another from mesenteric lymph node...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Leornard Adjorlolo, Frederick Y Obese, Patrick Tecku
Cattle grazing on natural pasture face seasonal variation in pasture availability and nutritive value. Improving the nutrition of cows by providing supplementary feeds during periods of pasture or nutrient deficit is necessary for improved productivity. This study was conducted to determine the effect of feed supplementation during the post-partum period on the metabolic status and reproductive performance of 40 grazing Sanga and Friesian × Sanga cows. Twenty out of a total of 40 cows (10 Sanga and 10 Friesian × Sanga cows) were supplemented with 2...
February 11, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Sargol Abdolahi, Borhan Shokrollahi, Nazila Saadati, Salim Morammazi
Melatonin is the main hormone of seasonal breeding in sheep and goat which has an effect on reproductive organs via its receptors. Studies have shown that mutations in melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene are related to litter size as well as the ovulation rate in sheep and goats. In this study, polymorphism of two loci in MTNR1A melatonin receptor gene was studied in order to survey their relationship with litter size in Markhoz goats. PCR primers were employed to mask polymorphisms of MTNR1A in 150 does by PCR-RFLP method...
February 8, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Rute Noiva, Pedro Ruivo, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Constança Fonseca, Miguel Fevereiro, Paulo Carvalho, Leonor Orge, Madalena Monteiro, Maria Conceição Peleteiro
Halicephalobus gingivalis is a small saprophytic rhabditid nematode, represented only by females with a typical rhabditoid oesophagus and one egg in the uterus, capable of infecting vertebrates. This opportunistic parasite present in the soil, manure and decaying humus, is thought to penetrate through previous injuries to the mouth, eyes and skin of horses and migrate to various organs. The brain is one such organ, where the females lay their eggs, leading to malacia and causing a sudden onset of neurological signs, such as anorexia, ataxia, urinary incontinence, blindness, decreased menace and tonal reflexes, tremors and aggressiveness...
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Leandro A Di Paolo, María F Alvarado Pinedo, Javier Origlia, Gerardo Fernández, Francisco A Uzal, Gabriel E Travería
Infectious abortions of goats in Argentina are mainly associated with brucellosis and toxoplasmosis. In this paper, we describe an abortion outbreak in goats caused by Chlamydia abortus. Seventy out of 400 goats aborted. Placental smears stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed many chlamydia-like bodies within trophoblasts. One stillborn fetus was necropsied and the placenta was examined. No gross lesions were seen in the fetus, but the inter-cotyledonary areas of the placenta were thickened and covered by fibrino-suppurative exudate...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Margaret I Hall, Jeffrey H Plochocki, José R Rodriguez-Sosa
Understanding the homologies between male and female perineal structure helps both evolutionary biologists and clinicians better understand the evolution and anatomy of canines. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) play an important role in human society, and canine perineal anatomy is important for maintaining dogs' reproductive health for successful breeding and a wide variety of pathologies. Here, we investigate homologies between male and female perineal structure, identifying structures based on common function, anatomical relationships and attachments...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Julien R S Dandrieux, Lakshmi Narayanan, Simon Firestone, Todd M Archer, Caroline S Mansfield
A pharmacodynamic assay has been previously developed to monitor ciclosporin treatment in dogs by assessing inhibition of cytokine transcription after whole blood stimulation with 12-myristate 13-1 acetate and ionomycin (PMA/I). In this study, whole blood stimulation with either PMA/I or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to assess the effect of multiple drugs (azathioprine, ciclosporin, mycophenolate, leflunomide and prednisone) after a 7-day treatment course on production of cytokines measured with a multiplex assay in healthy dogs (n = 4 for each treatment)...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Vincent Cicculli, Shirley Masse, Lisandru Capai, Xavier de Lamballerie, Remi Charrel, Alessandra Falchi
Ehrlichiosis are severe, feverish tick-borne illnesses caused by specific species within the genus Ehrlichia (Anaplasmataceae family). Recent data suggest that ruminants in Corsica area reservoir for several Anaplasmataceae species. The purpose of our study was to determine whether Ehrlichia species could be detected in ticks collected in Corsican ruminants by using molecular methods. Ticks were collected in northern Corsica: (i) in May 2016 from sheep bred in one farm located in a 5000-inhabitants village and (ii) from cattle in June and July 2016 in a slaughterhouse...
January 21, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Jose A Infantes-Lorenzo, Dipesh Dave, Immaculada Moreno, Paul Anderson, Sandrine Lesellier, Eamonn Gormley, Lucas Dominguez, Ana Balseiro, Christian Gortázar, Mercedes Dominguez, Francisco J Salguero
European badgers (Meles meles) have been identified as wildlife reservoirs for Mycobacterium bovis in the UK and Ireland, and may also have a role in the epidemiology of animal tuberculosis in other European regions. Thus, detection of M. bovis-infected badgers may be required for the purposes of surveillance and monitoring of disease levels in infected populations. Current serological assays to detect M. bovis infection in live badgers, while rapid and inexpensive, show limited diagnostic sensitivity. Here we describe and evaluate new ELISA platforms for the recognition of the P22 multiprotein complex derived from the purified protein derivative (PPD) of M...
January 18, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Chunyan Feng, CaiXia Wang, Yongning Zhang, Fangyuan Du, Zhou Zhang, Fuchuan Xiao, Jianchang Wang, Xiangmei Lin, Shaoqiang Wu
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a novel pathogen first identified in the United States in 2016. As there is a high possibility that no clinical signs of infection are observed in the host, an accurate and sensitive method is needed for quarantine on numerous live pigs especially for international pig trade. In this study, a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay specifically for PCV3 was established without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The sensitivity of the current approach is about 1...
January 14, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Samad Lotfollahzadeh, Masoumeh Heydari, Mohammad Reza Mohebbi, Maryam Hashemian
Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, infectious neuromuscular disease in all farmed mammals caused by Clostridium tetani. The disease is sporadic but outbreaks of tetanus have been described, as a result of wound contaminated with spores of C. tetani, which sporulates to the vegetative form and produce toxins. The present study reports an outbreak of tetanus in a sheep flock, shortly after ear tagging. Three sheep from a large flock (with a population of 1000 sheep) were presented with signs of: convulsion, limb stiffness, incoordination and trismus ("lock jaw")...
December 13, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Hitoshi Kondo, Yumiko Kagawa, Kinji Shirota, Peter F Moore, Masahiko Nagata
A 5-year-old, spayed female French Bulldog presented with multiple papules on the skin of the scapular area. Histopathological examination of punch biopsy samples revealed dense infiltration of small lymphoid cells in the superficial dermis and in areas surrounding hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that these cells were positive for CD3, CD4, and TCRαβ, but negative for CD1c, CD8α, CD8β, CD11c, CD20, CD45RA, CD90, MHC-II, and TCRγδ. In addition, CD45 was highly expressed, and the proliferation fraction was very low...
December 12, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
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