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Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766621/high-content-imaging-analyses-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-and-micronuclei-in-tk6-cells-elucidated-genotoxicity-of-chemicals-and-their-clastogenic-aneugenic-mode-of-action
#1
Akira Takeiri, Kaori Matsuzaki, Shigeki Motoyama, Mariko Yano, Asako Harada, Chiaki Katoh, Kenji Tanaka, Masayuki Mishima
Background: The in vitro micronucleus (MN) test is an important component of a genotoxicity test battery that evaluates chemicals. Although the standard method of manually scoring micronucleated (MNed) cells by microscope is a reliable and standard method, it is laborious and time-consuming. A high-throughput assay system for detecting MN cells automatically has long been desired in the fields of pharmaceutical development or environmental risk monitoring. Although the MN test per se cannot clarify whether the mode of MN induction is aneugenic or clastogenic, this clarification may well be made possible by combining the MN test with an evaluation of γH2AX, a sensitive marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB)...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700998/current-perspectives-on-mechanisms-of-ribonucleotide-incorporation-and-processing-in-mammalian-dna
#2
REVIEW
Akira Sassa, Manabu Yasui, Masamitsu Honma
Ribonucleotides, which are RNA precursors, are often incorporated into DNA during replication. Although embedded ribonucleotides in the genome are efficiently removed by canonical ribonucleotide excision repair (RER), inactivation of RER causes genomic ribonucleotide accumulation, leading to various abnormalities in cells. Mutation of genes encoding factors involved in RER is associated with the neuroinflammatory autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Over the last decade, the biological impact of ribonucleotides in the genome has attracted much attention...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700997/mechanism-and-regulation-of-dna-damage-recognition-in-nucleotide-excision-repair
#3
REVIEW
Masayuki Kusakabe, Yuki Onishi, Haruto Tada, Fumika Kurihara, Kanako Kusao, Mari Furukawa, Shigenori Iwai, Masayuki Yokoi, Wataru Sakai, Kaoru Sugasawa
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile DNA repair pathway, which can remove an extremely broad range of base lesions from the genome. In mammalian global genomic NER, the XPC protein complex initiates the repair reaction by recognizing sites of DNA damage, and this depends on detection of disrupted/destabilized base pairs within the DNA duplex. A model has been proposed that XPC first interacts with unpaired bases and then the XPD ATPase/helicase in concert with XPA verifies the presence of a relevant lesion by scanning a DNA strand in 5'-3' direction...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693059/inhibition-of-nf-kappab-transcriptional-activity-enhances-fucoxanthinol-induced-apoptosis-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Shuya Tamura, Takumi Narita, Gen Fujii, Shingo Miyamoto, Takahiro Hamoya, Yurie Kurokawa, Maiko Takahashi, Kouhei Miki, Yui Matsuzawa, Masami Komiya, Masaru Terasaki, Tomohiro Yano, Michihiro Mutoh
Background: Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has shown that the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) is related to lifestyle, mainly diet. At the same time, there are many foods and beverages that have been shown to provide protection against CRC. We turned our attention to a traditional Japanese food, brown algae, that contains carotenoids and various functional polyphenols, especially fucoxanthin (FX) and fucoxanthinol (FxOH). Results: Both FX and FxOH treatments induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner as detected by annexin V / propidium iodide and the presence of a subG1 population in human colon cancer HCT116 cells...
2019: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30619512/summarized-data-of-genotoxicity-tests-for-designated-food-additives-in-japan
#5
Masami Yamada, Masamitsu Honma
The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has carried out genotoxicity tests for food additives used in Japan in cooperation with the Japan Food Additives Association since 1979. Hayashi et al. summarized these data and published a list of 337 designated additives (Shitei-tenkabutsu in Japanese) with genotoxicity test data in 2000. Thereafter, 29 items were eliminated, and 146 items were newly added. Currently, 454 designated additives are allowed to be used as food additives in Japan. This report, based on the Hayashi report, covers the addition of newly derived genotoxicity test data...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30598710/low-dose-radiation-from-a-bombs-elongated-lifespan-and-reduced-cancer-mortality-relative-to-un-irradiated-individuals
#6
Shizuyo Sutou
The US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) presented the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNT) in 1956, which indicates that the lowest doses of ionizing radiation are hazardous in proportion to the dose. This spurious hypothesis was not based on solid data. NAS put forward the BEIR VII report in 2006 as evidence supporting LNT. The study described in the report used data of the Life Span Study (LSS) of A-bomb survivors. Estimation of exposure doses was based on initial radiation (5%) and neglected residual radiation (10%), leading to underestimation of the doses...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30519368/change-over-time-of-the-mutagenicity-in-the-lungs-of-gpt-delta-transgenic-mice-by-extract-of-airborne-particles-collected-from-ambient-air-in-the-tokyo-metropolitan-area
#7
Yasunobu Aoki, Daisuke Nakajima, Michiyo Matsumoto, Mayuko Yagishita, Michi Matsumoto, Rie Yanagisawa, Sumio Goto, Kenichi Masumura, Takehiko Nohmi
Background: Previously we found that DNA adducts were accumulated in the lungs of the rats exposed to ambient air in the Tokyo metropolitan area. To examine chronological change in in vivo mutagenicity of airborne particles, extracts produced from samples of total suspended particulates (TSP) collected from urban air in 1980, 1990, and 2010 in the Tokyo metropolitan area were intratracheally administered into the lungs of gpt delta mice, and differences in mutation and mutant frequency were determined by using the gpt assay...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30459925/oligo-swapping-method-for-in-vitro-dna-repair-substrate-containing-a-single-dna-lesion-at-a-specific-site
#8
Mika Yukutake, Mika Hayashida, Narumi Shioi Aoki, Isao Kuraoka
Background: A wide variety of DNA lesions interfere with replication and transcription, leading to mutations and cell death. DNA repair mechanisms act upon these DNA lesions present in the genomic DNA. To investigate a DNA repair mechanism elaborately, an in vitro DNA repair substrate containing DNA lesions at a specific site is required. Previously, to prepare the substrate, phagemid ssDNA and DNA lesion-harboring oligonucleotides were employed with considerable amounts of DNA polymerase and DNA ligase...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30386442/analysis-of-large-deletion-mutations-induced-by-abasic-site-analog-in-human-cells
#9
Tetsuya Suzuki, Yuri Katayama, Yasuo Komatsu, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Background: Abasic sites are formed spontaneously and by nucleobase chemical modifications and base excision repair. A chemically stable abasic site analog was site-specifically introduced into replicable plasmid DNAs, which were transfected into human U2OS cells. The amplified DNAs were recovered from the cells and used for the transformation of a bacterial indicator strain. Results: Large deletion mutations were induced by the analog, in addition to point mutations at the modified site...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30349616/chromium-vi-induced-stress-response-in-the-plant-plantago-ovata-forsk-in-vitro
#10
Debangana Kundu, Sankalan Dey, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri
Background: Plants experience severe physiological stress from heavy metal pollution caused by improper discarding of the industrial wastes. Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is one of the major heavy metal pollutants in India and is present particularly in some regions where Plantago ovata grows to a great extent. This study was aimed at finding the effects of Cr (VI) on P. ovata and manoeuvres of the plant to combat such heavy metal exposure in vitro. Methods: Potassium dichromate was used as a source of Cr (VI) to induce the heavy metal stress...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30338768/collaborative-study-of-thresholds-for-mutagens-proposal-of-a-typical-protocol-for-detection-of-hormetic-responses-in-cytotoxicity-tests
#11
Shizuyo Sutou, Akiko Koeda, Kana Komatsu, Toshiyuki Shiragiku, Hiroshi Seki, Kohji Yamakage, Takeru Niitsuma, Toshiyuki Kudo, Akihiro Wakata
Background: According to the linear no-threshold model (LNT), even the smallest amount of radiation is hazardous. Although the LNT is not based on solid data, this hypothesis has been applied to mutagens and carcinogens. As a result, it has been postulated that there are no thresholds for these chemicals. To demonstrate negativity by experiments is practically impossible, because negative data may leave behind the possibility that additional data might make the resolution power high enough to change negativity to positivity...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30186535/comparison-of-structures-among-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-grxs-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Mohnad Abdalla, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Aadil Yousif
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) comprise a group of glutathione (GSH)-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes that respond to oxidative stress and sustain redox homeostasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grx has a similar interaction patterns through its residues between the residues and the environment. The glutaredoxin domain covers 100% of the entire mature Grx1 and Grx8, while the glutaredoxin domain covers ~ 52% of the entire mature Grx6 and Grx7, which have approximately 74 additional amino acids in their N-terminal regions, whereas Grx3 and Grx4 have two functional domains: glutaredoxin and thioredoxin...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30151062/mutagenic-properties-of-dimethylaniline-isomers-in-mice-as-evaluated-by-comet-micronucleus-and-transgenic-mutation-assays
#13
Arihiro Kohara, Mariko Matsumoto, Akihiko Hirose, Makoto Hayashi, Masamitsu Honma, Takayoshi Suzuki
Background: The carcinogenic potential of dimethylaniline (DMA) isomers in rodents and humans has been previously reported, and there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2,6-DMA in experimental animals. The target organ of carcinogenesis of 2,6-DMA is the nasal cavity. In the current study, six DMA isomers, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4- and 3,5-DMA, were evaluated for mutagenic properties. Results: Male ddY mice (3/group) were treated intragastrically (i...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30123389/structure-analysis-of-yeast-glutaredoxin-grx6-protein-produced-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Mohnad Abdalla, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Raihan Mo, T I M Dafaalla, Hamed I Hamouda, Eijaz Ahmed Bhat, Annoor Awadasseid, Hassan Abdellha Ahmed Ali
Background: Grx6 is a yeast Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum protein involved in iron-sulfur binding that belongs to monothiol glutaredoxin-protein family. Grx6 has been biochemically characterized previously. Grx6 contains a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-136). Depending on the active-site sequences, Grxs can be classified to classic dithiol Grxs with a CXXC motif known as classes II and monothiol Grxs with a CXXS motif known as classes I, and Grx6 belongs to the class I with a CSYS motif...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30069278/simultaneous-and-absolute-quantification-of-nucleoside-triphosphates-using-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Shun Matsuda, Toshihiko Kasahara
Background: Nucleoside triphosphates participate in fundamental cellular processes as building blocks of DNA and RNA, energy carriers, and cofactors in enzymatic reactions, and their balance is tightly regulated. Here, we established a simultaneous and absolute quantification method for eight nucleoside triphosphates using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Our method was successfully applied to the extract of human acute myeloid leukemia Molm-13 cells...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30061958/correction-to-new-insight-for-metformin-against-bladder-cancer
#16
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41021-017-0074-z.].
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30026883/ozone-augments-interleukin-8-production-induced-by-ambient-particulate-matter
#17
Jun Kurai, Kunishige Onuma, Hiroyuki Sano, Futoshi Okada, Masanari Watanabe
Background: Experimental and controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated additive effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. A few epidemiological studies have suggested that ambient particulate matter components are important for the combined effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. However, few studies have examined whether ozone changes the effects of ambient particulate matter on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this study, the influence of ozone on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to ambient particulate matter was evaluated...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29881475/does-the-prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-alter-dna-methylation-levels-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-an-analysis-using-a-high-sensitivity-methylome-technique
#18
Toshiki Aiba, Toshiyuki Saito, Akiko Hayashi, Shinji Sato, Harunobu Yunokawa, Toru Maruyama, Wataru Fujibuchi, Seiichiroh Ohsako
Background: There is still considerable debate about the effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) an endocrine disrupter at low doses. Recently, many studies using animal models have shown that prenatal BPA exposure induces behavioral and neuronal disorders due to epigenetic changes in the brain. However, striking evidence of epigenomic changes has to be shown. Methods: To investigate whether low-dose BPA exposure in the fetal stage can alter CpG methylation levels in the central nervous system, the hippocampus of the inbred C57BL/6 J mouse as the target tissue was collected to detect alterations in CpG methylation levels using a highly sensitive method of genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, methylated site display-amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSD-AFLP)...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29881474/greetings-from-the-new-regime
#19
EDITORIAL
Masami Yamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29785231/advantages-of-evaluating-%C3%AE-h2ax-induction-in-non-clinical-drug-development
#20
REVIEW
Shigeki Motoyama, Akira Takeiri, Kenji Tanaka, Asako Harada, Kaori Matsuzaki, Junko Taketo, Saori Matsuo, Etsuko Fujii, Masayuki Mishima
γH2AX, the phosphorylated form of a histone variant H2AX at Ser 139, is already widely used as a biomarker to research the fundamental biology of DNA damage and repair and to assess the risk of environmental chemicals, pollutants, radiation, and so on. It is also beginning to be used in the early non-clinical stage of pharmaceutical drug development as an in vitro tool for screening and for mechanistic studies on genotoxicity. Here, we review the available information on γH2AX-based test systems that can be used to develop drugs and present our own experience of practically applying these systems during the non-clinical phase of drug development...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
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