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Pathogens & Immunity

Lenche Kostadinova, Carey L Shive, Elizabeth Zebrowski, Brianna Fuller, Kelsey Rife, Amy Hirsch, Anita Compan, Anita Moreland, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Daniel L Popkin, Donald D Anthony
Background: During chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) levels mark active liver inflammation and tissue damage, while albumin reflects synthetic liver function and nutritional status. Transient Elastography (TE) is a clinical measure of liver stiffness that facilitates evaluation of liver damage stage. While a portion of the TE score is attributable to liver fibrosis and relatively irreversible damage, another component of the TE score is attributable to liver inflammation or edema...
September 7, 2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Neil S Greenspan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Timothy Plitnik, Mark E Sharkey, Bijan Mahboubi, Baek Kim, Mario Stevenson
Background: Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein (SAMHD1) is a dNTP triphosphorylase that reduces cellular dNTP levels in non-dividing cells, such as macrophages. Since dNTPs are required for reverse transcription, HIV-2 and most SIVs encode a Vpx protein that promotes proteasomal degradation of SAMHD1. It is unclear how HIV-1, which does not appear to harbor a SAMHD1 escape mechanism, is able to infect macrophages in the face of SAMHD1 restriction...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Arturo Casadevall
Fungal diseases became a major medical problem in the second half of the 20th century when advances in modern medicine together with the HIV epidemic resulted in large numbers of individuals with impaired immunity. Fungal diseases are difficult to manage because they tend to be chronic, hard to diagnose, and difficult to eradicate with antifungal drugs. This essay considers the future of medical mycology in the 21st century, extrapolating from current trends. In the near horizon, the prevalence of fungal diseases is likely to increase, as there will be more hosts with impaired immunity and drug resistance will inevitably increase after selection by antifungal drug use...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Robert Schlaberg, Amanda Barrett, Kornelia Edes, Michael Graves, Litty Paul, Jenna Rychert, Bert K Lopansri, Daniel T Leung
Background: Host factors play an important role in pathogenesis and disease outcome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and characterization of these responses could uncover potential host biomarkers to complement existing microbe-based diagnostics. Methods: We extracted RNA from fecal samples of patients with CDI and profiled human mRNA using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS). We compared the fecal host mRNA transcript expression profiles of patients with CDI to controls with non-CDI diarrhea...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Eileen P Scully
Biological sex is a determinant of both susceptibility to and pathogenesis of multiple infections, including HIV. These differences have effects on the spectrum of HIV disease from acquisition to eradication, with diverse mechanisms including distinct chromosomal complements, variation in microbiota composition, hormonal effects on transcriptional profiles, and expression of different immunoregulatory elements. With a comparative biology approach, these sex differences can be used to highlight protective and detrimental immune activation pathways, to identify strategies for effective prevention, treatment, and curative interventions...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Saba Valadkhan, Leah M Plasek
The interferon (IFN) response is a critical and ubiquitous component of the innate immune response to pathogens. Detailed studies in the last decades have elucidated the function of a large number of proteins that mediate the complex signaling pathways and gene expression programs involved in the interferon response. The recent discovery of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as a new category of cellular effectors has led to studies aiming to understand the role of these transcripts in the IFN response. Several high throughput studies have shown that a large number of lncRNAs are differentially expressed following IFN stimulation and/or viral infections...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Lisa M Rogers, Jennifer A Gaddy, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated Gram-positive coccus that is an important cause of infections in adults with chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and neonates. GBS causes a range of clinical syndromes, from asymptomatic colonization to deep-seated invasive and highly lethal infections. Macrophages are important sentinels of innate immunity, protecting host tissues from infection when bacteria advance beyond cutaneous or mucosal barriers. We hypothesized that the capacity for macrophages to phagocytose unopsonized GBS would vary across distinct clinical strains, and such differences would reflect serotype diversity...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Michelle M Nerandzic, Curtis J Donskey
Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Prevention of C. difficile transmission is challenging because spores are not killed by alcohol-based hand sanitizers or many commonly used disinfectants. One strategy to control spores is to induce germination, thereby rendering the spores more susceptible to benign disinfection measures and ambient stressors. Methods/Results: C. difficile spores germinated on skin after a single application of cholic acid-class bile salts and co-germinants; for 4 C...
October 30, 2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Curtis J Donskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Robin L P Jump, David Kraft, Kelly Hurless, Alex Polinkovsky, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: The glycylcycline antibiotic tigecycline may have a relatively low propensity to promote Clostridium difficile infection in part because it causes less disruption of the indigenous intestinal microbiota than other broad-spectrum antibiotics. We used a mouse model to compare the effects of tigecycline versus other commonly used antibiotics on colonization resistance to C. difficile and on the metabolic functions of the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: To assess in vivo colonization resistance to C...
January 18, 2017: Pathogens & Immunity
You Jeong Park, Behzad Etemad, Hayat Ahmed, Vivek Naranbhai, Evgenia Aga, Ronald J Bosch, John W Mellors, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael Para, Rajesh T Gandhi, Mary Carrington, Jonathan Z Li
Background: Identifying host determinants associated with HIV reservoir size and timing of viral rebound after an analytic treatment interruption (ATI) is an important step in the search for an HIV functional cure. We performed a pooled analysis of 103 participants from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group ATI studies to identify the association between HLA class I alleles with HIV reservoir size and viral rebound timing. Methods: Total HIV DNA and cell-associated HIV RNA (CA-RNA) were quantified in pre-ATI peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples, and residual plasma viremia was measured using the single-copy assay...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Michael M Lederman, Earl Pike
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Martha A Belury, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Brandon Snyder, Manjusha Kulkarni, Marilly Palettas, Xiaokui Mo, Jordan E Lake, David Zidar, Scott F Sieg, Benigno Rodriguez, Martin P Playford, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Nehal N Mehta, Michael M Lederman, Nicholas T Funderburg
Background: Lipid profiles are altered by HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among HIV-uninfected (HIV-) populations the concentrations of various lipid classes (ie, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, LPC) and their saturated (SaFA), mono-unsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition are related to cardiometabolic disease risk. Associations between changes in the lipidome and immune activation in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals beginning ART have not been described...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Michael R Goetsch, Ashutosh Tamhane, Mohit Varshney, Anuj Kapil, Edgar T Overton, Graham C Towns, Ricardo A Franco
BACKGROUND: The role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) clearance in kidney graft survival is unknown. We examined short-term trends of protein/creatinine (P/C) ratios in HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 19 kidney transplant patients with HCV infection treated with DAAs at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between January 2013 and June 2016. Markers of glomerular damage were assessed using average urinary protein/creatinine (P/C) ratios measured pretreatment and posttreatment...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Henry Friedman, Nancy Ator, Nancy Haigwood, William Newsome, James S Allan, Thaddeus G Golos, Jeff H Kordower, Robert E Shade, Michael E Goldberg, Matthew R Bailey, Paul Bianchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Leslie R Cockerham, Steven A Yukl, Kara Harvill, Ma Somsouk, Sunil K Joshi, Elizabeth Sinclair, Teri Liegler, Rebecca Hoh, Sophie Lyons, Peter W Hunt, Adam Rupert, Irini Sereti, David R Morcock, Ajantha Rhodes, Claire Emson, Marc K Hellerstein, Jacob D Estes, Sharon Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Hiroyu Hatano
BACKGROUND: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. METHODS: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
Daniel L Popkin, Sarah Zilka, Matthew Dimaano, Hisashi Fujioka, Cristina Rackley, Robert Salata, Alexis Griffith, Pranab K Mukherjee, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: There is a continued need for strategies to prevent influenza. While cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, has an extensive antimicrobial spectrum, its ability to affect respiratory viruses has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVES: Here, we evaluate the ability of CPC to disrupt influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The virucidal activity of CPC was evaluated against susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant strains of influenza viruses...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
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