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Europe's Journal of Psychology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915179/-dysrationalia-among-university-students-the-role-of-cognitive-abilities-different-aspects-of-rational-thought-and-self-control-in-explaining-epistemically-suspect-beliefs
#1
Nikola Erceg, Zvonimir Galić, Andreja Bubić
The aim of the study was to investigate the role that cognitive abilities, rational thinking abilities, cognitive styles and self-control play in explaining the endorsement of epistemically suspect beliefs among university students. A total of 159 students participated in the study. We found that different aspects of rational thought (i.e. rational thinking abilities and cognitive styles) and self-control, but not intelligence, significantly predicted the endorsement of epistemically suspect beliefs. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that intelligence and rational thinking, although related, represent two fundamentally different constructs...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915178/relating-rational-and-experiential-thinking-styles-with-trait-emotional-intelligence-in-broader-personality-space
#2
Biljana Jokić, Danka Purić
The usual distinction between rational and intuitive thinking styles is still a subject of scientific debate, as there is no consensus about their nature, mutual relations and relations to other personality constructs. Cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) proposes rational and experiential thinking styles as original personality constructs not fully explainable by five-factor personality models. Following CEST, we aimed to examine: 1. The uniqueness of rational and experiential dimensions by relating them to other personality constructs: trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and HEXACO; 2...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915177/who-believes-in-esp-cognitive-and-motivational-determinants-of-the-belief-in-extra-sensory-perception
#3
Marija Branković
Many people believe in extra-sensory perception, e.g. the ability to communicate with thoughts, to sense future events or locate radiation with the help of a V-shaped piece of wood. Addressing a gap in research specifically focused on ESP beliefs, we investigated cognitive styles and basic motivations related to these beliefs in two survey studies. The findings suggest that a propensity to use intuition is the best predictor of ESP beliefs in terms of cognitive style. ESP belief is positively related to fear of death, and this relation is partly mediated by fatalism, i...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915176/the-differential-effects-of-good-luck-belief-on-cognitive-performance-in-boys-and-girls
#4
Lenka Kostovičová
There is evidence that inducing a luck-related superstition leads to better performance on a variety of motor dexterity and cognitive tasks. However, some replication efforts have failed to succeed. At the same time, our previous findings suggest that the effect of good luck belief on cognitive performance interacts with gender. The present research aimed at replicating the study with a sample of adolescents among whom the superstitious beliefs are particularly prevalent. The participants (N = 99) were allocated to either a control or experimental group, and were asked to solve eight problems focused on cognitive reflection, conjunction fallacy, denominator neglect, and probabilistic reasoning...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915175/how-ir-rational-is-it-to-believe-in-contradictory-conspiracy-theories
#5
Petar Lukić, Iris Žeželj, Biljana Stanković
There is evidence that not only believing in one conspiracy theory (CT) makes a person more probable to believe in others, however unrelated their content is, but that people can even believe in contradictory CTs about a single event. After piloting locally relevant conspiracy theories on a convenient Serbian speaking sample (N = 152), we sought to replicate this finding on a larger sample (N = 252), but introduced several changes. We differentiated necessarily and probably mutually exclusive CTs, and interviewed the participants who answered contradictory to understand the reasoning behind it...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915174/traumatic-rift-how-conspiracy-beliefs-undermine-cohesion-after-societal-trauma
#6
Michal Bilewicz, Marta Witkowska, Myrto Pantazi, Theofilos Gkinopoulos, Olivier Klein
Collective traumas may often lead to deep societal divides and internal conflicts. In this article, we propose that conspiracy theories emerging in response to victimizing events may play a key role in the breakdown of social cohesion. We performed a nationally representative survey in Poland (N = 965) two years after the Smoleńsk airplane crash in which the Polish president was killed, together with 95 political officials and high-ranking military officers. The survey found that people endorsing conspiratorial accounts of the Smoleńsk catastrophe preferred to distance themselves from conspiracy non-believers, while skeptics preferred greater distance to conspiracy believers...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915173/conspiracy-mentality-in-post-conflict-societies-relations-with-the-ethos-of-conflict-and-readiness-for-reconciliation
#7
Boban Petrović, Janko Međedović, Olivera Radović, Sanja Radetić Lovrić
After almost 20 years since the end of the armed conflicts in former Yugoslavia, we are witnesses to the fact that the main causes of the conflicts have not been overcome. Reconciliation between ethnic groups that had been in conflict by means of economic and political cooperation, must have a psychological foundation. This study investigates the relations between Conspiracy Mentality, basic lexical social attitudes, and the factors important for Croatian-Serbian and Kosovo Albanian-Serbian reconciliation, i...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915172/refinement-of-outcome-bias-measurement-in-the-parental-decision-making-context
#8
Kaja Damnjanović, Sandra Ilić, Irena Pavlović, Vera Novković
The aim of this study was twofold: one was to test the impact of the involvement on the parental outcome bias, and the second was to refine the measurement of outcome bias, normally reported as the difference between evaluations of a single decision, with different outcomes assigned to it. We introduced the evaluation of a decision without an outcome, to induce theoretically normative evaluation, unbiased by outcome, from which the evaluation shift could be calculated in either direction. To test this refinement in the parental decision-making context, we produced childcare dilemmas with varying levels of complexity, since the rise of complexity induces stronger bias...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915171/a-cue-for-rational-reasoning-introducing-a-reference-point-in-cognitive-reflection-tasks
#9
Kaja Damnjanović, Vera Novković, Irena Pavlović, Sandra Ilić, Slobodan Pantelić
The dual process framework posits that we reason using the quick System 1, and the deliberate System 2, both of which are part of our "adaptive toolbox". The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) estimates which system was used to solve a reasoning problem. Usually, the CRT tasks are solved incorrectly by using System 1, and correctly through System 2. We have applied the reference point hypothesis to the tasks of the CRT and proposed that this change would facilitate the switch between systems, resulting in better performance on the version of the test with a reference point, compared to the CRT without one...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915170/individual-differences-in-anchoring-effect-evidence-for-the-role-of-insufficient-adjustment
#10
Predrag Teovanović
Although the anchoring effect is one of the most reliable results of experimental psychology, researchers have only recently begun to examine the role of individual differences in susceptibility to this cognitive bias. Yet, first correlational studies yielded inconsistent results, failing to identify any predictors that have a systematic effect on anchored decisions. The present research seeks to remedy methodological shortcomings of foregoing research by employing modified within-subject anchoring procedure...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915169/irrational-beliefs
#11
EDITORIAL
Iris Žeželj, Ljiljana B Lazarević
Irrational beliefs are often used as an umbrella term that comprises a variety of psychological constructs: from specific cognitive biases to a wider class of epistemologically suspect beliefs (superstitions, paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs, conspiracy theories etc.) or cognitive styles (analytical versus intuitive thinking), but also unsubstantiated self-related beliefs. This collection of papers illustrates this diversity well. Apart from the descriptive portion of the data, which has merit on its own, the authors provide important methodological innovations in the way these beliefs are measured, but also look deeper in their functionality and consequences...
February 2019: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555595/improving-temporal-consistency-of-preferences-the-influence-of-mental-construal
#12
Asli Elif Aydin
Majority of the current literature on mental construal has focused on effects of varying construal levels on preference shifts whereas this research investigates the influence of mental construal on the change of preference consistency over time. Building on construal level theory, we propose that high-level construal, which creates abstract, and decontextualized mental representations, leads individuals to more consistent preferences than low-level construal, which creates concrete, and contextualized mental representations...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555594/the-role-of-prevolitional-processes-in-video-game-playing-a-test-of-the-model-of-goal-directed-behavior-and-the-extended-model-of-goal-directed-behavior
#13
Bibiána Kováčová Holevová
The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between prevolitional processes and video game playing. Models of attitude, the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) and the extended model of goal-directed behavior (EMGB) are tested with structural equation models to analyze the process that leads to video game playing. More specifically, the roles of affective, motivational, habitual processes in video game playing and the goal underlying video game playing are examined. The participants were 210 video game players who completed measures of Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioral Control, Behavioral Desire, Anticipated Emotions, Intention to Play, intensity of actual and past video game playing (Playing Behavior and Past Playing Behavior) and Goal Desire...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555593/family-acculturation-in-host-and-immigrant-couples-dyadic-research-in-an-italian-context
#14
Nadia Rania, Laura Migliorini, Stefania Rebora
The purpose of this research is to study acculturation strategies and attitudes in central and peripheral domains of host and immigrant couples in an Italian context. The participants were 60 dyads (30 host couples and 30 immigrant couples) who completed a questionnaire based on the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM). Based on the analysis, we found that the general acculturation attitude preferred by immigrant couples is integration, and Italian couples prefer that immigrants adopt it. Furthermore, Italian partners show moderate internal agreement, whereas immigrant couples show a high degree of agreement...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555592/the-mediating-role-of-self-concept-and-coping-strategies-on-the-relationship-between-attachment-styles-and-perceived-stress
#15
Rıza Bayrak, Murat Güler, Nesrin Hisli Şahin
The aim of this study was to examine the role of attachment style, self-concept, and coping strategies, in order to explain the differences in perceived stress factors and stress symptoms, in a mediation model. Participants were 515 university students (302 female and 213 male) aged 17-28 years. The assessment instruments were: Social Comparison Scale, Ways of Coping Scale, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-II, Brief Symptom Inventory and University Students Stress Factors Scale. The results indicated that the effect of anxious attachment on perceived stress factors and stress symptoms was partially mediated by self-concept and coping styles...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555591/the-prospective-association-between-the-five-factor-personality-model-with-health-behaviors-and-health-behavior-clusters
#16
Chelsea Joyner, Ryan E Rhodes, Paul D Loprinzi
To examine the prospective association of personality with individual behavior, multibehavior and clustered health behavior profiles. A prospective study design was employed. Two hundred young adults provided baseline data and 126 (mean age: 21.6 yrs) provide complete data for a 5-month follow-up assessment (63% response rate). Personality and health behaviors (and covariates) were assessed via validated questionnaires. A multibehavior index variable was created ranging from 0-5; two separate health behavior cluster indices were created, including high (4-5 behaviors) vs...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555590/differential-effects-of-workaholism-and-work-engagement-on-the-interference-between-life-and-work-domains
#17
Giovanni Di Stefano, Maria Gaudiino
This study analyzed the differences between workaholism and work engagement in relation to their influence on work-life interference. Workaholism is an addiction to work, characterized by obsessive attitude towards job, whereas work engagement concerns a positive pattern of thoughts and feelings about one's job; these two constructs thus represent pathological and healthy forms of heavy work investment, respectively. As a consequence, it was expected that workaholism and work engagement would have different effects on perceived interference between work and life domains...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555589/investigating-the-effects-of-cultural-mindset-priming-on-evaluation-of-job-performance-behaviors
#18
Vipanchi Mishra, Marcus Bost
Recent reviews of performance evaluation process and practices indicate that there is substantial variability in the structure and formalization of performance evaluations in organizations across cultures and call for further exploration of the role of cultural variables on the performance evaluation process. In the current study, we use self-construal priming procedures to evaluate the effects of cultural mindset on the performance evaluation process. Specifically, the effects of independent (individualistic) and interdependent (collectivistic) mindset priming on relative importance given to performance behaviors when making judgments of overall job performance was investigated...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555588/self-esteem-social-comparison-and-facebook-use
#19
Elisa Bergagna, Stefano Tartaglia
Facebook use is very popular among young people, but many open issues remain regarding the individual traits that are antecedents of different behaviours enacted online. This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between self-esteem and the amount of time on Facebook could be mediated by a tendency towards social comparison. Moreover, three different modalities of Facebook use were distinguished, i.e., social interaction, simulation, and search for relations. Because of gender differences in technology use and social comparison, the mediation models were tested separately for males and females...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555587/perceptions-of-close-relationship-through-the-machiavellians%C3%A2-dark-glasses-negativity-distrust-self-protection-against-risk-and-dissatisfaction
#20
Tamás Ináncsi, Attila Pilinszki, Tünde Paál, András Láng
It is commonly known from the literature that Machiavellian individuals have negative attitudes towards people and in general towards the world´s affairs. They are distrustful of the intentions of others, and they get cautiously involved into interpersonal interactions and take risks only if that may not have any severe negative consequence. It is also a fact that there are few ventures in life that potentially involve as much insecurity and personal vulnerability as the establishment and maintenance of close relationships...
November 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
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