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Bioengineering

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754677/application-of-metal-nanoparticle%C3%A2-hydrogel-composites-in-tissue-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Hui-Li Tan, Sin-Yeang Teow, Janarthanan Pushpamalar
Challenges in organ transplantation such as high organ demand and biocompatibility issues have led scientists in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to work on the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. Among different types of scaffolds, polymeric hydrogel scaffolds have received considerable attention because of their biocompatibility and structural similarity to native tissues. However, hydrogel scaffolds have several limitations, such as weak mechanical property and a lack of bioactive property...
February 11, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744131/3d-printing-for-bio-synthetic-biliary-stents
#2
Christen J Boyer, Moheb Boktor, Hrishikesh Samant, Luke A White, Yuping Wang, David H Ballard, Robert C Huebert, Jennifer E Woerner, Ghali E Ghali, Jonathan S Alexander
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method that holds great potential in a variety of future patient-specific medical technologies. This project validated a novel crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (XL-PVA) 3D printed stent infused with collagen, human placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs), and cholangiocytes. The biofabrication method in the present study examined 3D printing and collagen injection molding for rapid prototyping of customized living biliary stents with clinical applications in the setting of malignant and benign bile duct obstructions...
February 9, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744090/human-neonatal-thymus-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-and-chronic-right-ventricle-pressure-overload
#3
Josue Chery, Shan Huang, Lianghui Gong, Shuyun Wang, Zhize Yuan, Joshua Wong, Jeffrey Lee, Sean Johnson, Ming-Sing Si
Right ventricle (RV) failure secondary to pressure overload is associated with a loss of myocardial capillary density and an increase in oxidative stress. We have previously found that human neonatal thymus mesenchymal stem cells (ntMSCs) promote neovascularization, but the ability of ntMSCs to express the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is unknown. We hypothesized that ntMSCs express and secrete SOD3 as well as improve survival in the setting of chronic pressure overload. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared SOD3 expression in ntMSCs to donor-matched bone-derived MSCs and evaluated the effect of ntMSCs in a rat RV pressure overload model induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB)...
February 9, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764524/ear-reconstruction-simulation-from-handcrafting-to-3d-printing
#4
REVIEW
Elisa Mussi, Rocco Furferi, Yary Volpe, Flavio Facchini, Kathleen S McGreevy, Francesca Uccheddu
Microtia is a congenital malformation affecting one in 5000 individuals and is characterized by physical deformity or absence of the outer ear. Nowadays, surgical reconstruction with autologous tissue is the most common clinical practice. The procedure requires a high level of manual and artistic techniques of a surgeon in carving and sculpting of harvested costal cartilage of the patient to recreate an auricular framework to insert within a skin pocket obtained at the malformed ear region. The aesthetic outcomes of the surgery are highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon performing the surgery...
February 5, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717103/extracellular-vesicles-from-the-protozoa-acanthamoeba-castellanii-their-role-in-pathogenesis-environmental-adaptation-and-potential-applications
#5
REVIEW
Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Marina da Silva Ferreira, Allan J Guimarães
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous compartments of distinct cellular origin and biogenesis, displaying different sizes and include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The EVs have been described in almost every living organism, from simple unicellular to higher evolutionary scale multicellular organisms, such as mammals. Several functions have been attributed to these structures, including roles in energy acquisition, cell-to-cell communication, gene expression modulation and pathogenesis...
February 1, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691080/biomass-grinding-process-optimization-using-response-surface-methodology-and-a-hybrid-genetic-algorithm
#6
Jaya Shankar Tumuluru, Dean J Heikkila
Biomass could be a key source of renewable energy. Agricultural waste products, such as corn stover, provide a convenient means to replace fossil fuels, such as coal, and a large amount of feedstock is currently available for energy consumption in the U.S. This study has two main objectives: (1) to understand the impact of corn stover moisture content and grinder speed on grind physical properties; and (2) develop response surface models and optimize these models using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The response surface models developed were used to draw surface plots to understand the interaction effects of the corn stover grind moisture content and grinder speed on the grind physical properties and specific energy consumption...
January 25, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678211/looking-for-a-place-for-dose-dense-tmz-regimens-in-gbm-patients-an-experience-with-mgmt-exploratory-evaluation
#7
Luca Napoleoni, Alessio Cortellini, Katia Cannita, Alessandro Parisi, Antonella Dal Mas, Giuseppe Calvisi, Olga Venditti, Paola Lanfiuti Baldi, Valentina Cocciolone, Alessandro Ricci, Corrado Ficorella
Prolonged exposure to temozolomide (TMZ) could improve clinical outcomes in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. We previously developed a dose-dense regimen of TMZ in a phase II study (180 mg/m2 from days 1 to 5 every two weeks). A retrospective analysis of patients with macroscopic residual GBM treated with "post-induction" dose-dense TMZ was conducted, adding an explorative subgroup analyses among patients with different O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expressions (negative vs positive, < vs ≥ of 50 % of cells stained, < vs ≥ 70% of cells stained)...
January 22, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30669604/noble-metal-nanoparticles-applications-recent-trends-in-food-control
#8
REVIEW
Giuliana Vinci, Mattia Rapa
Scientific research in the nanomaterials field is constantly evolving, making it possible to develop new materials and above all to find new applications. Therefore, nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for different applications: nanomedicine, drug delivery, sensors, optoelectronics and food control. This review explores the recent trend in food control of using noble metallic nanoparticles as determination tools. Two major uses of NPs in food control have been found: the determination of contaminants and bioactive compounds...
January 21, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30669275/brain-organoids-a-bottom-up-approach-for-studying-human-neurodevelopment
#9
REVIEW
Eyal Karzbrun, Orly Reiner
Brain organoids have recently emerged as a three-dimensional tissue culture platform to study the principles of neurodevelopment and morphogenesis. Importantly, brain organoids can be derived from human stem cells, and thus offer a model system for early human brain development and human specific disorders. However, there are still major differences between the in vitro systems and in vivo development. This is in part due to the challenge of engineering a suitable culture platform that will support proper development...
January 18, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658418/characterization-of-plasma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-isolated-by-different-methods-a-comparison-study
#10
Esther Serrano-Pertierra, Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez, Montserrat Rivas, Pedro Oliva, Javier Villafani, Ana Navarro, M Carmen Blanco-López, Eva Cernuda-Morollón
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane structures released by cells that act as potent mediators of intercellular communication. The study of EV biology is important, not only to strengthen our knowledge of their physiological roles, but also to better understand their involvement in several diseases. In the field of biomedicine they have been studied as a novel source of biomarkers and drug delivery vehicles. The most commonly used method for EV enrichment in crude pellet involves serial centrifugation and ultracentrifugation...
January 17, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654439/extracellular-vesicle-quantification-and-characterization-common-methods-and-emerging-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Thomas A Hartjes, Serhii Mytnyk, Guido W Jenster, Volkert van Steijn, Martin E van Royen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of small membrane vesicles that carry information about cells by which they are secreted. Growing interest in the role of EVs in intercellular communication, but also in using their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in (bio) medical applications, demands for accurate assessment of their biochemical and physical properties. In this review, we provide an overview of available technologies for EV analysis by describing their working principles, assessing their utility in EV research and summarising their potential and limitations...
January 16, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30609780/mobile-microfluidics
#12
REVIEW
Mirela Alistar
Microfluidics platforms can program small amounts of fluids to execute a bio-protocol, and thus, can automate the work of a technician and also integrate a large part of laboratory equipment. Although most microfluidic systems have considerably reduced the size of a laboratory, they are still benchtop units, of a size comparable to a desktop computer. In this paper, we argue that achieving true mobility in microfluidics would revolutionize the domain by making laboratory services accessible during traveling or even in daily situations, such as sport and outdoor activities...
January 3, 2019: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30598033/stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-in-skin-repair
#13
REVIEW
Andrea da Fonseca Ferreira, Dawidson Assis Gomes
Stem cell extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely studied because of their excellent therapeutic potential. EVs from different types of stem cell can improve vascularization as well as aid in the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The skin is a complex organ that is susceptible to various types of injury. Strategies designed to restore epithelial tissues' integrity with stem cell EVs have shown promising results. Different populations of stem cell EVs are able to control inflammation, accelerate skin cell migration and proliferation, control wound scarring, improve angiogenesis, and even ameliorate signs of skin aging...
December 30, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586920/feature-extraction-of-shoulder-joint-s-voluntary-flexion-extension-movement-based-on-electroencephalography-signals-for-power-assistance
#14
Hongbo Liang, Chi Zhu, Yu Iwata, Shota Maedono, Mika Mochita, Chang Liu, Naoya Ueda, Peirang Li, Haoyong Yu, Yuling Yan, Feng Duan
Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) has been considered as an effective way to help and support both the disabled rehabilitation and healthy individuals' daily lives to use their brain activity information instead of their bodies. In order to reduce costs and control exoskeleton robots better, we aim to estimate the necessary torque information for a subject from his/her electroencephalography (EEG) signals when using an exoskeleton robot to perform the power assistance of the upper limb without using external torque sensors nor electromyography (EMG) sensors...
December 24, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586900/optimization-of-decellularization-procedure-in-rat-esophagus-for-possible-development-of-a-tissue-engineered-construct
#15
Panagiotis Mallis, Panagiota Chachlaki, Michalis Katsimpoulas, Catherine Stavropoulos-Giokas, Efstathios Michalopoulos
Background: Current esophageal treatment is associated with significant morbidity. The gold standard therapeutic strategies are stomach interposition or autografts derived from the jejunum and colon. However, severe adverse reactions, such as esophageal leakage, stenosis and infection, accompany the above treatments, which, most times, are life threating. The aim of this study was the optimization of a decellularization protocol in order to develop a proper esophageal tissue engineered construct. Methods: Rat esophagi were obtained from animals and were decellularized...
December 24, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30583456/a-three-compartment-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-the-interstitial-concentration-of-talaporfin-sodium-in-the-myocardium-for-photodynamic-therapy-a-method-combining-measured-fluorescence-and-analysis-of-the-compartmental-origin-of-the-fluorescence
#16
Yuko Uno, Emiyu Ogawa, Eitaro Aiyoshi, Tsunenori Arai
To evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy occurring in the interstitial space of the myocardium, we estimated the interstitial concentration of talaporfin sodium in the canine myocardium by constructing a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model based on measured changes in talaporfin sodium plasma concentration and myocardial fluorescence. Differential rate equations of talaporfin sodium concentration in the plasma, interstitial space, and cell compartment were developed with individual compartment volume, concentration, and rate constants...
December 21, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30567391/bioprocess-engineering-aspects-of-sustainable-polyhydroxyalkanoate-production-in-cyanobacteria
#17
REVIEW
Donya Kamravamanesh, Maximilian Lackner, Christoph Herwig
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of biopolymers produced in various microorganisms as carbon and energy reserve when the main nutrient, necessary for growth, is limited. PHAs are attractive substitutes for conventional petrochemical plastics, as they possess similar material properties, along with biocompatibility and complete biodegradability. The use of PHAs is restricted, mainly due to the high production costs associated with the carbon source used for bacterial fermentation. Cyanobacteria can accumulate PHAs under photoautotrophic growth conditions using CO₂ and sunlight...
December 18, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551608/geometric-effect-for-biological-reactors-and-biological-fluids
#18
REVIEW
Kazusa Beppu, Ziane Izri, Yusuke T Maeda, Ryota Sakamoto
As expressed "God made the bulk; the surface was invented by the devil" by W. Pauli, the surface has remarkable properties because broken symmetry in surface alters the material properties. In biological systems, the smallest functional and structural unit, which has a functional bulk space enclosed by a thin interface, is a cell. Cells contain inner cytosolic soup in which genetic information stored in DNA can be expressed through transcription (TX) and translation (TL). The exploration of cell-sized confinement has been recently investigated by using micron-scale droplets and microfluidic devices...
December 13, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544889/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-pediatric-neuro-oncology
#19
EDITORIAL
Natasha Pillay Smiley, Soumen Khatua
Pediatric Neuro-Oncology is a highly specialized field encompassing molecular biology, clinical acumen, evidence based medicine, cancer genetics and neuropsychological care for the diagnosis and treatment of children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. [...].
December 11, 2018: Bioengineering
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30544573/the-effect-of-carbon-monoxide-on-the-exergy-behavior-of-the-lungs
#20
Juliana Rangel Cenzi, Cyro Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian Mady
The present work evaluates the impact of carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation on the human lung's exergy behavior by considering different levels of intoxication and amounts of hemoglobin. Its impact is significant because CO is one of the most common air pollutants in cities and an increase in destroyed exergy may be correlated with lifespan reduction or the malfunctioning of certain human organs. An evaluation of the severity of intoxication as a function of city altitude may intensify the hazard associated with carbon monoxide...
December 7, 2018: Bioengineering
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