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Plants (Basel, Switzerland)

Qianqian Sheng, Zunling Zhu
Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) at a high concentration is among the most common and harmful air pollutants. The present study aimed to explore the physiological responses of plants exposed to NO₂. A total of 41 plants were classified into 13 functional groups according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification system. The plants were exposed to 6 μL/L NO₂ in an open-top glass chamber. The physiological parameters (chlorophyll (Chl) content, peroxidase (POD) activity, and soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations) and leaf mineral ion contents (nitrogen (N⁺), phosphorus (P⁺), potassium (K⁺), calcium (Ca2+ ), magnesium (Mg2+ ), manganese (Mn2+ ), and zinc (Zn2+ )) of 41 garden plants were measured...
February 16, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Juan José Reyes-Pérez, Silvia Citlaly Ramírez-Rodríguez, Lilia Salas-Pérez, Manuel Fortis-Hernández, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Enrique Troyo-Diéguez
The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) on the yield and phytochemical content in hydroponically grown cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). (1) Background: The importance of Mexico's cucumber production is based on its cultivation in recent decades as one of the major winter crops; in addition, the production of vegetables under hydroponic systems has increased significantly during the last few years, with cucumber being one of the vegetables with a high economic potential...
February 16, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Modhi O Alotaibi, Afrah E Mohammed, Taghreed A Almutairi, Mudawi M Elobeid
The present investigation aimed to assess the impact of copper (Cu) stress on the physiological and proteomic behavior of Eucalyptus camaldulensis . E. camaldulensis is likely a potential phytoremediator in areas vulnerable to Cu contamination, such as the industrial areas of Riyadh. To realize this objective, young seedlings of E. camaldulensis were potted in an open area with soil comprised of clay and sand. Different doses of Cu (30, 50, and 100 µM) were applied to the plants as CuSO₄.5H₂O for 6 weeks...
February 15, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Clarisse Brígido, Sakshi Singh, Esther Menéndez, Maria J Tavares, Bernard R Glick, Maria do Rosário Félix, Solange Oliveira, Mário Carvalho
The aims of this study were to isolate, identify and characterize culturable endophytic bacteria from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) roots grown in different soils. In addition, the effects of rhizobial inoculation, soil and stress on the functionality of those culturable endophytic bacterial communities were also investigated. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the endophytic bacteria isolated in this work belong to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with Enterobacter and Pseudomonas being the most frequently observed genera...
February 14, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
John T Hancock, Steven J Neill
Nitric oxide (NO) is an immensely important signaling molecule in animals and plants. It is involved in plant reproduction, development, key physiological responses such as stomatal closure, and cell death. One of the controversies of NO metabolism in plants is the identification of enzymatic sources. Although there is little doubt that nitrate reductase (NR) is involved, the identification of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme remains elusive, and it is becoming increasingly clear that such a protein does not exist in higher plants, even though homologues have been found in algae...
February 12, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Garsiya Ekaterina Robertovna, Konovalov Dmitryi Alexeevich, Shamilov Arnold Alexeevich, Glushko Margarita Petrovna, Orynbasarova Kulpan Kenzhebaevna
For many years, plants have been used in the traditional medicine of different cultures. The biennial plant of the family Asteraceae, Onopordum acanthium L., also known as Scotch thistle, is used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and cardiotonic agent. The plant is widespread in the world; it grows in Europe and Asia and was introduced to America and Australia. Stems and buds of the first-year plant are used in cooking as an analogue of artichoke in European cuisine. Additionally, inflorescences contain a complex of proteolytic enzymes "onopordosin", which may be used as a milk-clotting agent in the dairy industry...
February 12, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Meng Wu, Min Si, Xieyu Li, Linyan Song, Jianlong Liu, Rui Zhai, Liu Cong, Rongrong Yue, Chengquan Yang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu, Zhigang Wang
The synthesis of anthocyanin in pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ) fruit is regulated by light. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of pear fruit coloring mediated by upstream light-signaling regulators. Here, the photoresponse factors CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC (COP) 1.1 and 1.2 were cloned from 'Red Zaosu' peel to study their functions in pear fruit coloring. The overexpression vectors pBI121-PbCOP1.1 and pBI121-PbCOP1.2 were constructed to analyze their effects on anthocyanin synthesis in pear fruit...
February 12, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Bill Gordon-Kamm, Nagesh Sardesai, Maren Arling, Keith Lowe, George Hoerster, Scott Betts, And Todd Jones
Efficient transformation of numerous important crops remains a challenge, due predominantly to our inability to stimulate growth of transgenic cells capable of producing plants. For years, this difficulty has been partially addressed by tissue culture strategies that improve regeneration either through somatic embryogenesis or meristem formation. Identification of genes involved in these developmental processes, designated here as morphogenic genes, provides useful tools in transformation research. In species from eudicots and cereals to gymnosperms, ectopic overexpression of genes involved in either embryo or meristem development has been used to stimulate growth of transgenic plants...
February 11, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Francisco J Corpas, Luis A Del Río, José M Palma
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical endogenously generated in plant cells. Peroxisomes are cell organelles characterized by an active metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also one of the main cellular sites of NO production in higher plants. In this mini-review, an updated and comprehensive overview is presented of the evidence available demonstrating that plant peroxisomes have the capacity to generate NO, and how this molecule and its derived products, peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻) and S -nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), can modulate the ROS metabolism of peroxisomes, mainly throughout protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including S -nitrosation and tyrosine nitration...
February 10, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ludmila Khrustaleva, Majd Mardini, Natalia Kudryavtseva, Rada Alizhanova, Dmitry Romanov, Pavel Sokolov, Grigory Monakhos
We exploited the advantages of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to monitor the introgression process at the chromosome level using a simple and robust molecular marker in the interspecific breeding of bulb onion ( Allium cepa L.) that is resistant to downy mildew. Downy mildew ( Peronospora destructor [Berk.] Casp.) is the most destructive fungal disease for bulb onions. With the application of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and previously developed DMR1 marker, homozygous introgression lines that are resistant to downy mildew were successfully produced in a rather short breeding time...
February 4, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mohammed Ibrahim, Manjree Agarwal, Jeong Oh Yang, Muslim Abdulhussein, Xin Du, Giles Hardy, Yonglin Ren
The study focused on the influence of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) benzyladenine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the flowers of two modern rose varieties, Hybrid Tea and Floribunda. Thirty-six plants of Hybrid Tea and Floribunda were tested. Benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid were applied at 0, 100 and 200 mg/L to both rose varieties. Gas chromatography, coupled with flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry, was used to analyze and identify the volatile organic compounds from the flowers...
January 31, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ali Raza, Ali Razzaq, Sundas Saher Mehmood, Xiling Zou, Xuekun Zhang, Yan Lv, Jinsong Xu
Agriculture and climate change are internally correlated with each other in various aspects, as climate change is the main cause of biotic and abiotic stresses, which have adverse effects on the agriculture of a region. The land and its agriculture are being affected by climate changes in different ways, e.g., variations in annual rainfall, average temperature, heat waves, modifications in weeds, pests or microbes, global change of atmospheric CO₂ or ozone level, and fluctuations in sea level. The threat of varying global climate has greatly driven the attention of scientists, as these variations are imparting negative impact on global crop production and compromising food security worldwide...
January 30, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Md Shofiqul Islam, John Ontoy, Prasanta K Subudhi
Soil and water salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that reduce growth and productivity in major food crops including rice. The lack of congruence of salt tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in multiple genetic backgrounds and multiple environments is a major hindrance for undertaking marker-assisted selection (MAS). A genome-wide meta-analysis of QTLs controlling seedling-stage salt tolerance was conducted in rice using QTL information from 12 studies. Using a consensus map, 11 meta-QTLs for three traits with smaller confidence intervals were localized on chromosomes 1 and 2...
January 29, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vjera Bilušić Vundać
The genus Stachys is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae, and it comprises about 300 species. Some species are highly polymorphic, with a number of infraspecific taxa. The aim of the present review is to summarise the available knowledge on 10 taxa belonging to the Balkan Peninsula flora ( S. alpina L., S. germanica L., S. menthifolia Vis., S. obliqua Waldst. Et Kit., S. officinalis (L.) Trevis., S. palustris L., S. recta L. subsp. recta , S. recta L. subsp. subcrenata (Vis.) Briq., S. salviifolia Ten...
January 29, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Anumalla Mahender, B P Mallikarjuna Swamy, Annamalai Anandan, Jauhar Ali
Iron (Fe) deficiency and toxicity are the most widely prevalent soil-related micronutrient disorders in rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Progress in rice cultivars with improved tolerance has been hampered by a poor understanding of Fe availability in the soil, the transportation mechanism, and associated genetic factors for the tolerance of Fe toxicity soil (FTS) or Fe deficiency soil (FDS) conditions. In the past, through conventional breeding approaches, rice varieties were developed especially suitable for low- and high-pH soils, which indirectly helped the varieties to tolerate FTS and FDS conditions...
January 28, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Weilong Kong, Hua Zhong, Xiaoxiao Deng, Mayank Gautam, Ziyun Gong, Yue Zhang, Gangqing Zhao, Chang Liu, Yangsheng Li
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 ( GH3 ), a member of the Auxin-responsive gene family, is involved in plant growth, the plant developmental process, and various stress responses. The GH3 gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays . However, the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species remains unknown and the function of the GH3 gene family in Oryza sativa is not well-documented. Here, a systematic analysis was performed in six Oryza species/subspecies, including four wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies...
January 24, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Shiwei Ma, Shoukai Lin, Menglin Wang, Yang Zou, Huan Tao, Wei Liu, Lina Zhang, Kangjing Liang, Yufang Ai, Huaqin He
Rice blast, caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe grisea ( M. grisea ), lead to the decrease of rice yields widely and destructively, threatening global food security. Although many resistant genes had been isolated and identified in various rice varieties, it is still not enough to clearly understand the mechanism of race-specific resistant ability in rice, especially on the protein level. In this research, proteomic methods were employed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in susceptible rice variety CO39 and its two near isogenic lines (NILs), CN-4a and CN-4b, in response to the infection of two isolates with different pathogenicity, GUY11 and 81278ZB15...
January 23, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Surendra Neupane, Sarah E Schweitzer, Achal Neupane, Ethan J Andersen, Anne Fennell, Ruanbao Zhou, Madhav P Nepal
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) genes encode proteins that regulate biotic and abiotic stresses in plants through signaling cascades comprised of three major subfamilies: MAP Kinase (MPK), MAPK Kinase (MKK), and MAPKK Kinase (MKKK). The main objectives of this research were to conduct genome-wide identification of MAPK genes in Helianthus annuus and examine functional divergence of these genes in relation to those in nine other plant species ( Amborella trichopoda , Aquilegia coerulea , Arabidopsis thaliana , Daucus carota , Glycine max , Oryza sativa , Solanum lycopersicum , Sphagnum fallax , and Vitis vinifera ), representing diverse taxonomic groups of the Plant Kingdom...
January 22, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Natividad Chaves Lobón, Irene Ferrer de la Cruz, Juan Carlos Alías Gallego
Cistus ladanifer has been described as an allelopathic and autoallelopathic species, and the compounds that could be involved in its autotoxicity are the flavonoids and diterpenes present in the exudate of its leaves. The aim of this study was to determine which family of compounds, either phenols or terpenes, are responsible for the autoallelopathic activity quantified in C. ladanifer . These compounds were extracted from the exudate of young leaves collected in spring and separated by column chromatography into two fractions: diterpenes and flavonoids...
January 22, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jinyin Chen, Yuting Shen, Chuying Chen, Chunpeng Wan
Citrus fruits are subjected to a diversity of postharvest diseases caused by various pathogens during picking, packing, storage and transportation. Green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum , respectively, are two major postharvest citrus diseases and cause significant economic losses during the commercialization phase. Currently, the control of postharvest citrus diseases relies mainly on the use of synthetic fungicides, which usually result in the resistance against fungal attack, environment pollution and health hazards...
January 22, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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