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Veterinary Sciences

Ramón M Almela, Agustina Ansón
In dogs, melanomas are relatively common tumors and the most common form of oral malignancy. Biological behavior is highly variable, usually aggressive, and frequently metastatic, with reported survival times of three months for oral or mucosal melanomas in advanced disease stages. Classical clinical management remains challenging; thus, novel and more efficacious treatment strategies are needed. Evidence-based medicine supports the role of the immune system to treat neoplastic diseases. Besides, immunotherapy offers the possibility of a precise medicinal approach to treat cancer...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Federica Savini, Laura Gallina, Francesca Mazza, Jole Mariella, Carolina Castagnetti, Alessandra Scagliarini
Despite the characteristic species specificity of Papillomaviruses (PVs), the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1, 2, and-more rarely-13, can cross-infect equids, where they are involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoid neoplasms. Sarcoids are locally invasive fibroblastic skin tumors that represent the most common skin neoplasms in horses worldwide. The transmission mechanism of BPV is still controversial in horses. Thus far, direct and indirect routes have been implicated, while vertical transmission has been suggested after the detection of viral DNA in the semen of healthy stallions...
February 6, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Giorgio Franceschini, Marta Bottino, Ilary Millet, Elisa Martello, Francesca Zaltron, Anna Rosa Favretto, Nicoletta Vonesch, Paola Tomao, Alessandro Mannelli
The objective of the present study was the identification of farming practices in the production of turkeys for human consumption, and their ranking in terms of the occupational probability of exposure to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, for farm workers. We gathered evidence and data from scientific literature, on risk factors for AMR in farmers, and on the prevalence of those hazards across farming phases. We administered semi-structured interviews to public and private veterinarians in Northern Italy, to obtain detailed information on turkey farming phases, and on working practices...
February 1, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Valentina Maria Merlino, Danielle Borra, Tibor Verduna, Stefano Massaglia
Due to an error during production, the order of the first and last names of the authors are incorrect in the published paper [...].
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Richard Kock, Cord Heuer
Relatively few scientists are investigating health at the wildlife⁻livestock interface.[...].
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Giovanna Bertolini
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are described. Portal collaterals are further discussed as high- and low-flow connections and categorized in hepatic arterioportal malformation, arteriovenous fistula, end-to-side and side-to-side congenital portosystemic shunts, acquired portosystemic shunts, cavoportal and porto-portal collaterals...
January 22, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Ana M M Stoian, Raymond R R Rowland
One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective PRRS vaccines, which deviate from live virus designs, would be an important step towards the control of PRRS. Potential vaccine antigens are found in the five surface proteins of the virus, which form covalent and multiple noncovalent interactions and possess hypervariable epitopes...
January 17, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Olimpia Barbato, Gabriella Guelfi, Laura Menchetti, Gabriele Brecchia, Noelita Melo de Sousa, Claudio Canali, Francesco Grandoni, Maria Carmela Scatà, Giovanna De Matteis, Anna Beatrice Casano, Jean François Beckers, Vittoria Lucia Barile
: The main objective of this study was to assess PAG2 mRNA expression in maternal blood cells at the peri-implantation period in water buffalo; moreover, we wanted to evaluate the earliest time in which PAG-2 could be detected in maternal blood. Thirty-two lactating buffaloes artificially inseminated (AI) were utilized. Blood was collected at Days 0, 14, 18, 28, 40 after AI (AI = day 0). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound at Days 28 and 40 post AI. Out of 32 buffaloes, 14 were pregnant (P group) and 18 were not pregnant (NP group)...
January 14, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Carlos Morales-Vallecilla, Nicolas Ramírez, David Villar, Maria Camila Díaz, Sandra Bustamante, Duncan Ferguson
A questionnaire study was conducted among 131 veterinarians practicing in the city of Medellin, Colombia, to assess views on pain evaluation and management in dogs and cats. When pain recognition and quantification abilities were used as a perceived competence of proper pain assessment, only 83/131 (63.4%, confidence interval (CI) 0.55⁻0.72) were deemed to have satisfactory skills, with the rest considered to be deficient. There were 49/131 (37.4) veterinarians who had participated in continuing education programs and were more confident assessing pain, with an odds ratio (±standard error) of 2...
January 10, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Danyel Evseev, Katharine E Magor
Mallard ducks are important natural hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and many strains circulate in this reservoir and cause little harm. Some strains can be transmitted to other hosts, including chickens, and cause respiratory and systemic disease. Rarely, these highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause disease in mallards, while chickens are highly susceptible. The long co-evolution of mallard ducks with influenza viruses has undoubtedly fine-tuned many immunological host⁻pathogen interactions to confer resistance to disease, which are poorly understood...
January 10, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Atilio Sersun Calefi, Juliana Garcia da Silva Fonseca, Catarina Augusta de Queiroz Nunes, Ana Paula Nascimento Lima, Wanderley Moreno Quinteiro-Filho, Jorge Camilo Flório, Adriano Zager, Antonio José Piantino Ferreira, João Palermo-Neto
Heat stress has been related to the impairment of behavioral and immunological parameters in broiler chickens. However, the literature is not clear on the involvement of neuroimmune interactions in a heat stress situation associated with bacterial and parasitic infections. The present study evaluated the production of monoamines and their metabolites in brain regions (rostral pallium, hypothalamus, brain stem, and midbrain) in broiler chickens submitted to chronic heat stress and/or infection and co-infection with Eimeria spp...
January 9, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Denner Santos Dos Anjos, Aline Fernandes Vital, Patrícia de Faria Lainetti, Antonio Fernando Leis-Filho, Fabiola Dalmolin, Fabiana Elias, Sabryna Gouveia Calazans, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves
Canine mammary tumors (CMT) represent the most common cancer in noncastrated female dogs. Interestingly, triple-negative tumors are the most common molecular subtype in female dogs. In this study, we proposed to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and microvascular density (MVD) in a group of metastatic and nonmetastatic triple-negative CMT and compare the expression based on clinical parameters. Twenty-six female dogs with triple-negative mammary tumors were divided into three groups: nonmetastatic tumors (NMT) ( n = 11), tumors with lymph node metastasis (LNM) ( n = 10), and tumors with lung metastasis (LM) ( n = 5)...
January 9, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
David De la Torre, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Ruy D Chacon, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Avian rotavirus A (ARtV-A) is a virus that affects young birds, causing acute diarrhea and economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The techniques used for the diagnosis of ARtV-A include electron microscopy, isolation in cell culture, and serology, as well as molecular techniques, such as the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The objective of this work was to standardize a real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using SYBR Green chemistry for the rapid detection and quantification of ARtV-A from bird tissues and materials fixed on FTA cards on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of segment 6 (S6), which codes for the structural VP6 protein of ARtV-A...
December 29, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Roberta Barrasso, Elisabetta Bonerba, Alessandra Emilia Savarino, Edmondo Ceci, Giancarlo Bozzo, Giuseppina Tantillo
Chemical residues of veterinary drugs such as streptomycin, chloramphenicol, macrolides, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and aminoglycosides and other contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals have been found in honey, leading to concerns for human health. Indeed, there is a growing interest in their presence and persistence in the environment because low levels of antibiotics may favour the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Moreover, antibiotics present in honey may produce residues in foodstuffs, causing adverse effects on humans such as allergic reactions, toxic effects and damage to the central nervous systems...
December 28, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Marlene Sickinger, Joachim Roth, Klaus Failing, Axel Wehrend
Abomasal displacement (AD) to the left is a common disease in high-yielding dairy cows after parturition. In view of the previously reported changes in tissue neuropeptide concentrations in cows with AD, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AD and breed on serum neuropeptide concentrations. For this purpose, blood samples of 33 German Holstein (GH) cows with AD, 36 healthy controls (GH), and 32 healthy German Fleckvieh (GF) cows were collected, and concentrations of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and interleukin1β (IL-1β) were measured via commercially available ELISA kits...
December 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Konosuke Otomaru, Rei Ogawa, Shoko Oishi, Yuki Iwamoto, Hyeyoung Hong, Kathuhisa Nagai, Koji Hyakutake, Chikara Kubota, Takahiro Kaneshige
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vaccination and beta-carotene supplementation on blood oxidative stress and antibody response in calves. Thirty Japanese Black calves were randomly assigned to two groups. Fifteen calves received 20 mg of beta-carotene supplemented into their daily provided rations from 2 to 8 weeks of age (BC group), and the other 15 calves did not receive the daily beta-carotene supplement (control group). All calves received a commercially available modified live bovine respiratory syncytial (RS) virus vaccine at 4 and 8 weeks of age...
December 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Terdsak Yano, Sith Premashthira, Tosapol Dejyong, Sahatchai Tangtrongsup, Mo D Salman
Three Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks in northern Thailand that occurred during the implementation of the national FMD strategic plan in 2008⁻2015 are described to illustrate the lessons learned and to improve the prevention and control of future outbreaks. In 2008, during a FMD outbreak on a dairy farm, milk delivery was banned for 30 days. This was a part of movement management, a key strategy for FMD control in dairy farms in the area. In 2009, more than half the animals on a pig farm were affected by FMD...
December 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Selamawit Addissie, Hans Klingemann
Infusions with immune cells, such as lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells, represent one of several modalities of immunotherapy. In human patients with advanced B-cell leukemia or lymphoma, infusions with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-lymphocytes have shown promising responses. However, the scientific and clinical development of cell-based therapies for dogs, who get cancer of similar types as humans, is lagging behind. One reason is that immune cells and their functionality in dogs are less well characterized, largely due a lack of canine-specific reagents to detect surface markers, and specific cytokines to isolate and expand their immune cells...
December 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
M Katie Sheats, Sarah Hammond, April A Kedrowicz
Client communication is a core clinical skill that is taught as part of the required curriculum at many veterinary colleges. Although much client communication occurs face-to-face, telephone communication is used to provide patient updates, relay results of diagnostic tests, and check on discharged patients. This research explored fourth year veterinary medical students' telephone communication skills. We recorded and analyzed the transcripts of 25 calls students made to clients of three different services in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital...
December 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Ricardo Zanella, Luísa V Lago, Arthur N da Silva, Fábio Pértille, Nathã S de Carvalho, João Cláudio do Carmo Panetto, Giovana C Zanella, Fernanda L Facioli, Marcos Vinicius G B da Silva
The Indubrasil breed was developed in the Brazilian region called Triângulo Mineiro as a result of a cross between zebu cattle. Initially, it was used as a terminal cross and currently it represents approximately 4.45% of all the Brazilian zebu cattle. Studies were conducted to estimate genetic parameters in the Indubrasil using pedigree information, however, until now, no study has been developed using large-scale genomic markers in this breed. Pedigree information are widely used to investigate population parameters; however, they can neglect some estimates when compared to the use of genomic markers...
December 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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