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SSM—Population Health

Precious Esie, Theresa L Osypuk, Sidney R Schuler, Lisa M Bates
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is highly prevalent globally, and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including depression. Though women living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a larger burden of IPV, little is known about whether IPV increases the risk of depression among non-pregnant women and in contexts of high prevalence. Within the setting of rural Bangladesh, this study examined the relationship between the severity of marital IPV against women and the risk of depression...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Raman Mishra, Monica
•Women over age 40, from lower socio-economic status and those widowed/divorced are at elevated risk.•Diabetes, hypertension, obesity and unhealthy diet are the major risk factors.•Treatment-seeking is higher in women over age 40, from upper socio-economic status and those married.•Autonomy, accessibility, affordability and availability influence treatment-seeking behaviour.
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Tanya Andersson Nystedt, Maria Rosvall, Martin Lindström
Discrimination has is an important social determinant of health and though some research has been carried out on this it is mostly from the United States, which may not be generalisable to Europe and Sweden. This study investigated the association between self-reported experiences of repeated discrimination and all-cause mortality in Scania, Sweden. The Scania Public Health survey was sent out in 2008 with a follow-up in 2013 through the Swedish national cause of death register (N=28,062). The exposure variable under investigation was self-reported discrimination and the outcome variable was all-cause mortality...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Kat Chief Moon-Riley, Jennifer L Copeland, Gerlinde A S Metz, Cheryl L Currie
We investigated the biological impacts of Indigenous residential school attendance on the adult children of survivors, operationalized through allostatic load (AL); and the extent to which intergenerational trauma, operationalized through adverse childhood experience (ACE) score, mediated this association. Data were collected in-person from a university-based sample of Indigenous adults ( N = 90, mean age: 28 years) in a mid-sized city in western Canada between 2015 and 2016. Associations were analyzed in multinominal regression models, with terciled AL and ACE scores as outcomes...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Tina Løkke Vie, Karl Ove Hufthammer, Eivind Meland, Hans Johan Breidablik
Background: Self-rated health (SRH), which is frequently used in epidemiological research, has consistently been shown to be a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for demographic, social and medical risk factors. However, less is known about the relationship between SRH and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood. Objective: To investigate SRH in young people (13-35 years-old) as a predictor of all-cause mortality in young adulthood (deaths before age 54) and examine the associated causes of death...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Alexander C Wagenaar, Melvin D Livingston, Sara Markowitz, Kelli A Komro
Poverty has numerous deleterious effects on health, and the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the major policy tool used to alleviate poverty in the U.S. We evaluate effects of four distinct changes in earned income tax credit law in Washington, DC on maternal behaviors and infant outcomes. An interrupted time-series design was used with 312 monthly measures from 1990 through 2015 analyzed in 2018 (total n = 225,933 births). States with no EITC were included as the comparison group; analyses involved ARIMA modeling...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Anna Barbuscia, Mikko Myrskylä, Alice Goisis
The increasing number of children conceived through medically assisted reproduction (MAR, including IVF/ICSI, intrauterine insemination and ovulation induction) has led to concerns about the potential negative effects of fertility treatments on children's psychosocial health. Some studies suggest that MAR children might be at higher risk of developing psychosocial problems when they enter adolescence. However, very few studies have examined the development of MAR children after childhood. Moreover, even though parental socio-economic characteristics are known to be highly correlated with children's psychosocial development, most existing studies on the outcomes of MAR children did not take into account the selective characteristics of the couples who accessed fertility treatments...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Jack Lam, Martin O'Flaherty, Janeen Baxter
This study estimates multilevel mixed effects models of three retrospective measures of childhood health - self-rated childhood health, exposure to parental smoking growing up, and missing school for 30 or more consecutive days due to a health event - on levels and changes in physical functioning at age 50 and beyond. Using data from 15 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, the results show that variation in the level of later-life physical functioning is associated with childhood health...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Matthias Rieger, Sofia Karina Trommlerová, Radu Ban, Kristen Jeffers, Matthew Hutmacher
Background: Socio-economic and demographic determinants of child growth at ages 0-5 years in developing countries are well documented. However, Precision Public Health interventions and population targeting require more finely grained knowledge about the existence and character of temporal changes in child growth associations. Methods: We evaluated the temporal stability of associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of children aged 0-59 months and child, parental, household, and community and infrastructure factors by following 25 countries over time (1991-2014) in repeated cross-sections of 91 Demographic and Health Surveys using random effect models and Wald tests...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Gu Li, Amery D Wu, Sheila K Marshall, Ryan J Watson, Jones K Adjei, Minjeong Park, Elizabeth M Saewyc
There is limited research on evaluating nonrandomized population health interventions. We aimed to introduce a new approach for assessing site-level longitudinal effects of population health interventions (SLEPHI) by innovatively applying multiple group multilevel (MG-ML) modeling to repeated cycles of cross-sectional data collected from different individuals of the same sites at different times, a design commonly employed in public health research. For illustration, we used this SLEPHI method to examine the influence of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) on school-level perceived safety among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual (HET) adolescents...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Joseph T Lariscy
More than 50 years after the U.S. Surgeon General's first report on cigarette smoking and mortality, smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. The first report established a causal association between smoking and lung cancer, and subsequent reports expanded the list of smoking-attributable causes of death to include other cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and respiratory diseases. For a second level of causes of death, the current evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship with smoking...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Hanno Hoven, Johannes Siegrist, Marcel Goldberg, Céline Ribet, Marie Zins, Morten Wahrendorf
Background: To further explain the association between low socioeconomic position and increased risk of poor health, research started to consider life course conditions, including previous occupational positions and patterns of social mobility in the analysis. We describe patterns of intragenerational social mobility and investigate their associations with depressive symptoms. Methods: We use data from the French CONSTANCES study, a population-based cohort and restrict the sample to people aged 45 to 60...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Chi-Tsun Chiu, Mark D Hayward, Angelique Chan, David B Matchar
Objective: To examine educational differences in the compression of disability incidence in the United States. Method: We use the Health and Retirement Study and techniques of microsimulation and bootstrap to estimate the distribution of mortality and disability incidence for major education groups. Results: Higher education is associated with a right shift in the age distributions of both mortality and disability incidence, and more compressed distributions above the modal ages (p<0...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Venkatesan Chakrapani, P V M Lakshmi, Alexander C Tsai, Pandara Purayil Vijin, Pradeep Kumar, Venkatesh Srinivas
The theory of syndemics has been used to explain elevated HIV risk facing men who have sex with men (MSM). However, few studies have employed suitable analytical methods to test this theory. Using data from a probability-based sample of MSM in India, we tested three proposed models linking the co-occurring epidemics of violence victimisation, drug use, and frequent alcohol use to HIV risk: 1) the syndemic model of synergistically interacting epidemics; 2) the "chains of risk" model; and 3) the model of mutually causal epidemics...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
A Drewnowski, D Arterburn, J Zane, A Aggarwal, S Gupta, P M Hurvitz, A V Moudon, J Bobb, A Cook, P Lozano, D Rosenberg
Improving the built environment (BE) is viewed as one strategy to improve community diets and health. The present goal is to review the literature on the effects of BE on health, highlight its limitations, and explore the growing use of natural experiments in BE research, such as the advent of new supermarkets, revitalized parks, or new transportation systems. Based on recent studies on movers, a paradigm shift in built-environment health research may be imminent. Following the classic Moving to Opportunity study in the US, the present Moving to Health (M2H) strategy takes advantage of the fact that changing residential location can entail overnight changes in multiple BE variables...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Terrence D Hill, Andrew K Jorgenson, Peter Ore, Kelly S Balistreri, Brett Clark
Although studies have shown that air pollution can be devastating to population health, little is known about the health implications of the intersection of air pollution and income inequality. We investigate if air pollution is especially detrimental to the health of US state populations characterized by more inequitable distributions of income. In other words, are the populations of states with higher levels of income inequality especially vulnerable to similar levels of air pollution? We use two-way fixed-effects panel regression techniques to analyze longitudinal data for 49 US states and the District of Columbia (2000-2010) to model state-level life expectancy as a function of fine particulate matter, income inequality, and other state-level factors...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Kelli Stidham Hall, Jennifer L Beauregard, Shelby T Rentmeester, Melvin Livingston, Kathleen Mullan Harris
Objective: We examined the effects of adverse life experiences (ALEs) on rates of unintended first pregnancy, including differential effects by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, among women in a national longitudinal cohort study. Methods: We drew upon 15-years of data from 8810 adolescent and young adult females in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using 40 different ALEs reported across childhood and adolescence, we created an additive ALE index, whereby higher scores indicated greater ALE exposure...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Tiziana Leone
Background: Mid-life is a neglected stage of women's lives, particularly in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Birth injuries, menopause and manual labour can contribute to health problems in the mid-life. Objectives: This study analyses the relationship between women's health deterioration and age across socio-economic groups in 6 countries (China, Ghana, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and India). Methods: Using constrained cubic splines, I analysed data from the WHO SAGE survey to examine age and wealth patterns in the onset of deterioration in objective proxies of ageing...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Thomas Verbeek
Following the growing empirical evidence on the health effects of air pollution and noise, the fair distribution of these impacts receives increasing attention. The existing environmental inequality studies often focus on a single environmental impact, apply a limited range of covariates or do not correct for spatial autocorrelation. This article presents a geospatial data analysis on Ghent (Belgium), combining residential exposure to air pollution and noise with socioeconomic variables and housing variables...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Adam Drewnowski, James Buszkiewicz, Anju Aggarwal
Background: Documenting geographic disparities in dietary behaviors can help inform public health interventions at the local level. Objective: To study and visualize socioeconomic gradient in soda and salad consumption using a geo-localized measure of socioeconomic status in contrast to more traditional measures. Methods: Geo-localized dietary intake data came from the Seattle Obesity Study I, a population-based sample of King County adults (n=1099)...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
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