Jeong Man Cho, Sojung Sun, Eunji Im, Hyunwon Yang, Tag Keun Yoo
Background: This study investigated how the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP), and clusterin (CLU) affects the progression of cancer cells and their susceptibility to doxazosin-induced apoptosis. By silencing each of these genes individually, their effect on prostate cancer cell viability after doxazosin treatment was investigated. Methods: PC-3 prostate cancer cells were cultured and then subjected to gene silencing using siRNA targeting HSP27, cFLIP, and CLU, either individually, in pairs, or all together...
February 21, 2024: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Subrata Deb, Robert Hopefl, Anthony Allen Reeves, Dena Cvetkovic
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) can facilitate the transition to patient-specific drug regimens and thus improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overlap of PGx classification for drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME)-related genes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PGx labeling and in the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) database. FDA-approved drugs and PGx labeling for ADME genes were identified in the CPIC database...
February 20, 2024: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Ronald B Brown, Philip Bigelow
Background: Cancer therapeutics have a low success rate in clinical trials. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to translate basic, clinical, and remote fields of research knowledge into novel cancer treatments. Recent research has identified high dietary phosphate intake as a risk factor associated with cancer incidence. A model of tumor dynamics predicted that reducing phosphate levels sequestered in the tumor microenvironment could substantially reduce tumor size. Coincidently, a low-phosphate diet is already in use to help patients with chronic kidney disease manage high serum phosphate levels...
January 30, 2024: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephanie Trofymenko, Randa Kutob, Amit Algotar
Background : Obesity is linked to chronic diseases in adults and children. Its prevalence continues to grow in the United States, necessitating the need for healthcare provider training and presenting an opportunity for the education of future medical providers. Despite this need, effectively implementing obesity education into medical school curricula has been challenging. Anti-obesity bias amongst healthcare providers and trainees represents a significant obstacle to the care of patients with obesity. Obesity bias may affect up to 1/3 of medical students...
January 28, 2024: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Swagatika Das, Praveen K Roayapalley, Hiroshi Sakagami, Naoki Umemura, Dennis K J Gorecki, Mohammad Hossain, Masami Kawase, Umashankar Das, Jonathan R Dimmock
Background: The objective of this study is to find novel antineoplastic agents that display greater toxicity to malignant cells than to neoplasms. In addition, the mechanisms of action of representative compounds are sought. This report describes the cytotoxicity of a number of dimers of 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones against human malignant cells (promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4). Methods: Tumor specificity was evaluated by the selectivity index (SI), that is the ratio of the mean CC50 for human non-malignant oral cells (gingival fibroblasts, pulp cells, periodontal ligament fibroblasts) to that for malignant cells...
January 11, 2024: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Hye Lim Bae, Kyeonghun Jeong, Suna Yang, Hyeji Jun, Kwangsoo Kim, Young Jun Chai
Background: Hypoxia is a well-recognized characteristic of the tumor microenvironment of solid cancers. This study aimed to analyze hypoxia-related genes shared by groups based on tumor location. Methods: A total of 9 hypoxia-related pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database or the Reactome database were selected, and 850 hypoxia-related genes were analyzed. Based on their anatomical locations, 14 tumor types were categorized into 6 groups. The group-specific genetic risk score was classified as high- or low-risk based on mRNA expression, and survival outcomes were evaluated...
December 31, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Cezara Andreea Soysaler, Cătălina Liliana Andrei, Octavian Ceban, Crina Julieta Sinescu
Heart failure (HF) presents an increasingly significant problem as the population ages. The cause of HF plays a significant role in determining treatment options and outcomes. It is worth noting that several studies have identified gender disparities in both morbidity and mortality, which may suggest differing causes of HF. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of various factors, including demographics and comorbidities, on ejection fraction (EF). The objectives of this study involve implementing preventive measures, ensuring timely diagnosis, and implementing interventions that target risk factors and specific comorbidities...
December 19, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Hiromitsu Kataoka, Sayumi Suzuki, Yuichi Suzuki, Ryota Sato, Makoto Sano, Satoshi Mogi, Atsushi Sakamoto, Kenichiro Suwa, Yoshihisa Naruse, Hayato Ohtani, Masao Saotome, Mikihiro Shimizu, Keiichi Odagiri, Yuichiro Maekawa
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in cardiovascular disease is associated with poor prognosis, especially in patients with heart failure and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). High bleeding risk is also linked to coronary artery disease prognosis, including ACS. However, whether the extent of malnutrition and high bleeding risk have a cumulative impact on the long-term prognosis of patients with ACS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed 275 patients with ACS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention...
November 30, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Toshiaki Ara, Hiroyuki Kitamura
As an alternative to animal use, computer simulations are useful for predicting pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular activities. For this purpose, we constructed a statistical model to simulate the effects of local anesthetic agents. To train the model, animal experiments were performed on 6-week-old male Hartley guinea pigs. Firstly, the guinea pigs' backs were shaved, then local anesthetic agents were subcutaneously injected, with subsequent stimulation of the anesthetized site with a needle six times at regular intervals...
November 15, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Chikage Kato, Akira Komatsuzaki, Sachie Ono, Asami Iguchi, Kiyoka Arashi, Shiho Motoi, Mio Susuga
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of sleep disorders in Japan, and they are a factor in a decreased quality of life. The main objective of this study was to clarify the background factors of sleep disorders that affect sleep duration, such as subjective symptoms and working hours. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on the Japanese national statistics data. Answers from a household questionnaire were used to analyze risk factors for decreases in sleep duration...
November 10, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Mallika Chuansangeam, Bunyarat Srithan, Pattharawin Pattharanitima, Pawit Phadungsaksawasdi
Background : Early detection of elderly patients with COVID-19 who are at high risk of mortality is vital for appropriate clinical decisions. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality among elderly patients with COVID-19. Methods : In this retrospective study, the medical records of elderly patients aged over 60 who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at Thammasat University Hospital from 1 July to 30 September 2021 were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of mortality...
October 24, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Supawadee Suppadungsuk, Charat Thongprayoon, Jing Miao, Pajaree Krisanapan, Fawad Qureshi, Kianoush Kashani, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
The exponential growth of artificial intelligence (AI) has allowed for its integration into multiple sectors, including, notably, healthcare. Chatbots have emerged as a pivotal resource for improving patient outcomes and assisting healthcare practitioners through various AI-based technologies. In critical care, kidney-related conditions play a significant role in determining patient outcomes. This article examines the potential for integrating chatbots into the workflows of critical care nephrology to optimize patient care...
October 20, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jonathan Lai, Erik Almazan, Thomas Le, Matthew T Taylor, Jihad Alhariri, Shawn G Kwatra
Background : Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease with a wide variety of presentations and clinical courses. Cutaneous manifestations and comorbidities associated with sarcoid prognosis remain understudied. Methods : An EPIC query was run for patients age 18+ at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis of the skin according to the ICD-10-CM code D86.3. Data were obtained from a population-based sample of 240 patients from 2015 to 2020. Results : A total of 240 patients were included in the cohort study...
October 12, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jobar Bouzan, Peter Willschrei, Marcus Horstmann
Background: Cognitive impairment is poorly addressed in G8 screening. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the additional value of Mini-Cog© in urogeriatric patients concurrently screened by G8 scores. Methods: Seventy-four consecutive urogeriatric patients aged 75 and above were evaluated. All patients underwent G8 and Mini-Cog © screening. Patients with a G8 score above 14 were considered geriatric "healthy or fit". A Mini-Cog© from four to five points was considered inconspicuous in screening for cognitive impairment...
October 8, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
José C De La Flor, Maribel Monroy-Condori, Jacqueline Apaza-Chavez, Iván Arenas-Moncaleano, Francisco Díaz, Xavier E Guerra-Torres, Jorge L Morales-Montoya, Ana Lerma-Verdejo, Edna Sandoval, Daniel Villa, Coca-Mihaela Vieru
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) includes three entities: light chain deposition disease (LCDD), heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD) and light and heavy chain deposition disease (LHCDD). The renal presentation can manifest with varying degrees of proteinuria and/or nephrotic syndrome, microhematuria, and often leads to end-stage renal disease. Given the rarity of LHCDD, therapeutic approaches for this condition remain inconclusive, as clinical trials are limited...
October 4, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Swagatika Das, Praveen K Roayapalley, Sarvesh C Vashishtha, Umashankar Das, Jonathan R Dimmock
There is a need for novel antiepileptic agents whose modes of action differ from those of current antiepileptic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine whether 1-diethylamino-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one ( 2 ) could prevent or at least diminish convulsions caused by different mechanisms. This amide afforded protection in the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole screens when given intraperitoneally to both mice and rats. A number of specialized tests in mice were conducted and are explained in the text...
September 8, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Hidetaka Hamasaki
Background: Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions in improving glycemic control. By enhancing attention control, emotion regulation, and self-awareness, mindfulness shows promise in managing the lifestyle factors associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the impact of mindfulness on glycemic control in people with diabetes remains unclear. This overview aims to summarize the current evidence of the impact of mindfulness interventions on glycemic control in people with diabetes and propose suggestions for future research...
September 7, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jamir Pitton Rissardo, Ursula Medeiros Araujo de Matos, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
BACKGROUND: Gabapentin (GBP)-induced movement disorders (MDs) are under-recognized adverse drug reactions. They are commonly not discussed with patients, and their sudden occurrence can lead to misdiagnosis. This literature review aims to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological profile, pathological mechanisms, and management of GBP-associated MD. METHODS: Two reviewers identified and assessed relevant reports in six databases without language restriction between 1990 and 2023...
September 6, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Eleni Avramidou, Antonios Gkantaras, Iasonas Dermitzakis, Konstantinos Sapalidis, Maria Eleni Manthou, Paschalis Theotokis
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease exhibiting stromal fibrosis and follicular cell destruction due to lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Besides deprecated analyses, histopathological approaches have not employed the use of electron microscopy adequately toward delineating subcellular-level interactions. METHODS: Biopsies for ultrastructural investigations were obtained from the thyroids of five patients with HT after a thyroidectomy...
September 2, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Christina E Larder, Michèle M Iskandar, Stan Kubow
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder, with a social and financial burden that is expected to increase in the coming years. Currently, there are no effective medications to treat it. Due to limited treatment options, patients often resort to supplements, such as collagen hydrolysates (CHs). CHs are products with low molecular weight (MW) peptides, often between 3 and 6 kDa, and are a result of industrialized processed collagen. Collagen extraction is often a by-product of the meat industry, with the main source for collagen-based products being bovine, although it can also be obtained from porcine and piscine sources...
September 1, 2023: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
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