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Physical Review. E

Subhendu Som, Saptarshi Chatterjee, Raja Paul
During the interphase in mammalian cells, the position of the centrosome is actively maintained at a small but finite distance away from the nucleus. The perinuclear positioning of the centrosome is crucial for cellular trafficking and progression into mitosis. Although the literature suggests that the contributions of the microtubule-associated forces bring the centrosome to the center of the cell, the position of the centrosome was merely investigated in the absence of the nucleus. Upon performing a coarse-grained simulation study with mathematical analysis, we show that the combined effect of the forces due to the cell cortex and the nucleus facilitate the centrosome positioning...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
T Schindler, R Wittmann, J M Brader
We generalize the particle-conserving dynamics method of de las Heras et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28, 244024 (2016)JCOMEL0953-898410.1088/0953-8984/28/24/244024] to binary mixtures and apply this to hard rods in one dimension. Considering the case of one species consisting of only one particle enables us to address the tagged-particle dynamics. The time-evolution of the species-labeled density profiles is compared to exact Brownian dynamics and (grand-canonical) dynamical density functional theory. The particle-conserving dynamics yields improved results over the dynamical density functional theory and well reproduces the simulation data at short and intermediate times...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
C J O Reichhardt, C Reichhardt
We numerically examine a two-dimensional system of repulsively interacting particles with dynamics that are governed by both a damping term and a Magnus term. The magnitude of the Magnus term has one value for half of the particles and a different value for the other half of the particles. In the absence of a driving force, the particles form a triangular lattice, while when a driving force is applied, we find that there is a critical drive above which a Magnus-induced disordering transition can occur even if the difference in the Magnus term between the two particle species is as small as one percent...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Mark D Haw
Using computer simulation we explore how two-dimensional systems of colloids with a combination of short-range attractive and long-range repulsive interactions generate complex structures and kinetics. Cooperative effects mean the attractive potential, despite being very short-ranged compared to the repulsion, can have significant effects on large-scale structure. By considering the number of particles occupying a notional "repulsion zone" defined by the repulsion length scale, we classify different characteristic structural regimes in which the combination of attraction and repulsion leads to different structural and kinetic outcomes, such as compact clustering, chain labyrinths, and coexisting clusters and chains...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Alejandro Campos, Brandon E Morgan
Previous work [Davidovits and Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 105004 (2016)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.105004] demonstrated that the compression of a turbulent field can lead to a sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and that paper suggested this mechanism could potentially be used to design new fast-ignition schemes for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). We expand on previous work by accounting for finite Mach numbers, rather than relying on a zero-Mach-limit assumption as previously done...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Giacomo Nannicini
The recent literature on near-term applications for quantum computers contains several examples of the applications of hybrid quantum-classical variational approaches. This methodology can be applied to a variety of optimization problems, but its practical performance is not well studied yet. This paper moves some steps in the direction of characterizing the practical performance of the methodology, in the context of finding solutions to classical combinatorial optimization problems. Our study is based on numerical results obtained applying several classical nonlinear optimization algorithms to Hamiltonians for six combinatorial optimization problems; the experiments are conducted via noise-free classical simulation of the quantum circuits implemented in Qiskit...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Arul Lakshminarayan
The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) is a measure of quantum chaos that is being vigorously investigated. Analytically accessible simple models that have long been studied in other contexts could provide insights into such measures. This paper investigates the OTOC in the quantum bakers map which is the quantum version of a simple and exactly solvable model of deterministic chaos that caricatures the action of kneading dough. Exact solutions based on the semiquantum approximation are derived that tracks very well the correlators until the Ehrenfest time...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Zs Lécz, A Andreev
The subatomic experimental exploration of physical processes on extremely short time scales has become possible by the generation of high-quality electron bunches and x-ray pulses with subfemtosecond durations. Increasing the photon energy from the x-ray to gamma-ray regime makes probing of extremely small space-time domains accessible. Here, a mechanism for generating attosecond gamma photon and positron bunches with small divergence using laser intensities below 10^{23}W/cm^{2} is proposed. In contrast with previous works, in our scheme a single laser pulse is sufficient instead of two counterpropagating pulses...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
L G Alvarez-Zuzek, M A Di Muro, S Havlin, L A Braunstein
In this work we propose and investigate a strategy of vaccination which we call "dynamic vaccination." In our model, susceptible people become aware that one or more of their contacts are infected and thereby get vaccinated with probability ω, before having physical contact with any infected patient. Then the nonvaccinated individuals will be infected with probability β. We apply the strategy to the susceptible-infected-recovered epidemic model in a multiplex network composed by two networks, where a fraction q of the nodes acts in both networks...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Fabrizio Croccolo, Loreto García-Fernández, Henri Bataller, Alberto Vailati, José María Ortiz de Zárate
Nonequilibrium temperature and concentration fluctuations inside a binary liquid mixture under the action of a temperature gradient relax back to equilibrium either due to conduction and diffusion at large wave numbers, or due to the quenching determined by gravity at small wave numbers. We investigate the dynamics of nonequilibrium fluctuations in a binary liquid mixture of polystyrene and toluene heated from above under stationary conditions in a thermodiffusion experiment. We show that the strong gravitational stabilization at small wave numbers determines the appearance of propagating modes of nonequilibrium fluctuations as detected through the structure function of shadowgraph images...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Ada Altieri, Silvio Franz
We discuss a resource-competition model, which takes MacArthur's model as a platform, to unveil interesting connections with glassy features and jamming in high dimensions. This model, as first studied by Tikhonov and Monasson, presents two qualitatively different phases: a shielded phase, where a collective, self-sustained behavior emerges, and a vulnerable phase, where a small perturbation can destabilize the system and contribute to population extinction. We first present our perspective based on a strong similarity with continuous constraint satisfaction problems in their convex regime...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Mukund Gupta, Bryant L Doss, Leyla Kocgozlu, Meng Pan, René-Marc Mège, Andrew Callan-Jones, Raphaël Voituriez, Benoît Ladoux
A general trait of living cells is their ability to exert contractile stresses on their surroundings and thus respond to substrate rigidity. At the cellular scale, this response affects cell shape, polarity, and ultimately migration. The regulation of cell shape together with rigidity sensing remains largely unknown. In this article we show that both substrate rigidity and cell shape contribute to drive actin organization and cell polarity. Increasing substrate rigidity affects bulk properties of the actin cytoskeleton by favoring long-lived actin stress fibers with increased nematic interactions, whereas cell shape imposes a local alignment of actin fibers at the cell periphery...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Roman Kreiserman, Omri Malik, Ariel Kaplan
Characterizing the interactions between colloidal particles is important, both from a fundamental perspective as well as due to its technological importance. However, current methods to measure the interaction forces between two colloids have significant limitations. Here we describe a method that exploits the fluctuation spectra of two optically trapped microspheres in order to extract, and decouple, the conservative forces acting between them and their hydrodynamic coupling. We demonstrate the proposed method with two silica microspheres, and find good agreement between our results and previous predictions for the hydrodynamic and electrostatic interactions between the spheres...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Jason Gilbert, Alexei Cheviakov
The determination of statistical characteristics for particles undergoing Brownian motion in constrained domains has multiple applications in various areas of research. This work presents an attempt to systematically compute globally optimal configurations of traps inside a three-dimensional domain that minimize the average of the mean first passage time (MFPT) for the narrow capture problem, the average time it takes a particle to be captured by any trap. For a given domain, the mean first passage time satisfies a linear Poisson problem with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Carlos P Herrero
Various types of walks on complex networks have been used in recent years to model search and navigation in several kinds of systems, with particular emphasis on random walks. This gives valuable information on network properties, but self-avoiding walks (SAWs) may be more suitable than unrestricted random walks to study long-distance characteristics of complex systems. Here we study SAWs in clustered scale-free networks, characterized by a degree distribution of the form P(k)∼k^{-γ} for large k. Clustering is introduced in these networks by inserting three-node loops (triangles)...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Romain Bachelard, Nicola Piovella, Shamik Gupta
Inspired by one-dimensional light-particle systems, the dynamics of a non-Hamiltonian system with long-range forces is investigated. While the molecular dynamics does not reach an equilibrium state, it may be approximated in the thermodynamic limit by a Vlasov equation that does possess stable stationary solutions. This implies that on a macroscopic scale the molecular dynamics evolves on a slow timescale that diverges with the system size. At the single-particle level, the evolution is driven by incoherent interaction between the particles, which may be effectively modeled by a noise, leading to a Brownian-like dynamics of the momentum...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Peishi Jiang, Praveen Kumar
In a multivariate evolutionary system, the present state of a variable is a resultant outcome of all interacting variables through the temporal history of the system. How can we quantify the information transfer from the history of all variables to the outcome of a specific variable at a specific time? We develop information theoretic metrics to quantify the information transfer from the entire history, called causal history. Further, we partition this causal history into immediate causal history, as a function of lag τ from the recent time, to capture the influence of recent dynamics, and the complementary distant causal history...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Tomotaka Seki, Tohru Okuzono, Akiko Toyotama, Junpei Yamanaka
A mechanism for diffusiophoresis of a charged colloidal particle undergoing surface chemical reaction is proposed. A theoretical model is constructed to describe the dynamics of the particle and the surrounding solution of a weak electrolyte. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the model reveal that phoretic motion of the particle emerges in response to a concentration gradient of electrolyte. The concentration gradient breaks the spherical symmetry of the surface charge distribution, which gives rise to a net force on the particle and leads to directional motion of the particle...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Alexander C Kalloniatis, Timothy A McLennan-Smith, Dale O Roberts, Mathew L Zuparic
We examine a model of two interacting populations of phase oscillators labeled "blue" and "red." To this we apply tempered stable Lévy noise, a generalization of Gaussian noise where the heaviness of the tails parametrized by a power law exponent α can be controlled by a tempering parameter λ. This system models competitive dynamics, where each population seeks both internal phase synchronization and a phase advantage with respect to the other population, subject to exogenous stochastic shocks...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
Peter Reimann, Jochen Gemmer
We explore how the expectation values 〈ψ|A|ψ〉 of a largely arbitrary observable A are distributed when normalized vectors |ψ〉 are randomly sampled from a high-dimensional Hilbert space. Our analytical results predict that the distribution exhibits a very narrow peak of approximately Gaussian shape, while the tails significantly deviate from a Gaussian behavior. In the important special case that the eigenvalues of A satisfy Wigner's semicircle law, the expectation-value distribution for asymptotically large dimensions is explicitly obtained in terms of a large deviation function, which exhibits two symmetric nonanalyticities akin to critical points in thermodynamics...
January 2019: Physical Review. E
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