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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Naim Mahroum
BACKGROUND: Plague is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis. Three major forms of the disease are known: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Though being strictly related to past history, plague still represents a global public health concern. Cases of plague continue, indeed, to be reported worldwide. In the last months, pneumonic plague cases have been reported in Madagascar. However, despite such long-standing and rich history, it is rather difficult to get a comprehensive overview of the general situation...
January 18, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Abdulla Watad, Samaa Watad, Naim Mahroum, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Nicola Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: West-Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus responsible of an infection, which tends to peak during the late summer and early fall period. Recently, tools monitoring web searches are emerging as powerful sources of data concerning especially infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring the potentially predictive power of WNV-related web searches. METHODS: Google Trends (GT) was used to extract search trends. Data regarding WNV were obtained from Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC)...
January 2, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jan-Are K Johnsen, Trude B Eggesvik, Thea H Rørvik, Miriam W Hanssen, Rolf Wynn, Per Egil Kummervold
BACKGROUND: Social media provides people with easy ways to communicate their attitudes and feelings to a wide audience. Many people, unfortunately, have negative associations and feelings about dental treatment due to former painful experiences. Previous research indicates that there might be a pervasive and negative occupational stereotype related to dentists and that this stereotype is expressed in many different venues, including movies and literature. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the language used in relation to dentists and medical doctors on the social media platform Twitter...
February 6, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Troy Walker, Claire Palermo, Karen Klassen
BACKGROUND: Social media may have a significant role in influencing the present and future health implications among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, yet there has been no review of the role of social media in improving health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the extent of health initiatives using social media that aimed to improve the health of Australian Aboriginal communities. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted by systematically searching databases CINAHL Plus; PubMed; Scopus; Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE in June 2017 using the terms and their synonyms "Aboriginal" and "Social media...
February 5, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Bisola O Ojikutu, Laura M Bogart, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas J Stopka, Patrick S Sullivan, Yusuf Ransome
BACKGROUND: Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among black individuals in the United States is low and may be associated with the limited availability of clinics where PrEP is prescribed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the association between spatial access to clinics where PrEP is prescribed and willingness to use PrEP. METHODS: We identified locations of clinics where PrEP is prescribed from and calculated the density of PrEP clinics per 10,000 residents according to the ZIP code...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
April M Ballard, Trey Cardwell, April M Young
BACKGROUND: Internet is becoming an increasingly common tool for survey research, particularly among "hidden" or vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Web-based research has many advantages for participants and researchers, but fraud can present a significant threat to data integrity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate fraud detection strategies in a Web-based survey of young MSM and describe new protocols to improve fraud detection in Web-based survey research...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Giang Le, Nghia Khuu, Van Thi Thu Tieu, Phuc Duy Nguyen, Hoa Thi Yen Luong, Quang Duy Pham, Hau Phuc Tran, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Meade Morgan, Abu S Abdul-Quader
BACKGROUND: There is limited population size estimation of female sex workers (FSWs) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC)-the largest city in Vietnam. Only 1 population size estimation among venue-based female sex workers (VFSWs) was conducted in 2012 in HCMC. Appropriate estimates of the sizes of key populations are critical for resource allocation to prevent HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the population size of the VFSWs from December 2016 to January 2017 in HCMC, Vietnam...
January 29, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Anne M Turner, Yong K Choi, Kristin Dew, Ming-Tse Tsai, Alyssa L Bosold, Shuyang Wu, Donahue Smith, Hendrika Meischke
BACKGROUND: In the United States, language barriers pose challenges to communication in emergency response and impact emergency care delivery and quality for individuals who are limited English proficient (LEP). There is a growing interest among Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel in using automated translation tools to improve communications with LEP individuals in the field. However, little is known about whether automated translation software can be used successfully in EMS settings to improve communication with LEP individuals...
January 28, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Niels Dalum Hansen, Kåre Mølbak, Ingemar Johansson Cox, Christina Lioma
BACKGROUND: Understanding the influence of media coverage upon vaccination activity is valuable when designing outreach campaigns to increase vaccination uptake. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between media coverage and vaccination activity of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in Denmark. METHODS: We retrieved data on media coverage (1622 articles), vaccination activity (2 million individual registrations), and incidence of measles for the period 1997-2014...
January 23, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Jennifer A Donnelly, Thomas T Deem, Megan A Duffy, Anita K Watkins, Alia A Al-Tayyib, Daniel J Shodell, Mark Thrun, Sarah E Rowan
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective option for HIV prevention. To realize the full benefit of PrEP at the population level, uptake must reach those at the greatest risk of HIV acquisition. Guidance published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that the number of individuals with indications for PrEP is 1.1-1.2 million nationally based on survey data of key populations and local transmission patterns. We applied these estimates at state and county levels to determine the number of individuals who might benefit from PrEP locally and compared our estimates to CDC-published estimates for Colorado...
January 16, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Amir Talaei-Khoei, James M Wilson, Seyed-Farzan Kazemi
BACKGROUND: The literature in statistics presents methods by which autocorrelation can identify the best period of measurement to improve the performance of a time-series prediction. The period of measurement plays an important role in improving the performance of disease-count predictions. However, from the operational perspective in public health surveillance, there is a limitation to the length of the measurement period that can offer meaningful and valuable predictions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a method that identifies the shortest period of measurement without significantly decreasing the prediction performance for time-series analysis of disease counts...
January 15, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Canelle Poirier, Audrey Lavenu, Valérie Bertaud, Boris Campillo-Gimenez, Emmanuel Chazard, Marc Cuggia, Guillaume Bouzillé
BACKGROUND: Traditional surveillance systems produce estimates of influenza-like illness (ILI) incidence rates, but with 1- to 3-week delay. Accurate real-time monitoring systems for influenza outbreaks could be useful for making public health decisions. Several studies have investigated the possibility of using internet users' activity data and different statistical models to predict influenza epidemics in near real time. However, very few studies have investigated hospital big data...
December 21, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Pragna Patel, Keith Sabin, Peter Godfrey-Faussett
Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are undergoing an epidemiological transition, in which the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising and mortality will shift from infectious diseases to NCDs. Specifically, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and cancer are becoming more prevalent. In some regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, the dual HIV and NCD epidemics will pose challenges because their joint burden will have adverse effects on the quality of life and will likely increase global inequities...
December 20, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Elizabeth Louise Andrade, W Douglas Evans, Nicole Barrett, Mark Cameron Edberg, Sean D Cleary
BACKGROUND: Generating participant engagement in social media applications for health promotion and disease prevention efforts is vital for their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of effecting sustainable behavior change. However, there is limited evidence regarding effective strategies for engaging Latino immigrant youth using social media. As part of the Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health in Washington, DC, USA, we implemented Adelante, a branded primary prevention program, to address risk factors for co-occurring substance use, sexual risk, and interpersonal violence among Latino immigrant adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in a Washington, DC suburb...
December 19, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Tomohiro Aoki, Teppei Suzuki, Ayako Yagahara, Shin Hasegawa, Shintaro Tsuji, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, triggered a huge tsunami, causing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Radioactive substances were carried in all directions, along with the risks of radioactive contamination. Mass media companies, such as television stations and news websites, extensively reported on radiological information related to the disaster. Upon digesting the available radiological information, many citizens turned to social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, to express their opinions and feelings...
December 18, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Tiba Delespierre, Loic Josseran
BACKGROUND: New nursing homes (NH) data warehouses fed from residents' medical records allow monitoring the health of elderly population on a daily basis. Elsewhere, syndromic surveillance has already shown that professional data can be used for public health (PH) surveillance but not during a long-term follow-up of the same cohort. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to build and assess a national ecological NH PH surveillance system (SS). METHODS: Using a national network of 126 NH, we built a residents' cohort, extracted medical and personal data from their electronic health records, and transmitted them through the internet to a national server almost in real time...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Anthony Waruru, Agnes Natukunda, Lilly M Nyagah, Timothy A Kellogg, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Wanjiru Waruiru, Kenneth Masamaro, Richelle Harklerode, Jacob Odhiambo, Eric-Jan Manders, Peter W Young
BACKGROUND: A universal health care identifier (UHID) facilitates the development of longitudinal medical records in health care settings where follow up and tracking of persons across health care sectors are needed. HIV case-based surveillance (CBS) entails longitudinal follow up of HIV cases from diagnosis, linkage to care and treatment, and is recommended for second generation HIV surveillance. In the absence of a UHID, records matching, linking, and deduplication may be done using score-based persons matching algorithms...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Christopher Tufts, Daniel Polsky, Kevin G Volpp, Peter W Groeneveld, Lyle Ungar, Raina M Merchant, Arthur P Pelullo
BACKGROUND: Tweets can provide broad, real-time perspectives about health and medical diagnoses that can inform disease surveillance in geographic regions. Less is known, however, about how much individuals post about common health conditions or what they post about. OBJECTIVE: We sought to collect and analyze tweets from 1 state about high prevalence health conditions and characterize the tweet volume and content. METHODS: We collected 408,296,620 tweets originating in Pennsylvania from 2012-2015 and compared the prevalence of 14 common diseases to the frequency of disease mentions on Twitter...
December 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Taylor H Hoj, Jacob J Bramwell, Cameron Lister, Emily Grant, Benjamin T Crookston, Cougar Hall, Joshua H West
BACKGROUND: The emergence of electric pedal-assist bicycles (e-bikes) presents an opportunity to increase active transportation by minimizing personal barriers of engaging in physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs of individuals using e-bikes for active transport and report preliminary biometric measurements while using e-bikes for physical activity compared with conventional bikes. METHODS: Participants used both conventional bicycles and e-bikes to compare energy expenditure while riding on the study route...
November 29, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Lisa Dulli, Kathleen Ridgeway, Catherine Packer, Kate F Plourde, Tolulope Mumuni, Tosin Idaboh, Adesola Olumide, Oladosu Ojengbede, Donna R McCarraher
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIVs) enrolled in HIV treatment services experience greater loss to follow-up and suboptimal adherence than other age groups. HIV-related stigma, disclosure-related issues, lack of social support, and limited HIV knowledge impede adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in HIV services. The 90-90-90 goals for ALHIVs will only be met through strategies targeted to meet their specific needs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a social media-based intervention to improve HIV knowledge, social support, ART adherence, and retention among ALHIV aged 15-19 years on ART in Nigeria...
November 28, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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