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Environmental Epigenetics

A Commodore, N Mukherjee, D Chung, E Svendsen, J Vena, J Pearce, J Roberts, H S Arshad, W Karmaus
Assessment of changes in DNA methylation (DNA-m) has the potential to identify adverse environmental exposures. To examine DNA-m among a subset of participants ( n  = 369) in the Isle of Wight birth cohort who reported variable near resident traffic frequencies. We used self-reported frequencies of heavy vehicles passing by the homes of study subjects as a proxy measure for TRAP, which were: never, seldom, 10 per day, 1-9 per hour and >10 per hour. Methylation of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide sequences in the DNA was assessed from blood samples collected at age 18 years ( n  = 369) in the F1 generation...
October 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Eleanor J Su-Keene, Melvin M Bonilla, Michael V Padua, David W Zeh, Jeanne A Zeh
Recent theory suggests that tropical terrestrial arthropods are at significant risk from climate warming. Metabolic rate in such ectothermic species increases exponentially with environmental temperature, and a small temperature increase in a hot environment can therefore have a greater physiological impact than a large temperature increase in a cool environment. In two recent studies of the neotropical pseudoscorpion, Cordylochernes scorpioides , simulated climate warming significantly decreased survival, body size and level of sexual dimorphism...
October 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Adele M H Seelke, Jessica M Bond, Trent C Simmons, Nikhil Joshi, Matthew L Settles, Danielle Stolzenberg, Mijke Rhemtulla, Karen L Bales
Female parenting is obligate in mammals, but fathering behavior among mammals is rare. Only 3-5% of mammalian species exhibit biparental care, including humans, and mechanisms of fathering behavior remain sparsely studied. However, in species where it does exist, paternal care is often crucial to the survivorship of offspring. The present study is the first to identify new gene targets linked to the experience of fathering behavior in a biparental species using RNA sequencing. In order to determine the pattern of gene expression within the medial preoptic area that is specifically associated with fathering behavior, we identified genes in male prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster) that experienced one of three social conditions: virgin males, pair bonded males, and males with fathering experience...
October 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
France Beauregard, Bernard Angers
Both genetic variation and environmentally induced epigenetic changes allow organisms to persist through the heterogeneity of their habitats. Selection on genetic variation can promote local adaptation of populations. However, in absence of genetic variation, clonal organisms mostly rely on epigenetics to respond to environmental heterogeneity. We used the potential of unisexual organisms in incorporating their host genome, to empirically assess whether the presence of a locally adapted genome affects environmentally induced epigenetic changes in clonal organisms...
October 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Rita S Strakovsky, Susan L Schantz
The placenta guides fetal growth and development. Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are widespread environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors, and the placental epigenetic response to these chemicals is an area of growing research interest. Therefore, our objective was to summarize research linking BPA or phthalate exposure to placental outcomes in human pregnancies, with a particular focus on epigenetic endpoints. In PubMed, studies were selected for review (without limiting start date and ending on 1 May 2018) if they reported any direct effects of BPA or phthalates on the placenta in humans...
July 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Xue Zhang, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Xiang Zhang, J D Burleson, Eric B Brandt, Hong Ji
Exposures to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from traffic and house dust mite (HDM) allergens significantly increase risks of airway diseases, including asthma. This negative impact of DEP and HDM may in part be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Beyond functioning as a mechanical barrier, airway epithelial cells provide the first line of immune defense towards DEP and HDM exposures. To understand the epigenetic responses of airway epithelial cells to these exposures, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells to DEP and HDM and studied genome-wide 5-methyl-cytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine (5hmC) at base resolution...
July 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Joseph Kochmanski, Elizabeth H Marchlewicz, Dana C Dolinoy
Research indicates that environmental factors can alter DNA methylation, but the specific effects of environmental exposures on epigenetic aging remain unclear. Here, using a mouse model of human-relevant exposures, we tested the hypothesis that early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), variable diet, and/or changes in physical activity would modify rates of age-related methylation at several target regions, as measured from longitudinal blood samples (2, 4, and 10 months old). DNA methylation was quantified at two repetitive elements (LINE-1, IAP), two imprinted genes ( Igf2, H19 ), and one non-imprinted gene ( Esr1 ) in isogenic mice developmentally exposed to Control, Control + BPA (50 µg/kg diet), Western high-fat diet (WHFD), or Western + BPA diets...
July 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Gretchen van Steenwyk, Martin Roszkowski, Francesca Manuella, Tamara B Franklin, Isabelle M Mansuy
In the past decades, evidence supporting the transmission of acquired traits across generations has reshaped the field of genetics and the understanding of disease susceptibility. In humans, pioneer studies showed that exposure to famine, endocrine disruptors or trauma can affect descendants, and has led to a paradigm shift in thinking about heredity. Studies in humans have however been limited by the low number of successive generations, the different conditions that can be examined, and the lack of mechanistic insight they can provide...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Hiba Zaidan, Gokul Ramaswami, Michal Barak, Jin B Li, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Adenosine to inosine RNA editing is an epigenetic process that entails site-specific modifications in double-stranded RNA molecules, catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). Using the multiplex microfluidic PCR and deep sequencing technique, we recently showed that exposing adolescent female rats to chronic unpredictable stress before reproduction affects editing in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of their newborn offspring, particularly at the serotonin receptor 5-HT2c (encoded by Htr2c) ...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Maurizio Meloni, Ruth Müller
Research in environmental epigenetics explores how environmental exposures and life experiences such as food, toxins, stress or trauma can shape trajectories of human health and well-being in complex ways. This perspective resonates with social science expertise on the significant health impacts of unequal living conditions and the profound influence of social life on bodies in general. Environmental epigenetics could thus provide an important opportunity for moving beyond long-standing debates about nature versus nurture between the disciplines and think instead in 'biosocial' terms across the disciplines...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Arina Rawat, Jackey Guo, Thibault Renoir, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
The male germ line is capable of transmitting a legacy of stress exposure to the next generation of offspring. This transgenerational process manifests by altering offspring affective behaviours, cognition and metabolism. Paternal early life trauma causes hippocampal serotonergic dysregulation in male offspring. We previously showed a transgenerational modification to male offspring anxiety-like behaviours by treatment of adult male breeders with corticosterone (CORT) prior to mating. In the present study, we used offspring from our paternal CORT model and characterised offspring serotonergic function by examining their responses to the 5HT1A R agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, sertraline...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Rachel Yehuda, Amy Lehrner, Linda M Bierer
There has been great interest in the possibility that effects of trauma might be passed from parent to offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. This topic has stimulated discussion and controversy in the scientific literature, the popular press, and culture at large. This article describes the initial observations that have led to recent examinations of epigenetic mechanisms in association with effects of parental trauma exposure on offspring. Epigenetic research in animals has provided models for how such effects might be transmitted...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Eric E Nilsson, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Michael K Skinner
Ancestral environmental exposures such as toxicants, abnormal nutrition or stress can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. These environmental factors induce the epigenetic reprogramming of the germline (sperm and egg). The germline epimutations can in turn increase disease susceptibility of subsequent generations of the exposed ancestors. A variety of environmental factors, species and exposure specificity of this induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease is discussed with a consideration of generational toxicology...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Olivia Engmann
More than 1 billion cattle are raised annually for meat and milk production. Dairy cows are repeatedly impregnated and separated from their calves, usually within the first 24 h after birth. Here, I suggest that dairy cows undergo a procedure comparable to the 'Maternal separation combined with unpredictable maternal stress' paradigm (MSUS), which is used to study the non-genetic inheritance (NGI) of phenotypes in rodents. I discuss what research on dairy cows may bring to the research field of NGI. The resulting research findings are likely to have benefits to our understanding of MSUS, NGI and consumer safety...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Johannes Bohacek, Olivia Engmann, Pierre-Luc Germain, Silvia Schelbert, Isabelle M Mansuy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
A Weyrich, M Jeschek, K T Schrapers, D Lenz, T H Chung, K Rübensam, S Yasar, M Schneemann, S Ortmann, K Jewgenow, J Fickel
Epigenetic modifications, of which DNA methylation is the most stable, are a mechanism conveying environmental information to subsequent generations via parental germ lines. The paternal contribution to adaptive processes in the offspring might be crucial, but has been widely neglected in comparison to the maternal one. To address the paternal impact on the offspring's adaptability to changes in diet composition, we investigated if low protein diet (LPD) in F0 males caused epigenetic alterations in their subsequently sired sons...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Margaux McBirney, Eric Nilsson, Rachel Klukovich, Yeming Xie, Chong Tang, Wei Yan, Michael K Skinner
Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation can be induced by several toxicants, such as vinclozolin. This phenomenon can involve DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and histone retention, and/or modification in the germline (e.g. sperm). These different epigenetic marks are called epimutations and can transmit in part the transgenerational phenotypes. This study was designed to investigate the vinclozolin-induced concurrent alterations of a number of different epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, ncRNA, and histone retention in rat sperm...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Mireille Morisson, Laurence Liaubet, T Bas Rodenburg, Elske N de Haas, Ľubor Košťál, Frédérique Pitel
While it has been shown that epigenetics accounts for a portion of the variability of complex traits linked to interactions with the environment, the real contribution of epigenetics to phenotypic variation remains to be assessed. In recent years, a growing number of studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications can be transmitted across generations in several animal species. Numerous studies have demonstrated inter- or multi-generational effects of changing environment in birds, but very few studies have been published showing epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in these species...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Adelheid Soubry
The growing field of 'Developmental Origin of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) generally reflects environmental influences from mother to child. The importance of maternal lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures before and during gestation period is well recognized. However, few epidemiological designs explore potential influences from the paternal environment on offspring health. This is surprising given that numerous animal models have provided evidence that the paternal environment plays a role in a non-genetic inheritance of pre-conceptional exposures through the male germ line...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Minoo Rassoulzadegan, François Cuzin
RNA-based inheritance provides a reasonable hypothesis to explain multigenerational maintenance of the disease in the progeny of either a male or female parent suffering from the metabolic syndrome (obesity and type 2 diabetes) induced by abnormal diet. Although, it is still difficult to formulate a complete rational mechanism, study of inheritance is a most direct way to learn about the epigenetic control of gene expression and we wished to summarised our current approach along this line.
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
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