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Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines

Scott Olson, Alexis Hall, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Background: Travelers' diarrhea remains a prevalent illness impacting individuals visiting developing countries, however most studies have focused on this disease in the context of short term travel. This study aims to determine the regional estimates of travelers' diarrhea incidence, pathogen-specific prevalence, and describe the morbidity associated with diarrheal disease among deployed military personnel and similar long term travelers. Methods: We updated a prior systematic review to include publications between January 1990 and June 2015...
2019: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Eugene M Tan, Jennifer L St Sauver, Irene G Sia
Background: International travelers are at high risk of acquiring travelers' diarrhea. Pre-travel consultation has been associated with lower rates of malaria, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The objective was to study the impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea. Methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 1160 patients diagnosed with travelers' diarrhea at Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN from 1994 to 2017...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Shiferaw Bekele, Yohannes Derese, Elena Hailu, Adane Mihret, Kifle Dagne, Lawrence Yamuah, Tsegaye Hailu, Samuel Ayele, Demissew Beyene, Stefan Berg, Abraham Aseffa
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern of increasing significance. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading worldwide. It is important to monitor trends of antimycobacterial resistance. This is particularly true for high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia where disproportionally less drug sensitivity data are reported from. Methods: The prevalence of drug resistance was assessed with the line probe assay GenoType MTBDR plus in a set of 161  M...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Ajib Diptyanusa, Thundon Ngamprasertchai, Watcharapong Piyaphanee
As there is rapid increase in international travel to tropical and subtropical countries, there will likely be more people exposed to diarrheal pathogens in these moderate to high risk areas and subsequent increased concern for traveler's diarrhea. The disease may appear as a mild clinical syndrome, yet a more debilitating presentation can lead to itinerary changes and hospitalization. As bacterial etiologies are the most common causative agents of TD, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent TD has been reported among travelers for several years...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Samson Takele, Kifle Woldemichael, Mulatu Gashaw, Haimanot Tassew, Moti Yohannes, Alemseged Abdissa
Background: Salmonella species are among the most common food borne pathogens worldwide and their infection is one of the major global public health problems. During the last decade, multidrug resistant Salmonella species have greatly increased in humans and animals. So the aim of this study was to determine prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella in apparently healthy slaughterer cattle and personnel working at the Jimma abattoir. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to September 2016 at the Jimma abattoir...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
A K T M Karunarathna, S A Mendis, W P D P Perera, Geethika Patabendige, A S Pallewatte, Aruna Kulatunga
Background: Melioidosis is an infection caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei . It can present as septicemia, localized infection with/without septicemia, asymptomatic infections, ulcers, pneumonia, visceral abscesses, neurological infection, musculoskeletal infections and can involve any organ. Case presentation: A 56 year old Sri Lankan diabetic female presented with fever, chills and rigors for 2 weeks. She also had malaise and loss of appetite, but no other features...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Juliana Zemke, Myagmarsukh Yondon, Gregory C Gray
Recognizing that crowded, high-traffic airports and airplanes have been implicated in respiratory disease transmission, we partnered with administrators of Raleigh Durham International Airport (RDU) in conducting a pilot study of aerosol surveillance for respiratory viruses at RDU. From January to March 2018 we used NIOSH 2-stage samplers to collect 150 min aerosol samples in crowded areas at RDU. Four (17%) of the 24 samples were positive for known respiratory pathogens including influenza D virus and adenovirus...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Thomas Weitzel, Mabel Aylwin, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Ju Jiang, Jose Manuel Munita, Luis Thompson, Katia Abarca, Allen L Richards
Background: Scrub typhus is a neglected vector-borne zoonosis causing life-threatening illnesses, endemic in the Asian-Pacific region and, as recently discovered, in southern Chile. Scrub typhus is rarely reported in travelers, most probably due to the lack of clinical experience and diagnostic tests in non-endemic countries. We report the first case of imported scrub typhus in South America. Case presentation: A 62-year-old tourist from South Korea presented severely ill with fever, rash, and eschar in Santiago, Chile...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Prakash Ghimire, Komal Raj Rijal, Chandramani Kafle, Balman Singh Karki, Nihal Singh, Leonard Ortega, Garib Das Thakur, Bipin Adhikari
Background: The national treatment guidelines of Nepal have adopted Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 2004. Emergence of Artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) and beyond may become a threat for Nepal as well. The main objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine in uncomplicated P. falciparum infected patients at health centers/hospitals treated over the period of 2 years (2013-2014)...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Tadesse Hailu, Megbaru Alemu, Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera
Background: According to the Ethiopian national malaria indicator survey of 2015, the highest burden of Plasmodia infection resided among the school-age children. Even though several studies revealed various determinant factors of childhood malaria, consistent findings are not reported across the nation and elsewhere. This in turn creates obstacles in implementing exactprevention and control measures in the study area in particular and the country at large. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of Plasmodium and determinant factors among febrile children in Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Ana M Montalvo, Jorge Fraga, Orestes Blanco, Daniel González, Lianet Monzote, Lynn Soong, Virginia Capó
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Leishmania spp., which is not endemic in Cuba. However, several factors (such as human activities, climate changes, and tourism) have led to an increase in the number of leishmaniasis cases in all regions, raising diagnosis and surveillance issues. We aim to present the retrospective analysis of 16 human cases suspicious of leishmaniasis, which were received during 2006-2016 for diagnosis at the Department of Parasitology from the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, Cuba...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Phillipo Paul, Richard Y M Kangalawe, Leonard E G Mboera
Background: Understanding of the land use and malaria transmission among farming communities in Tanzania is of great significance. Water resource development projects, deforestation, wetland cultivation, and land use changes for agricultural purposes all expand habitats for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The main objective of this study was to assess land use patterns and their implication on malaria transmission in two villages in Kilosa District, Tanzania. Methods: Multiple research methods were used for data collection, including household interviews using a structured questionnaire; key informant interviews; transect walks and direct field observations...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Tadele Girum, Ebrahim Muktar, Kifle Lentiro, Habtamu Wondiye, Misgun Shewangizaw
Introduction: The emergence of MDR-TB remained a major public health threat particularly in developing countries. With increased prevalence and complexity of treatment, the burden of MDR-TB challenged the country. It is of an important; the epidemiology of drug resistant TB is not well understood. There are few studies conducted to assess the prevalence, determinants and treatment outcome of MDR-TB with inconclusive finding. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on Epidemiology of MDR-TB in Ethiopia, So that policy makers and other stalk holders could have pooled evidence on the problem to make a decision...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Tadesse Hailu, Megbaru Alemu, Bayeh Abera, Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Ashenafi Genanew, Fetlework Bereded
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan countries. The highest burden of the disease resides in school-age children. Poor water sanitation and hygiene are believed to be the major contributing factors for the high prevalence. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in rural Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2017-June 2017 among 409 randomly selected primary school children...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Ruth Nyarko, Kwasi Torpey, Augustine Ankomah
Background: Urinary Schistosomiasis and malaria are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are public health concerns and implications of these parasites. This study sought to assess the prevalence of malaria, urinary schistosomiasis, and anaemia in children of school going age in two municipalities in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate the prevalence of S. haematobium , P. falciparum infection and the haemoglobin concentration of respondents...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Kevin L Schwartz, Tiffany Chan, Nanky Rai, Kellie E Murphy, Wendy Whittle, Michael A Drebot, Jonathan Gubbay, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Following emergence of Zika virus in the Americas, a devastating new congenital syndrome has been documented, leading to significant morbidity among Zika-infected fetuses and neonates. Case presentation: A 29-year-old pregnant woman infected with Zika virus at 9-weeks gestation in Trinidad presented with one-month of fever, headache, and myalgia with persistent viremia. Significant fetal abnormalities were identified at 14-week ultrasound, which is the earliest ultrasound to describe a severely affected fetus following Zika virus infection to our knowledge...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Cara MacRae, Swana Kopalakrishnan, Lena Faust, Michael Klowak, Adrienne Showler, Stefanie A Klowak, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Leprosy is a potentially debilitating disease of the skin and nerves that requires a complex management approach consisting of laboratory monitoring, screening for factors that will adversely affect outcome with corticosteroids, engagement of allied health services, and prolonged follow-up. Given the complexities of leprosy management, a safety tool was developed and implemented in the Tropical Disease Unit at Toronto General Hospital. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the tool using a retrospective chart review...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Tadele Girum, Gebremariam Hailemikael, Asegedech Wondimu
Background: Globally malaria remains one of the most severe public health problems resulting in massive morbidity particularly in developing countries. Ethiopia as one of the sub-Saharan country it is highly endemic to malaria. It was noted that early detection and prompt treatment of malaria cases, selective vector control and epidemic prevention and control are the major strategies for malaria prevention and control; So far, a lot have been done and remarkable improvements were seen...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Alyson J Brinker, David L Blazes
Background: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Case presentation: We describe and discuss the clinical course of a leptospirosis outbreak in a running club called the hash house harriers on Guam. Conclusions: Leptospirosis is a potentialy life threatening disease, and has had a reemergence given the popularity of travel adventure sports, teams, and clubs around the world. This case presentation highlights the robust prescence of leptospirosis on Guam...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
D W Njomo, J Masaku, F Mwende, G Odhiambo, R Musuva, E Matey, I G Thuita, J H Kihara
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
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