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Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)

Cuauhtémoc Sandoval-Salazar, Cecilia I Oviedo-Solís, Edmundo Lozoya-Gloria, Herlinda Aguilar-Zavala, Martha S Solís-Ortiz, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Cristina D Balcón-Pacheco, Joel Ramírez-Emiliano
It has been proposed that there is a correlation between high-fat diet (HFD), oxidative stress and decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, but this has not been thoroughly demonstrated. In the present study, we determined the effects of strawberry extract intake on the oxidative stress and GABA levels in the frontal cortex (FC) of obese rats. We observed that an HFD increased lipid and protein oxidation, and decreased GABA levels. Moreover, UV-irradiated strawberry extract (UViSE) decreased lipid peroxidation but not protein oxidation, whereas non-irradiated strawberry extract (NSE) reduced protein oxidation but not lipid peroxidation...
March 20, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tetsuro Ishii, Eiji Warabi
Membrane-associated estrogen receptors (ER)-α36 and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) play important roles in the estrogen's rapid non-genomic actions including stimulation of cell proliferation. Estrogen via these receptors induces rapid activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of detoxification and antioxidant systems, playing a key role in the metabolic reprogramming to support cell proliferation. This review highlights the possible mechanism underlying rapid Nrf2 activation via membrane-associated estrogen receptors by estrogen and phytoestrogens...
March 18, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jean-Pierre Jacquot, Mirko Zaffagnini
The special issue on Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin systems (http://www [...].
March 18, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ruizhi Hu, Yujia He, Muhammed Adebayo Arowolo, Shusong Wu, Jianhua He
Heat stress is a non-specific physiological response of the body when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which can break the balance of body redox and result in oxidative stress that affects growth performance as well as the health of poultry species. Polyphenols have attracted much attention in recent years due to their antioxidant ability and thus, can be an effective attenuator of heat stress. In this paper, the potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of polyphenols on heat stress in poultry has been reviewed to provide a reference and ideas for future studies related to polyphenols and poultry production...
March 18, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Daniele La Russa, Francesca Giordano, Alessandro Marrone, Maddalena Parafati, Elzbieta Janda, Daniela Pellegrino
Obesity is a potent risk factor for kidney disease as it increases the possibility of developing diabetes and hypertension, and it has a direct impact on the development of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In this study, we tested the effect of bergamot polyphenolic fraction in a cafeteria with diet-fed rats, an excellent experimental model for studying human metabolic syndrome, as it is able to induce severe obesity with insulin resistance and high plasma triglyceride levels more efficiently than a traditional lard-based high-fat diet used in rodent models...
March 16, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kazuya Ichikawa, Ryosuke Sasada, Kosuke Chiba, Hiroaki Gotoh
Methods for improving the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds have been widely investigated; however, most studies have focused on the structure⁻activity correlations of substituents on the aromatic rings of catechols or flavonoids. We investigated the influence of side chain functional groups on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of xanthorrhizol and curcuphenol analogues. These compounds were synthesised by the side chain functional group conversion of curcumene, followed by direct oxidation of the aromatic ring...
March 16, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ranran Wang, Zhiqing Yang, Jing Zhang, Jianfei Mu, Xianrong Zhou, Xin Zhao
Anji white tea is a unique variety of green tea that is rich in polyphenols. In this study, the effect of Anji white tea polyphenols (AJWTP) on the prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury through its antioxidant properties was studied. Biochemical and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the serum and liver tissue of mice. The antioxidant capacity and liver injury preventive effect of AJWTP were determined, and the mechanism was elaborated. The results showed that AJWTP decreased the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) in mice with liver injury, it increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the serum and liver tissue of mice with liver injury, and it also decreased the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA)...
March 14, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Priyal Patel, Shampa Chatterjee
Peroxiredoxins (Prdx) are a ubiquitous family of highly conserved antioxidant enzymes with a cysteine residue that participate in the reduction of peroxides. This family comprises members Prdx1⁻6, of which Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is unique in that it is multifunctional with the ability to neutralize peroxides (peroxidase activity) and to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) via its phospholipase (PLA₂) activity that drives assembly of NADPH oxidase (NOX2). From the crystal structure, a C47 residue is responsible for peroxidase activity while a catalytic triad (S32, H26, and D140) has been identified as the active site for its PLA₂ activity...
March 13, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Teresa Gallego-Martin, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Philip I Aaronson, Asuncion Rocher, Ana Obeso
Carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells sense arterial blood PO₂, generating a neurosecretory response proportional to the intensity of hypoxia. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a physiological gaseous messenger that is proposed to act as an oxygen sensor in CBs, although this concept remains controversial. In the present study we have used the H₂S scavenger and vitamin B12 analog hydroxycobalamin (Cbl) as a new tool to investigate the involvement of endogenous H₂S in CB oxygen sensing. We observed that the slow-release sulfide donor GYY4137 elicited catecholamine release from isolated whole carotid bodies, and that Cbl prevented this response...
March 13, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mayumi Takahashi, Kazuhide Takahashi
Mitochondrial function has been closely associated with normal aging and age-related diseases. Age-associated declines in mitochondrial function, such as changes in oxygen consumption rate, cytochrome c oxidase activity of complex IV, and mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) levels, begin as early as 12 to 15 months of age in male mouse brains. Brain mitochondrial dysfunction is accompanied by increased accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the motor cortex and impairment of motor activities, which are similar characteristics of Parkinson's disease...
March 11, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Prodromos Skenderidis, Dimitrios Lampakis, Ioannis Giavasis, Stefanos Leontopoulos, Konstantinos Petrotos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Andreas Tsakalof
In this study, the content composition and antioxidant activity of goji berry fruits from two species ( Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense ) were assessed. The total carbohydrate and phenolic contents were evaluated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy, while the antioxidant activity of fruits was examined with two in vitro methods, which are based on the scavenging activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•⁺) free radicals...
March 10, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Francisco Sales, Oscar A Peralta, Eileen Narbona, Sue McCoard, Raúl Lira, Mónica De Los Reyes, Antonio González-Bulnes, Víctor H Parraguez
Twinning and maternal nutritional restriction leads to fetal hypoxia, oxidative stress, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in near-term sheep pregnancies. Our aim was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of vitamins C and E in pregnant sheep on maternal and umbilical cord blood concentrations of vitamins C and E and the effects on fetal antioxidant status, growth, and placental efficiency. Sixteen single- and sixteen twin-bearing ewes, grazing natural Patagonian prairies, were selected after transrectal ultrasound at day 30 after mating...
March 8, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Assaf Ben-Meir, Kyunga Kim, Rosanne McQuaid, Navid Esfandiari, Yaakov Bentov, Robert F Casper, Andrea Jurisicova
Over the past four decades, due to cultural and social changes, women in the developed world have significantly delayed childbirth. This trend is even worse for patients who attend infertility clinics. It is well-known that live birth rates in women older than 35 are significantly lower than in those younger, both naturally and with assisted reproduction. Fertility decline is, in part, due to an increase in oocyte aneuploidy that leads to a reduced embryo quality, as well as an increased incidence of miscarriages and birth defects...
March 8, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sarita Garg, Ratan Sadhukhan, Sudip Banerjee, Alena V Savenka, Alexei G Basnakian, Victoria McHargue, Junru Wang, Snehalata A Pawar, Sanchita P Ghosh, Jerry Ware, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Rupak Pathak
Natural antioxidant gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), a vitamin E family member, provides intestinal radiation protection. We seek to understand whether this protection is mediated via mucosal epithelial stem cells or sub-mucosal mesenchymal immune cells. Vehicle- or GT3-treated male CD2F1 mice were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI). Cell death was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Villus height and crypt depth were measured with computer-assisted software in tissue sections...
March 6, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
John C Huetsch, Karthik Suresh, Larissa A Shimoda
Hyperproliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells is a key component of vascular remodeling in the setting of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Numerous studies have explored factors governing the changes in smooth muscle cell phenotype that lead to the increased wall thickness, and have identified various potential candidates. A role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been well documented in PH. ROS can be generated from a variety of sources, including mitochondria, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase, xanthine oxidase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase...
March 5, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Alessandro Allegra, Caterina Musolino, Elisabetta Pace, Vanessa Innao, Eleonora Di Salvo, Maria Ferraro, Marco Casciaro, Giovanna Spatari, Gennaro Tartarisco, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Sebastiano Gangemi
Glycative stress influences tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the advanced glycation end products/soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (AGE/sRAGE) axis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Blood samples were taken from 19 patients affected by MM and from 16 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects. AGE and sRAGE axis were dosed in patients with MM and matched with controls. AGEs were measured by spectrofluorimetric methods. Blood samples for the determination of sRAGE were analyzed by ELISA...
March 4, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Juan Fernández-Trijueque, Antonio-Jesús Serrato, Mariam Sahrawy
A large number of plastidial thioredoxins (TRX) are present in chloroplast and the specificity versus the redundancy of their functions is currently under discussion. Several results have highlighted the fact that each TRX has a specific target protein and thus a specific function. In this study we have found that in vitro activation of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) enzyme is more efficient when f1 and f2 type thioredoxins (TRXs) are used, whilst the m3 type TRX did not have any effect. In addition, we have carried out a two-dimensional electrophoresis-gel to obtain the protein profiling analyses of the trxf1 , f2 , m1 , m2 , m3 and m4 Arabidopsis mutants...
March 2, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vicente Hernández-Rabaza, Rosa López-Pedrajas, Inmaculada Almansa
Oxidative stress has been documented to be a key factor in the cause and progression of different retinal diseases. Oxidative cellular unbalance triggers a sequence of reactions which prompt cell degeneration and retinal dysfunction, both hallmarks of several retinal pathologies. There is no effective treatment, yet, for many retinal diseases. Antioxidant treatment have been pointed out to be an encouraging palliative treatment; the beneficial effects documented involve slowing the progression of the disease, a reduction of cell degeneration, and improvement of retinal functions...
March 2, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Renata Bannitz-Fernandes, Rogério Aleixo-Silva, João Paulo Silva, Chandra Dodia, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Jian-Qin Tao, Aron Fisher, Luis Netto
Mammalian peroxiredoxin class 6 (Prdx6) are bifunctional enzymes. Non-mammalian Prdx6 enzymes display Cys-based peroxidase activity, but to date their putative phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂ activities) has not been experimentally investigated. Initially, we observed that five non-mammalian Prdx6 enzymes (enzymes from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPER1), Triticum aestivum (TaPER1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaLsfA) and Aspergillus fumigatus (AfPrx1 and AfPrxC)) present features compatible with PLA₂ activities in mammalian Prdx6 by amino acid sequences alignment and tertiary structure modeling...
March 1, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Laura Bordoni, Donatella Fedeli, Cinzia Nasuti, Filippo Maggi, Fabrizio Papa, Martin Wabitsch, Raffaele De Caterina, Rosita Gabbianelli
The oil obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. ( N. sativa ), also known as black cumin, is frequently used in the Mediterranean area for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the oil extracted from seeds of a N. sativa cultivar produced in the Marche region of Italy, and to determine if the thymoquinone content, antioxidant properties, and biological activity would decay during storage...
February 25, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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