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Yang-Nim Park, Kayla Conway, Thomas P Conway, Karla J Daniels, David R Soll
Candida albicans remains the most pervasive fungal pathogen colonizing humans. The majority of isolates from hosts are heterozygous at the mating type locus ( MTL a /α), and a third of these have recently been shown to be capable of switching to the opaque phenotype. Here we have investigated the roles of two transcription factors (TFs) Sfl2 and Efg1, in repressing switching in a /α strains. Deleting either gene results in the capacity of a /α cells to switch to opaque en masse under facilitating environmental conditions, which include N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as the carbon source, physiological temperature (37°C), and high CO2 (5%)...
April 17, 2019: MSphere
Elizabeth A Caves, Sarah A Cook, Nara Lee, Donna Stoltz, Simon Watkins, Kathy H Y Shair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2019: MSphere
Ting Y Wong, Jesse M Hall, Evan S Nowak, Dylan T Boehm, Laura A Gonyar, Erik L Hewlett, Joshua C Eby, Mariette Barbier, F Heath Damron
Bordetella pertussis causes the disease whooping cough through coordinated control of virulence factors by the Bordetella virulence gene system. Microarrays and, more recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) have been used to describe in vitro gene expression profiles of B. pertussis and other pathogens. In previous studies, we have analyzed the in vitro gene expression profiles of B. pertussis , and we hypothesize that the infection transcriptome profile in vivo is significantly different from that under laboratory growth conditions...
April 17, 2019: MSphere
Julia Aguilera-Herce, Meritxell García-Quintanilla, Rocío Romero-Flores, Michael J McConnell, Francisco Ramos-Morales
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. The development of a broadly protective vaccine against P. aeruginosa remains a major challenge. Here, we used an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a vehicle to express P. aeruginosa antigens. A fusion between the S. enterica type III secretion effector protein SseJ and the P. aeruginosa antigen PcrV expressed under the control of the sseA promoter was translocated by Salmonella into host cells in vitro and elicited the generation of specific antibodies in mice...
April 17, 2019: MSphere
Dorian J Feistel, Rema Elmostafa, Nancy Nguyen, McKenna Penley, Levi Morran, Meleah A Hickman
The yeast Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of humans, meaning that despite commensal interactions with its host, it can transition to a harmful pathogen. While C. albicans is the predominant species isolated in the human gastrointestinal mycobiome and is implicated in fungal infection, infections due to non-albicans Candida species are rapidly rising. Studying the factors that contribute to virulence is often challenging and frequently depends on many contexts, including host immune status and pathogen genetic background...
April 10, 2019: MSphere
Colin W Russell, Rashmi Sukumaran, Lu Ting Liow, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Shazmina Rafee, Yuemin C Chee, Swaine L Chen
Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which depends on an extracellular organelle (type 1 pili) for adherence to bladder cells during infection. Type 1 pilus expression is partially regulated by inversion of a piece of DNA referred to as fimS , which contains the promoter for the fim operon encoding type 1 pili. fimS inversion is regulated by up to five recombinases collectively known as Fim recombinases. These Fim recombinases are currently known to regulate two other switches: the ipuS and hyxS switches...
April 10, 2019: MSphere
Nicholas A Bokulich, Juan Maldonado, Dae-Wook Kang, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, J Gregory Caporaso
Studies of the intestinal microbiome commonly utilize stool samples to measure the microbial composition in the distal gut. However, collection of stool can be difficult from some subjects under certain experimental conditions. Sampling of fecal material using sterile swabs can streamline sample collection, handling, and processing. In this study, we validate the use of swabs of fecal matter to approximate measurements of microbiota in stool using 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon sequencing and evaluate the effects of shipping time at ambient temperatures on accuracy...
April 10, 2019: MSphere
Pu Liu, Yue Zou, Wenxiu Li, Yu Li, Xinru Li, Songhao Che, Steven L Stephenson
Christmas Island (10°30'S, 105°40'E) is an Australian external territory located in the Indian Ocean, approximately 350 km south of Java and Sumatra and about 1,550 km northwest of the closest point on the Australian mainland. In May 2017, 20 samples of soil/humus were collected on Christmas Island and processed for dictyostelid cellular slime molds. Four species were recovered. Two of these ( Dictyostelium purpureum and Cavenderia aureostipes ) are common and widely distributed throughout the world, but two other species ( Dictyostelium insulinativitatis sp...
April 10, 2019: MSphere
Sabrina Sabino, Silvia Soares, Fabiano Ramos, Miriane Moretti, Alexandre P Zavascki, Maria Helena Rigatto
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection on sepsis 30-day mortality. A retrospective cohort of patients >18 years old with sepsis and organ dysfunction or septic shock was conducted. Univariate analysis was done for variables potentially related to 30-day mortality, and the ones with P values of <0.05 were included in a backward stepwise hierarchic Cox regression model. Variables that remained with P values of <0.05 were retained in the model...
April 10, 2019: MSphere
Yachen Hu, Zhenyu Wang, Bin Qiang, Yaohui Xu, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum ( S Pullorum) is the etiological agent of pullorum disease, causing white diarrhea with high mortality in chickens. There are many unsolved issues surrounding the epidemiology of S Pullorum, including its origin and transmission history as well as the discordance between its phenotypic heterogeneity and genetic monomorphism. In this paper, we report the results of whole-genome sequencing of a panel of 97 S Pullorum strains isolated between 1962 and 2014 from four countries across three continents...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Junko Yano, Alika Yu, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Denture stomatitis (DS) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. Candida- associated DS is predominantly caused by Candida albicans , a dimorphic fungus that readily colonizes and forms biofilms on denture materials. Previous studies showed a requirement for Candida biofilm formation on both palate and dentures in infection and identified fungal morphogenic transcription factors, Efg1 and Bcr1, as key players in DS pathogenesis...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Elizabeth R Aguilera, Y Nguyen, Jun Sasaki, Julie K Pfeiffer
Several viruses encounter various bacterial species within the host and in the environment. Despite these close encounters, the effects of bacteria on picornaviruses are not completely understood. Previous work determined that poliovirus (PV), an enteric virus, has enhanced virion stability when exposed to bacteria or bacterial surface polysaccharides such as lipopolysaccharide. Virion stabilization by bacteria may be important for interhost transmission, since a mutant PV with reduced bacterial binding had a fecal-oral transmission defect in mice...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Marli Vlok, Andrew S Lang, Curtis A Suttle
RNA viruses, particularly genetically diverse members of the Picornavirales , are widespread and abundant in the ocean. Gene surveys suggest that there are spatial and temporal patterns in the composition of RNA virus assemblages, but data on their diversity and genetic variability in different oceanographic settings are limited. Here, we show that specific RNA virus genomes have widespread geographic distributions and that the dominant genotypes are under purifying selection. Genomes from three previously unknown picorna-like viruses (BC-1, -2, and -3) assembled from a coastal site in British Columbia, Canada, as well as marine RNA viruses JP-A, JP-B, and Heterosigma akashiwo RNA virus exhibited different biogeographical patterns...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Evgeniy Potapenko, Ciro D Cordeiro, Guozhong Huang, Roberto Docampo
Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ) is a by-product of biosynthetic reactions and has bioenergetic and regulatory roles in a variety of cells. Here we show that PPi and other pyrophosphate-containing compounds, including polyphosphate (polyP), can stimulate sodium-dependent depolarization of the membrane potential and Pi conductance in Xenopus oocytes expressing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Trypanosoma brucei Na+ /Pi symporter. PPi is not taken up by Xenopus oocytes, and deletion of the TbPho91 SPX domain abolished its depolarizing effect...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Jiannong Xu, Dong Pei, Ainsley Nicholson, Yuhao Lan, Qing Xia
Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging global multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen. We assessed the diversity among 13 complete genomes and 23 draft genomes of E. anophelis strains derived from various environmental settings and human infections from different geographic regions around the world from 1950s to the present. Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) were identified in 31/36 (86.1%) strains in the study. A total of 52 putative ICEs (including eight degenerated elements lacking integrases) were identified and categorized into three types based on the architecture of the conjugation module and the phylogeny of the relaxase, coupling protein, TraG, and TraJ protein sequences...
April 3, 2019: MSphere
Tadahiro Kumagai, Ainhoa Palacios, Arturo Casadevall, M Jesús García, Carlos Toro, Michael Tiemeyer, Rafael Prados-Rosales
Changes in serum glycans discriminate between disease statuses in cancer. A similar connection has not been established in the context of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). The inflammation arising from infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis may affect host protein glycosylation, thereby providing information about disease status in TB. A mouse model of infection was used to study glycoprotein N-glycosylation in serum. Following digestion of serum glycoproteins with peptide- N -glycosidase F (PNGase F), released glycans were permethylated and analyzed by multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS)...
March 27, 2019: MSphere
Lysangela R Alves, Roberta Peres da Silva, David A Sanchez, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Marcio L Rodrigues, Samuel Goldenberg, Rosana Puccia, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Eukaryotic cells, including fungi, release extracellular vesicles (EVs). These lipid bilayered compartments play essential roles in cellular communication and pathogenesis. EV composition is complex and includes proteins, glycans, pigments, and RNA. RNAs with putative roles in pathogenesis have been described in EVs produced by fungi. Here we describe the RNA content in EVs produced by the G186AR and G217B strains of Histoplasma capsulatum , an important human-pathogenic fungal pathogen. A total of 124 mRNAs were identified in both strains...
March 27, 2019: MSphere
Lars Hviid
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a globally leading infectious disease problem. Despite decades of intense investigation, an efficacious and practical vaccine offering durable protection to people living in areas with transmission of malaria parasites remains an elusive goal. Our fragmentary understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity to the disease is a major obstacle, and the almost complete focus on a very small subset of P. falciparum proteins as vaccine candidates has left most parasite antigens essentially unexplored as targets of acquired immunity...
March 27, 2019: MSphere
Ruwen Yang, Jana Klimentová, Elke Göckel-Krzikalla, Regina Ly, Nadine Gmelin, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Helena Řehulková, Jiří Stulík, Frank Rösl, Martina Niebler
Although the role of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) as etiological agents in cancer development has been intensively studied during the last decades, there is still the necessity of understanding the impact of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes on host cells, ultimately leading to malignant transformation. Here, we used newly established immortalized human keratinocytes with a well-defined HPV16 E6E7 expression cassette to get a more complete and less biased overview of global changes induced by HPV16 by employing transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)...
March 27, 2019: MSphere
Rachel E Riccio, Seo J Park, Richard Longnecker, Sarah J Kopp
Sex differences related to immune response and inflammation play a role in the susceptibility and pathogenesis of a variety of viral infections and disease (S. L. Klein, Bioessays 34:1050-1059, 2012, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes chronic inflammatory disease in the cornea, an immune-privileged tissue, resulting in irreversible damage and blindness in affected individuals (A. Rowe, A. St Leger, S. Jeon, D. K. Dhaliwal, et al., Prog Retin Eye Res 32:88-101, 2013, https://doi...
March 27, 2019: MSphere
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