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Maryam Tavakoli, Mohammad B Habibi Najafi, Mohebbat Mohebbi
In this study, the effects of milk fat content (0%, 2% and 3.5%) and starter culture (autochthonous or commercial) on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant activity and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus , within 21 days storage of probiotic yogurt at 5 ± 1 °C were investigated. Statistical analysis showed that the type of starter culture had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on proteolysis and antioxidant activity, in such a way that both of them were increased until the 14th day of storage but they decreased after this period...
February 2019: Heliyon
Lekan Taofeek Popoola
In the past, lives and wealth have been lost due to corrosion in almost all engineering fields. Not only this, the cost of reviving damaged equipments in the industry due to corrosion contributed a lot to the gross domestic product of a nation. Thus, all hands must be on desk to combat this harzadous act via time to time research on its final resolution. However, current research works have revealed effective and reliable corrosion inhibitors from pharmaceutical drugs, plant extracts and ionic liquids as organic green corrosion inhibitors (OGCIs) with accommodative attributes such as being environmentally friendly, readily available, biodegradable, non-harmful, relatively cheap and many others to mention a few...
February 2019: Heliyon
Rajeshwari Majumdar, Suman Majumdar
We show that the orthogonal projection operator onto the range of the adjoint <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>T</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>⁎</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> of a linear operator T can be represented as UT , where U is an invertible linear operator. Given a Normal random vector Y and a linear operator T , we use this representation to obtain a linear operator <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
February 2019: Heliyon
Ali E Wolpern, Kyle J Sherwin, Whitney D Moss, Ingrid E Nygaard, Marlene J Egger, Timothy A Brusseau, Janet M Shaw
Background: There are few studies that objectively assess physical activity using accelerometry in postpartum women and none that do so before 3 months postpartum. It is not known whether accelerometry can be successfully used in the early postpartum period and thus benefit studies designed to assess the health benefits and risks of early physical activity. Wear compliance may be substantially lower several weeks after childbirth, given the overwhelming nature of the early postpartum period, particularly for first time mothers...
January 2019: Heliyon
T Löbbing, S Carvalho Fernando, M Driessen, M Schulz, J Behrens, K K B Kobert
Background: In the recent years clinical ethics consultations (CEC) received an increasing attention not only in patients with medical conditions but also in those with mental disorders. However, the systematic and empirical knowledge is still small. The aim of this observational study was to investigate whether CECs differ between psychiatric and medical hospital inpatients regarding ethical issues, goals, characteristics, processes, and outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective and in parts prospective analysis of a semi-structured CEC approach provided by the CEC service at a large German general hospital between January 2006 and June 2015...
January 2019: Heliyon
Feyissa Efa, Yared Alemu, Getenet Beyene, Esayas Kebede Gudina, Wakjira Kebede
Objectives: Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are often difficult to manage due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the nasal carriage of MRSA and its antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among medical students at the Jimma University medical center (JUMC), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at the JUMC from May to August; 2016. A total of 371 participants were systematically selected...
January 2019: Heliyon
Nitya Beriwal, Tashi Namgyal, Pema Sangay, Asmaa Monther Al Quraan
The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin and the immune-pineal axis are well established. However, how they play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is not well elucidated. A better understanding of this neuro-immuno-endocrinological link can help in the development of novel therapies with higher efficacy to alleviate symptomatology, slow disease progression and improve the quality of life. Recent studies have shown that the immune-pineal axis acts as an immunological buffer, neurohormonal switch and it also intricately links the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (like Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease) and inflammation at a molecular level...
January 2019: Heliyon
Terencio R de Aguiar, José Osmar A Guimarães Neto, Umut Şen, Helena Pereira
The present study evaluates biosorption efficiencies of pesticides atrazine, fluazifop-P-butyl, lactofen, lambda-cyhalothrin and chloropyrifos on corks of Quercus cerris and Quercus suber trees. The studies were carried out in batch and effects of pH (3, 7 and 9), temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C), and time on adsorption were measured. Pesticide analyzes were performed with an Ion-trap Mass Spectrometer following the SANCO/10232/2006 EU extraction protocol for pesticides. The results show that the highest adsorption efficiency (80% and 70%) of the pesticides was found at pH 3, 30 °C and 360 minutes...
January 2019: Heliyon
Diane Hamilton
A new tool was created to assess the factors that inhibit curiosity in working adults. The Curiosity Code Index (CCI) measures four factors that inhibit curiosity: fear, assumptions, technology, and environment. The validity of the CCI was evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The factor analysis with Varimax Rotation indicated a Cronbach α of .85 for fear, .68 for assumptions, .86 for technology, and .75 for environment. Although there are other tools that measure whether individuals are curious or open to experience, there are no tools that measure these four factors that inhibit curiosity...
January 2019: Heliyon
Banjo A Akinyemi, Adeola Bamidele, Adeoye Oluwanifemi
This article is focussed on evaluating the effects of water repellent admixture and different curing regimes on characteristics of clay from termite hills used for production of earth bricks. Water absorption, thickness swelling and compressive strength characteristics of the specimens with different compositions of cement, hydrated lime and water repellent additive subjected to different curing regimes were measured. The samples were characterised by SEM and FTIR. The least water absorption was at 3.3% while thickness swelling ranged from 0...
January 2019: Heliyon
Chinenye Jane Ugwah-Oguejiofor, Charles Ogbonna Okoli, Michael Oguejiofor Ugwah, Millicent Ladi Umaru, Chiedozie Smart Ogbulie, Halilu Emmanuel Mshelia, Mohammed Umar, Anoka Ayembe Njan
Caralluma dalzielii N. E. Brown (Asclepiadaceae) is a cactus-like shaped shrub widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, infertility and impotence. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of aerial parts of Caralluma dalzielii (AECD) through acute and sub-acute oral administration in mice and rats. During acute toxicity study, female mice and rats were orally administered with AECD at single doses of 175, 500 and 2000 mg/kg according to OECD Guidelines 425...
January 2019: Heliyon
Ankush K Dhawan, Jeffery W Seyler, Brian C Bohrer
The need for new and impactful materials to address the global problem of water pollution continues to be driving force in chemical research. This report presents the preparation of a core-double shell composite consisting of sand base substrate onto which sequential layers of chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) are deposited. The adsorption characteristics of this material for Pb (II) from aqueous solutions is investigated. Specifically, different initial lead concentrations are allowed to reach equilibrium with the chitosan-graphene oxide composites, after which the remaining abundance of lead in the aqueous phase is analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry...
January 2019: Heliyon
Christos Michael Suriano
The Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 protein (Ip3r1) performs an essential role for the induction of cerebellar long-term depression. Here, I describe the use of RT-PCR, qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry to assay Ip3r1 gene expression and localize Ip3r1 protein in the hindbrain of the elasmobranch fish, Leucoraja erinacea . Elasmobranchs are representatives of the most basal, yet extant lineage of gnathostomes, or jawed vertebrates. The cerebellum is a synapomorphy for gnathostomes and thus elasmobranch cerebellar physiology may serve as a proxy for the ancestral state of other jawed vertebrates...
January 2019: Heliyon
D Rico, A B Martín-Diana, C Martínez-Villaluenga, L Aguirre, J M Silván, M Dueñas, D A De Luis, A Lasa
The potential bioactivities for alleviating Metabolic Syndrome associated risk factors were evaluated in carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) fruit by-products, i.e. seed peel, germ and pod. Carob germ and seed peel showed higher phenolic content than pod (99.72, 80.24 and 47.06 μmol GAE g-1 , respectively). Pod mostly contained gallic acid and gallotannins; seed peel and germ's showed as most abundant polyphenols quercetin and apigenin derivatives. Carob pod and seed peel revealed stronger antioxidant capacities compared to germ...
January 2019: Heliyon
Gopal Bera, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Uta Passow, Terry L Wade, Dawei Shi, Maya Morales-McDevitt, Noemi Ramirez-Miss, Anthony H Knap, Antonietta Quigg
Chemical characterization of the presence of oil in environmental samples are performed using methods of varying complexity. Extraction of samples with an organic solvent and analysis by fluorescence spectrometry has been shown to be a rapid and effective screening technique for petroleum in the environment. During experiments, rapid analysis of oil by fluorescence provides the opportunity for researchers to modify the experimental conditions in real time. Estimated Oil Equivalents (EOE) relies on the fluorescence measurement of the aromatic compounds to estimate the oil concentration...
January 2019: Heliyon
J Melo Quintero, K L Salcedo Rodríguez, F A Gómez Albarracín, H D Rosales, P Mendoza Zélis, S J Stewart, L A Errico, C Rodríguez Torres
We present a numerical study of the magnetic properties of ZnFe2 O4 using Monte-Carlo simulations performed considering a Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic couplings determined by Density Functional Theory. Our calculations predict that the magnetic susceptibility has a cusp-like peak centered at 13 K, and follows a Curie-Weiss behavior above this temperature with a high and negative Curie-Weiss temperature ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>Θ</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>C</mml:mi> <mml:mi>W</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> <mml:mn>170</mml:mn> </mml:math> K)...
January 2019: Heliyon
Ibrahim E Elshahawy, Ahmed A Morsy, Farid Abd-El-Kareem, Nehal M Saied
The effect of soil-applied Allium crop products on the Stromatinia cepivora viability and the incidence of white rot in subsequent onion and garlic crops were evaluated in this work. The tested products were onion powder, garlic powder, onion oil, garlic oil and Allium waste (onion and garlic) that are described as sclerotial germination stimulants. Under in vitro conditions, data revealed that more than 80% of the sclerotia died in the soil treated with sclerotial germination stimulants. Under greenhouse conditions, soil-artificially infested with sclerotia of S...
January 2019: Heliyon
Oladayo Amed Idris, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
The morbidity caused by parasite worms on susceptible hosts is of great concern and studies were carried out to explain the mechanism of infection, prevalence, host-parasite interaction and resistance of the parasite to treatment. This review elucidates the prevalence of parasitic worm infections; which is on the increases with the increase in the world population, global warming, poor standard of living particularly in troubled regions and developing nations. The neglect of the disease coupled with the resistance of these parasites to the few available drugs becomes a huge challenge that influences global disease burden...
January 2019: Heliyon
Nicole Brandes, Manuela Zude-Sasse
Information on the developmental stage of pear pre-harvest and in shelf-life is crucial to determine the optimum timing of harvest, post-harvest treatment, and time of consumption ensuring high eating quality. In the present study, CO2 emission and fruit quality of European pear ( Pyrus communis L.) 'Conference' were analysed pre- and post-harvest with emphasis on shelf life for three years. Additionally, cytochrome and cyanide-resistant O2 consumption were analysed in the last year of experiments. The respiration rate of pear showed typical climacteric rise of CO2 emission in two years only, despite daily measurements...
January 2019: Heliyon
Yuvraj Gajpal, Vivek Roy, B S Sahay
This paper considers the distribution system of a school feeding program (mid-day meals), wherein a set of delivery vehicles transfer cooked food from a kitchen facility to various schools within a specified delivery deadline. The food is required to be delivered before the lunch period, which is consistent across all the schools. A delay in food delivery can deprive students of their lunch, and, therefore, designing the vehicle routes for such distribution systems and maintaining a strict delivery deadline becomes critical...
January 2019: Heliyon
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