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Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895179/angiogenic-endothelial-cell-signaling-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Magdalena L Bochenek, Katrin Schäfer
Endothelial cells are, by number, one of the most abundant cell types in the heart and active players in cardiac physiology and pathology. Coronary angiogenesis plays a vital role in maintaining cardiac vascularization and perfusion during physiological and pathological hypertrophy. On the other hand, a reduction in cardiac capillary density with subsequent tissue hypoxia, cell death and interstitial fibrosis contributes to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure, as suggested by clinical as well as experimental evidence...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895178/interpreting-the-findings-from-the-recent-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-cardiovascular-outcomes-trials
#2
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Michael D Shapiro
The recent development of monoclonal antibodies targeted to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), e.g., PCSK9 inhibitors has revolutionized the landscape of lipid management. Many clinical trials assessing this class have demonstrated remarkable and consistent reductions in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Moreover, the GLAGOV trial demonstrated the efficacy of evolocumab, when added to statin therapy, in reducing the progression of atherosclerosis measured by serial intravascular ultrasound, with the first suggestion of continued benefit down to LDL-C levels of 0...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886849/evolving-surgical-approaches-to-bicuspid-aortic-valve-associated-aortopathy
#3
Ali Fatehi Hassanabad, Christopher M Feindel, Subodh Verma, Paul W M Fedak
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac pathology which results from the fusion of two adjacent aortic valve cusps. It is associated with dilatation of the aorta, known as bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy or bicuspid aortopathy. Bicuspid aortopathy is progressive and is linked with adverse clinical events. Hence, frequent monitoring and early intervention with prophylactic surgical resection of the proximal aorta is often recommended. Over the past two decades resection strategies and surgical interventions have mainly been directed by surgeon and institution preferences...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30881959/autotaxin-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#4
REVIEW
Patrick Mathieu, Marie-Chloé Boulanger
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a complex trait disorder characterized by calcific remodeling of leaflets. Genome-wide association (GWA) study and Mendelian randomization (MR) have highlighted that LPA , which encodes for apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], is causally associated with CAVD. Apo(a) is the protein component of Lp(a), a LDL-like particle, which transports oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs). Autotaxin (ATX), which is encoded by ENPP2 , is a member of the ecto-nucleotidase family of enzymes, which is, however, a lysophospholipase...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873416/targeting-residual-inflammatory-risk-a-shifting-paradigm-for-atherosclerotic-disease
#5
REVIEW
Aaron W Aday, Paul M Ridker
As biologic, epidemiologic, and clinical trial data have demonstrated, inflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis. Circulating biomarkers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events independent of cholesterol and other traditional risk factors. Randomized trials have shown that statins reduce hsCRP, and the magnitude of hsCRP reduction is proportional to the reduction in cardiovascular risk...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873415/microvascular-rarefaction-and-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#6
REVIEW
Heng Zeng, Jian-Xiong Chen
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction and is commonly seen in the elderly and diabetic and hypertensive patients. Despite its rising prevalence, the pathophysiology of HFpEF is poorly understood and its optimal treatment remains undefined. Recent clinical studies indicate that coronary microvascular rarefaction (reduced myocardial capillary density) with reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a major contributor to diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF patients...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873414/editorial-exploring-the-frontiers-of-regenerative-cardiovascular-medicine
#7
EDITORIAL
Julie A Phillippi, Elena Aikawa, Josh Hutcheson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873413/first-report-of-the-italian-registry-on-immune-mediated-congenital-heart-block-lu-ne-registry
#8
Micaela Fredi, Laura Andreoli, Beatrice Bacco, Tiziana Bertero, Alessandra Bortoluzzi, Silvia Breda, Veronica Cappa, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Rolando Cimaz, Salvatore De Vita, Emma Di Poi, Elena Elefante, Franco Franceschini, Maria Gerosa, Marcello Govoni, Ariela Hoxha, Andrea Lojacono, Luca Marozio, Alessandro Mathieu, Pier Luigi Meroni, Antonina Minniti, Marta Mosca, Marina Muscarà, Melissa Padovan, Matteo Piga, Roberta Priori, Véronique Ramoni, Amelia Ruffatti, Chiara Tani, Marta Tonello, Laura Trespidi, Sonia Zatti, Stefano Calza, Angela Tincani, Antonio Brucato
Objective: Neonatal Lupus (NL) is a rare syndrome caused by placental transfer of maternal anti-SSA/Ro and anti-La/SSB autoantibodies to the fetus. The rarity of this condition requires the establishment of multidisciplinary registries in order to improve our knowledge. Method: Inclusion criteria in this retrospective study were the maternal confirmed positivity for anti-SSA/Ro and/or anti-SSB/La antibodies, and the presence of II or III degree congenital heart block (CHB) in utero or neonatal period (up to 27 days after birth)...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838216/a-novel-method-of-isolating-myofibrils-from-primary-cardiomyocyte-culture-suitable-for-myofibril-mechanical-study
#9
Kathleen C Woulfe, Claudia Ferrara, Jose Manuel Pioner, Jennifer H Mahaffey, Raffaele Coppini, Beatrice Scellini, Cecilia Ferrantini, Nicoletta Piroddi, Chiari Tesi, Corrado Poggesi, Mark Jeong
Myofibril based mechanical studies allow evaluation of sarcomeric protein function. We describe a novel method of obtaining myofibrils from primary cardiomyocyte culture. Adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) were obtained by enzymatic digestion and maintained in serum free condition. ARVMs were homogenized in relaxing solution (pCa 9.0) with 20% sucrose, and myofibril suspension was made. Myofibrils were Ca2+ -activated and relaxed at 15°C. Results from ARVM myofibrils were compared to myofibrils obtained from ventricular tissue skinned with Triton X-100...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838215/cardiac-specific-knockout-of-p53-decreases-er-stress-induced-mitochondrial-damage
#10
Qun Chen, Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, Anindita Das, Edward J Lesnefsky
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Interactions between the ER and mitochondria during ER stress can impair the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increase cell injury. p53 is a tumor suppressor protein that regulates apoptosis. p53 contributes to the regulation of mitochondrial and ER interactions, especially during the progression of ER stress. The knockout (KO) of p53 leads to decreased injury in hearts following ischemia-reperfusion. We asked if KO of p53 can protect mitochondria during the induction of ER stress and decrease cell injury...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838214/multi-omics-approaches-to-study-long-non-coding-rna-function-in-atherosclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Adam W Turner, Doris Wong, Mohammad Daud Khan, Caitlin N Dreisbach, Meredith Palmore, Clint L Miller
Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease of the vessel wall involving the interplay of multiple cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and the advancement of next generation sequencing technologies have rapidly expanded the number of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts predicted to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we highlight several lncRNAs whose functional role in atherosclerosis is well-documented through traditional biochemical approaches as well as those identified through RNA-sequencing and other high-throughput assays...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838213/after-50-years-of-heart-transplants-what-does-the-next-50-years-hold-for-cardiovascular-medicine-a-perspective-from-the-international-society-for-applied-cardiovascular-biology
#12
Joshua D Hutcheson, Craig J Goergen, Frederick J Schoen, Masanori Aikawa, Peter Zilla, Elena Aikawa, Glenn R Gaudette
The first successful heart transplant 50 years ago by Dr.Christiaan Barnard in Cape Town, South Africa revolutionized cardiovascular medicine and research. Following this procedure, numerous other advances have reduced many contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; yet, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Various unmet needs in cardiovascular medicine affect developing and underserved communities, where access to state-of-the-art advances remain out of reach. Addressing the remaining challenges in cardiovascular medicine in both developed and developing nations will require collaborative efforts from basic science researchers, engineers, industry, and clinicians...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805347/the-bone-vasculature-axis-calcium-supplementation-and-the-role-of-vitamin-k
#13
REVIEW
Grzegorz B Wasilewski, Marc G Vervloet, Leon J Schurgers
Calcium supplements are broadly prescribed to treat osteoporosis either as monotherapy or together with vitamin D to enhance calcium absorption. It is still unclear whether calcium supplementation significantly contributes to the reduction of bone fragility and fracture risk. Data suggest that supplementing post-menopausal women with high doses of calcium has a detrimental impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are prone to vascular calcification in part due to impaired phosphate excretion...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800662/urinary-titin-is-increased-in-patients-after-cardiac-surgery
#14
Jun Tanihata, Naritomo Nishioka, Takahiro Inoue, Ko Bando, Susumu Minamisawa
Background: Few non-invasive biomarkers have been used to detect myocardial injury in patients with heart diseases. Recently, the N-terminal fragment (N-titin) of titin, a giant sarcomeric protein, which is involved in muscular passive tension and viscoelasticity, has been reported to detect muscle damage in patients with cardiomyopathy as well as in patients with skeletal muscle dystrophy and in healthy volunteers with endurance exercise. In the present study, we evaluated whether urinary N-titin is changed during a perioperative period and whether its increase reflects myocardial damage...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761309/genetic-testing-and-risk-scores-impact-on-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#15
REVIEW
Ashish Sarraju, Joshua W Knowles
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited lipid disorder affecting 1 in 220 individuals resulting in highly elevated low-density lipoprotein levels and risk of premature coronary disease. Pathogenic variants causing FH typically involve the LDL receptor ( LDLR ), apolipoprotein B-100 ( APOB ), and proprotein convertase subtulisin/kexin type 9 genes ( PCSK9 ) and if identified convey a risk of early onset coronary artery disease (ASCVD) of 3- to 10-fold vs. the general population depending on the severity of the mutation...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740396/automatic-estimation-of-coronary-blood-flow-velocity-step-1-for-developing-a-tool-to-diagnose-patients-with-micro-vascular-angina-pectoris
#16
Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Kjersti Engan, Charlotte Sæland, Trygve Eftestøl, Alf I Larsen
Aim: Our aim was to automatically estimate the blood velocity in coronary arteries using cine X-ray angiographic sequence. Estimating the coronary blood velocity is a key approach in investigating patients with angina pectoris and no significant coronary artery disease. Blood velocity estimation is central in assessing coronary flow reserve. Methods and Results: A multi-step automatic method for blood flow velocity estimation based on the information extracted solely from the cine X-ray coronary angiography sequence obtained by invasive selective coronary catheterization was developed...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729115/editorial-from-biology-to-clinical-management-an-update-on-aortic-valve-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Cécile Oury, Alain Nchimi, Patrizio Lancellotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729114/cardiac-complications-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Kazuko Tajiri, Masaki Ieda
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have changed the treatment landscape of advanced cancers. Unfortunately, these agents can induce a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) through activation of immune responses in non-target organs, including the heart. As the clinical use of ICI therapy increases rapidly, management of irAEs is becoming extremely important. The most commonly presented cardiac irAE is myocarditis. Histopathologically, T-cell (with a predominance of CD8+ cells) and macrophage infiltration in the myocardium is typically observed in ICI-associated myocarditis...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729113/editorial-multicellularity-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#19
EDITORIAL
Paolo Madeddu, Gabor Foldes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761308/non-antibody-approaches-to-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9-inhibition-sirna-antisense-oligonucleotides-adnectins-vaccination-and-new-attempts-at-small-molecule-inhibitors-based-on-new-discoveries
#20
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nishikido, Kausik K Ray
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the principal risk factors for atherosclerosis. Circulating LDL particles can penetrate into the sub-endothelial space of arterial walls. These particles undergo oxidation and promote an inflammatory response, resulting in injury to the vascular endothelial wall. Persistent elevation of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is linked to the progression of fatty streaks to lipid-rich plaque and thus atherosclerosis. LDL-C is a causal factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and lowering it is beneficial across a range of conditions associated with high risk of cardiovascular events...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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