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Frontiers in Veterinary Science

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778392/vaccine-development-for-nipah-virus-infection-in-pigs
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca K McLean, Simon P Graham
Nipah virus (NiV) causes a severe and often fatal neurological disease in humans. Whilst fruit bats are considered the natural reservoir, NiV also infects pigs and may cause an unapparent or mild disease. Direct pig-to-human transmission was responsible for the first and still most devastating NiV outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-99, with nearly 300 human cases and over 100 fatalities. Pigs can therefore play a key role in the epidemiology of NiV by acting as an "amplifying" host. The outbreak in Singapore ended with the prohibition of pig imports from Malaysia and the Malaysian outbreak was ended by culling 45% of the country's pig population with costs exceeding US$500 million...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778391/cardiac-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-pimobendan-in-cats-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#2
Maureen S Oldach, Yu Ueda, Eric S Ontiveros, Samantha L Fousse, Samantha P Harris, Joshua A Stern
Background: Pimobendan has been shown to impart a significant survival benefit in cardiomyopathic cats who receive it as part of heart failure therapy. However, use of pimobendan remains controversial in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) due to lack of pharmacodynamic data for pimobendan in cats with HCM and due to theoretical concerns for exacerbating left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. Hypothesis/Objectives: Our objective was to investigate the cardiac effects of pimobendan in cats with HCM...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778390/identification-of-fur-in-pasteurella-multocida-and-the-potential-of-its-mutant-as-an-attenuated-live-vaccine
#3
Qing Liu, Yunlong Hu, Pei Li, Qingke Kong
Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic microorganism that causes a variety of serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. The global regulator gene, fur , plays an important role in pathogenesis and regulates the virulence of many bacteria. Here, we identified a fur gene in P. multocida by complementing a Salmonella Choleraesuis Δ fur mutant, and characterized a fur mutant strain of P. multocida . The P. multocida Δ fur mutant strain exhibited no significant differences in growth and outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles when the complemented strain was compared to the parent...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775369/british-red-squirrels-remain-the-only-known-wild-rodent-host-for-leprosy-bacilli
#4
Anna-Katarina Schilling, Charlotte Avanzi, Rainer G Ulrich, Philippe Busso, Benoit Pisanu, Nicola Ferrari, Claudia Romeo, Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto, Joyce McLuckie, Craig M Shuttleworth, Jorge Del-Pozo, Peter W W Lurz, Wendy G Escalante-Fuentes, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Karen Stevenson, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Anna L Meredith, Stewart T Cole
Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the British Isles are the most recently discovered animal reservoir for the leprosy bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis . Initial data suggest that prevalence of leprosy infection is variable and often low in different squirrel populations. Nothing is known about the presence of leprosy bacilli in other wild squirrel species despite two others (Siberian chipmunk [ Tamias sibiricus ], and Thirteen-lined ground squirrel [ Ictidomys tridecemlineatus ]) having been reported to be susceptible to experimental infection with M...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775368/decrease-in-population-and-increase-in-welfare-of-community-cats-in-a-twenty-three-year-trap-neuter-return-program-in-key-largo-fl-the-orcat-program
#5
Rachael E Kreisler, Heather N Cornell, Julie K Levy
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a long-term (23-year) trap-neuter-return program on the population size of community cats in the Ocean Reef Community and to describe the demographic composition and outcome of enrolled cats. A retrospective study was performed using both cat census data collected between 1999 and 2013 as well as individual medical records for cats whose first visit occurred between 3/31/1995 and 12/31/2017. Medical record entries were reviewed to determine program inputs, cat outcomes, retroviral disease prevalence, and average age of first visit, sterilization, and death through 6/11/2018...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761313/heterologous-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-application-on-a-large-chronic-skin-wound-in-a-6-month-old-filly
#6
Aliai Lanci, Barbara Merlo, Jole Mariella, Carolina Castagnetti, Eleonora Iacono
A complex feedback of growth factors, secreted by a variety of cell types, is responsible for the mediation of skin healing. Despite the recent advances in wound healing management, this fails up to 50% and skin wounds can still be considered one of the main causes of morbidity, both in human and veterinary medicine. Regenerative medicine, involving mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is nowadays a promising solution for skin wound healing. Indeed, MSCs are involved in the modulation of the inflammatory local response and cell replacing, by a paracrine mode of action...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761312/the-efficacy-of-sodium-bisulfate-salt-sbs-alone-and-combined-with-peracetic-acid-paa-as-an-antimicrobial-on-whole-chicken-drumsticks-artificially-inoculated-with-salmonella-enteritidis
#7
Dana K Dittoe, Julie A Atchley, Kristina M Feye, Jung Ae Lee, Carl J Knueven, Steven C Ricke
The presence of Salmonella spp. on poultry products is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Therefore, novel antimicrobial substances are being explored as potential interventions in poultry processing facilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of varying concentrations of sodium bisulfate salt, SBS, alone or in combination with peracetic acid, PAA, in 15 s whole part dips. Ninety six drumsticks (4 replications, 8 treatments, 3 days) were inoculated separately in a 400 mL solution of nalidixic resistant (NA) Salmonella Enteritidis (107 CFU/mL) and allowed to adhere for 60 to 90 min at 4°C for a final concentration of 106 CFU/g...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746367/behavioral-interventions-as-an-adjunctive-treatment-for-canine-epilepsy-a-missing-part-of-the-epilepsy-management-toolkit
#8
Rowena M A Packer, Sarah L Hobbs, Emily J Blackwell
Epilepsy is a common, complex and often challenging neurological disorder to treat in the dog, with 20-30% of dogs resistant to conventional medical therapies, and associated with cognitive and behavioral comorbidities and early death. Behavioral interventions are an emerging area of focus in the adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant human epilepsy patients, with studies indicating positive effects of a variety of interventions including relaxation-based techniques and behavioral therapy interventions. Behavioral interventions have the potential not only to improve seizure control, but also improve behavioral comorbidities and general quality of life in this hard to treat patient group...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746366/corrigendum-urinary-exosome-derived-micrornas-reflecting-the-changes-in-renal-function-in-cats
#9
Osamu Ichii, Hiroshi Ohta, Taro Horino, Teppei Nakamura, Marina Hosotani, Tatsuya Mizoguchi, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Noboru Sasaki, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi, Ryo Sato, Kazuhisa Oyamada, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00289.].
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723724/heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-affected-by-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#10
Yu Ueda, Taylor L Slabaugh, Ashley L Walker, Eric S Ontiveros, Paul-Michael Sosa, Rachel Reader, Jeffrey A Roberts, Joshua A Stern
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is frequently associated with sudden cardiac death, presumably due to the development of malignant arrhythmias. The risk of sudden cardiac death due to HCM has been reported to be predicted by assessing electrocardiographic (ECG) changes including frequencies and complexities of arrhythmias as well as heart rate variability (HRV) as an assessment of autonomic balance. Sudden cardiac death in association with naturally-occurring left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been reported in a colony of rhesus macaques and is under investigation as a potential non-human primate model of human HCM...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766877/optimizing-gastrointestinal-integrity-in-poultry-the-role-of-nutrients-and-feed-additives
#11
REVIEW
Sunday A Adedokun, Opeyemi C Olojede
Immunomodulation of the immune system by stimulating or suppressing one or both arms, is an emerging concept driven by the understanding of the host defense system. In particular, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) functions not only as a site for digestion and absorption of nutrients but also acts as a metabolic and immunological organ. This serves as a barrier against abnormal presentation of luminal constituents, caused by dysfunctional intestinal epithelial barrier, to the mucosal immune system. Invasion by pathogens in the case of disease or stress or a massive influx of commensal bacteria overcomes the defensive mechanisms, resulting in the full activation of local dendritic cells and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766876/further-insights-into-the-interaction-of-human-and-animal-complement-regulator-factor-h-with-viable-lyme-disease-spirochetes
#12
Jovana Jasmin Mühleip, Yi-Pin Lin, Peter Kraiczy
Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex differ in their ability to establish infection and to survive in diverse vertebrate hosts. Association with and adaption to various hosts most likely correlates with the spirochetes' ability to acquire complement regulator factor H (FH) to overcome the host's innate immune response. Here we assessed binding of serum FH from human and various animals including bovine, cat, chicken, dog, horse, mouse, rabbit, and rat to viable B...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766875/validity-of-micro-data-loggers-to-determine-walking-activity-of-turkeys-and-effects-on-turkey-gait
#13
Rachel Stevenson, Hillary A Dalton, Marisa Erasmus
Accelerometers have the potential to provide objective, non-invasive methods for detecting changes in animal behavior and health. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of micro-acceleration data loggers (accelerometers) and habituation to accelerometers on turkey gait and health status, (2) determine age-related changes in gait and health status, and (3) assess the validity and reliability of the accelerometers. Thirty-six male commercial turkeys were randomly assigned to one of five groups: accelerometer and habituation period (AH), accelerometer and no habituation period (AN), VetRap bandage (no accelerometer) and habituation period (VH), bandage (no accelerometer) and no habituation period (VN), and nothing on either leg (C)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761311/laser-therapy-for-incision-healing-in-9-dogs
#14
Jennifer L Wardlaw, Krista M Gazzola, Amanda Wagoner, Erin Brinkman, Joey Burt, Ryan Butler, Julie M Gunter, Lucy H Senter
Laser therapy is becoming common place in veterinary medicine with little evidence proving efficacy or dosages. This study evaluated surgical wound healing in canines. Twelve Dachshunds underwent thoraco-lumbar hemilaminectomies for intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). Digital photographs were taken of their incisions within 24 h of surgery and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 21 days postoperatively. The first three dogs were used to create a standardized scar scale to score the other dogs' incision healing. The remaining 9 dogs were randomly assigned to either receive 8 J/cm2 laser therapy once a day for 7 days or the non-laser treated control group...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761310/fracture-limits-of-maxillary-fourth-premolar-teeth-in-domestic-dogs-under-applied-forces
#15
Maria Soltero-Rivera, Matthew I Elliott, Michael W Hast, Snehal S Shetye, Ana C Castejon-Gonzalez, Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez, Darko Stefanovski, Alexander M Reiter
A cadaveric study was performed to investigate the external mechanical forces required to fracture maxillary fourth premolar teeth in domestic dogs and describe a clinically relevant model of chewing forces placed on functionally important teeth in which fracture patterns are consistent with those defined by the American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC). Twenty-four maxillary fourth premolar teeth were harvested from dog cadavers. Samples consisted of teeth with surrounding alveolar bone potted in polycarbonate cylinders filled with acrylic...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723723/adaptation-of-human-influenza-viruses-to-swine
#16
REVIEW
Daniela S Rajao, Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez
A large diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) within the H1N1/N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulates in pigs globally, with different lineages predominating in specific regions of the globe. A common characteristic of the ecology of IAV in swine in different regions is the periodic spillover of human seasonal viruses. Such human viruses resulted in sustained transmission in swine in several countries, leading to the establishment of novel IAV lineages in the swine host and contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza observed in pigs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723722/canine-olfactory-thresholds-to-amyl-acetate-in-a-biomedical-detection-scenario
#17
Astrid R Concha, Claire M Guest, Rob Harris, Thomas W Pike, Alexandre Feugier, Helen Zulch, Daniel S Mills
Dogs' abilities to respond to concentrations of odorant molecules are generally deemed superior to electronic sensors. This sensitivity has been used traditionally in many areas; but is a more recent innovation within the medical field. As a bio-detection sensor for human diseases such as cancer and infections, dogs often need to detect volatile organic compounds in bodily fluids such as urine and blood. Although the limits of olfactory sensitivity in dogs have been studied since the 1960s, there is a gap in our knowledge concerning these limits in relation to the concentration of odorants presented in a fluid phase...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723721/corrigendum-detecting-and-predicting-emerging-disease-in-poultry-with-the-implementation-of-new-technologies-and-big-data-a-focus-on-avian-influenza-virus
#18
Jake Astill, Rozita A Dara, Evan D G Fraser, Shayan Sharif
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00263.].
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723720/a-global-reassessment-of-solitary-sociable-dolphins
#19
Laetitia Nunny, Mark P Simmonds
Dolphins are typically regarded as highly social animals. However, some individuals live apart from their own species and may come to socialize with people through a recognized series of stages which are presented and expanded on in this paper. The term "solitary-sociable dolphins" has been used to describe these animals and such individuals have been identified from several different species and reported in many parts of the world. In many instances, the interactions with people that may follow their original isolation, and which typically become more intense over time, have created situations where the welfare of the animal has been compromised by disturbance, injury, the feeding of inappropriate items and aggressive human behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719435/-mycobacterium-caprae-infection-of-red-deer-in-western-austria-optimized-use-of-pathology-data-to-infer-infection-dynamics
#20
Annette Nigsch, Walter Glawischnig, Zoltán Bagó, Norbert Greber
Austria is officially bovine tuberculosis (TB) free, but during the last decade the west of the country experienced sporadic TB cases in cattle. Free-ranging red deer are known to be the maintenance host of Mycobacterium ( M .) caprae in certain areas in Austria, where cattle can become infected on alpine pastures shared with deer. The epidemiology of TB in deer in alpine regions is still poorly understood. To inform decisions on efficient interventions against TB in deer, a method is needed to better capture the infection dynamics on population level...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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