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Kidney Diseases

Ankur Mittal, Vandana Singh, Sheemona Chowdhary, Amal Moideen, Deepak Kumar, Kunal Maniar, Rajasri Bhattacharyya, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
Background: Hypererythropoietinemia is associated with common diseases like non-uremic anaemia where infection burden is high. Erythropoietin (EPO) is also given as therapy for anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease and cancer and in those who are at a higher risk of infections. EPO is known to have an effect on macrophages by which it helps in the growth of some intracellular pathogens. However, its direct role on bacterial growth is currently unknown. Summary: Here, we investigated the direct effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) on the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
March 2019: Kidney Diseases
Veerabhadra Radhakrishna, Sambandan Kumaravel, P S Priyamvada, Nandeesha Hanumanthappa, Bibekanand Jindal, Krishnakumar Govindarajan, Bikash Kumar Naredi, Ashok Rijhwani
Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are a group of disorders responsible for the majority of pediatric end-stage renal disease cases. There are only a few studies on CAKUT. Objectives: A study was conducted to determine the clinical and biochemical profile of children with CAKUT and to estimate the prevalence and the factors associated with hypertension in CAKUT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary center for 18 months from March 2014 to August 2015...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Jun Shiota
Background: Although presepsin (P-SEP) is an early sepsis biomarker, sepsis is often suspected after starting hemodialysis (HD). To enhance the utility of P-SEP, we investigated whether pre-HD P-SEP levels could be predicted using the P-SEP levels from blood samples collected after starting HD. Methods: We observed P-SEP level changes due to HD and dialyzer passage in HD patients using a dialysis membrane with a β2 -microglobulin (β2 -MG) clearance of either ≥50 mL/min (high-flux) or < 30 mL/min (intermediate-flux)...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Zhengzhe Li, Haibing Chen, Fang Zhong, Weijia Zhang, Kyung Lee, John Cijiang He
Background: Recent studies suggest a role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. However, epigenetic changes occurring specifically in kidney cells is poorly understood. Methods: To examine the epigenetic regulation of genes in podocytes under diabetic conditions, we performed DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling in podocytes exposed to high glucose conditions. Results: Comparative analysis of genes with DNA methylation changes and correspondingly altered mRNA expression identified 337 hypomethylated genes with increased mRNA expression and only 2 hypermethyated genes ( ESX1 and GRIA3 ) with decreased mRNA expression...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Carlo Barbieri, Isabella Cattinelli, Luca Neri, Flavio Mari, Rosa Ramos, Diego Brancaccio, Bernard Canaud, Stefano Stuard
Background: Fluid volume and blood pressure (BP) management are crucial endpoints for end-stage kidney disease patients. BP control in clinical practice mainly relies on reducing extracellular fluid volume overload by diminishing targeted postdialysis weight. This approach exposes dialysis patients to intradialytic hypotensive episodes. Summary: Both chronic hypertension and intradialytic hypotension lead to adverse long-term outcomes. Achieving the optimal trade-off between adequate fluid removal and the risk of intradialytic adverse events is a complex task in clinical practice given the multiple patient-related and dialysis-related factors affecting the hemodynamic response to treatment...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Vicent Ribas Ripoll, Alfredo Vellido
Background: Modern clinical environments are laden with technology devices continuously gathering physiological data from patients. This is especially true in critical care environments, where life-saving decisions may have to be made on the basis of signals from monitoring devices. Hemodynamic monitoring is essential in dialysis, surgery, and in critically ill patients. For the most severe patients, blood pressure is normally assessed through a catheter, which is an invasive procedure that may result in adverse effects...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Anders Jonsson
Reinforcement learning has achieved tremendous success in recent years, notably in complex games such as Atari, Go, and chess. In large part, this success has been made possible by powerful function approximation methods in the form of deep neural networks. The objective of this paper is to introduce the basic concepts of reinforcement learning, explain how reinforcement learning can be effectively combined with deep learning, and explore how deep reinforcement learning could be useful in a medical context.
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Alfredo Vellido
Background: Medicine is becoming an increasingly data-centred discipline and, beyond classical statistical approaches, artificial intelligence (AI) and, in particular, machine learning (ML) are attracting much interest for the analysis of medical data. It has been argued that AI is experiencing a fast process of commodification. This characterization correctly reflects the current process of industrialization of AI and its reach into society. Therefore, societal issues related to the use of AI and ML should not be ignored any longer and certainly not in the medical domain...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Miguel Hueso, Estanislao Navarro, Diego Sandoval, Josep Maria Cruzado
Background: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, but the shortage of kidneys and the disabling medical conditions these patients suffer from make dialysis essential for most of them. Since dialysis drastically affects the patients' lifestyle, there are great expectations for the development of wearable artificial kidneys, although their use is currently impeded by major concerns about safety. On the other hand, dialysis patients with hemodynamic instability do not usually tolerate intermittent dialysis therapy because of their inability to adapt to a changing scenario of unforeseen events...
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Miguel Hueso, Alfredo Vellido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Kidney Diseases
Boris Bikbov
Background: The Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) and Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) were developed by the United States Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). They may influence the clinical decision whether to accept or discard a donor kidney, but still there are debates about KDPI/KDRI applicability and its consequences. To further evaluate these indexes in different populations, more data should be analyzed, and a universally applicable program code would facilitate it...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Jun Jiang, Li-Hua Wang, Yun-Yun Fei, Xiao-Wan Zhou, Li Peng, Lei Lan, Wei Ren
Objective: This study assessed the relationship between serum albumin (ALB) at start of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and long-term outcomes of continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) in Anhui Han patients. Methods: A total of 149 Anhui Han CAPD patients were enrolled in this study and followed up for 3 years. They were initially diagnosed with the end-stage renal disease and underwent surgical PD catheter placement from January 2009 to December 2013. According to serum ALB at start of PD, the patients were divided into two groups: low ALB group (ALB < 35 g/L) and high ALB group (ALB ≥35 g/L)...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Sandesh Parajuli, Didier A Mandelbrot, Fahad Aziz, Neetika Garg, Brenda Muth, Maha Mohamed, Michael J Armbrust, Brad C Astor, Arjang Djamali
Background: Information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with > 25 years of graft survival is limited. Methods: In this single-center observational study, we characterized KTRs transplanted between 1973 and 1992 with active follow-up as of July 31, 2017. Results: We identified 112 patients with > 25 years of allograft function. The mean posttransplantation follow-up was 29.8 ± 4...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Osama F Mosa
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following cardiac surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions, with an estimated incidence rate around 30%, depicted by long-term intensive care unit stay and culminating renal dysfunction over time, triggering either perpetual renal damage evolving to chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease transitions or high vulnerability for sudden death after surgery. The classical diagnosis of AKI is based on a sharp rise in serum creatinine that takes at least 48 h to be visible and is associated with multiple nonrenal factors...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Elena Zakharova
Background: The anatomy and physiology of kidneys as well as kidney diseases have been studied in Russia since the 18th century. However, there was a surge in interest in the 1920s, with numerous researchers and clinicians making substantial advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology, pathology, and diagnostics of kidney diseases. The field of nephrology as clinical practice can be traced back to 1957-1958, when the first beds for patients with kidney diseases became available and the first hemodialysis procedure was performed...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Ling Wei, Ying Xiao, Li Li, Xiaofen Xiong, Yachun Han, Xuejing Zhu, Lin Sun
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a severe threat to global public health. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Approximately 30-40% of DM patients in the world progress to ESRD, which emphasizes the effect of genetic factors on DN. Family clustering also supports the important role of hereditary factors in DN and ESRD. Therefore, a large number of genetic studies have been carried out to identify susceptibility genes in different diabetic cohorts...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Yuting Ye, Hui Song, Jiong Zhang, Shaolin Shi
Background: Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) has recently emerged as a revolutionary and powerful tool for biomedical research. However, there have been relatively few studies using scRNA-seq in the field of kidney study. Summary: scRNA-seq achieves gene expression profiling at single-cell resolution in contrast with the conventional methods of gene expression profiling, which are based on cell population and give averaged values of gene expression of the cells. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis is crucial because individual cells of the same type are highly heterogeneous in gene expression, which reflects the existence of subpopulations, different cellular states, or molecular dynamics, of the cells, and should be resolved for further insights...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Eman Shaban, George Bayliss, Deepak K Malhotra, Douglas Shemin, Li Juan Wang, Reginald Gohh, Lance D Dworkin, Rujun Gong
Background: Organ transplantation is considered the ultimate therapy for end-stage organ disease. While pharmacologic immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapeutic strategies to prolong the survival of the graft, long-term use of immunosuppressive medications carries the risk of organ toxicity, malignancies, serious opportunistic infections, and diabetes. Therapies that promote recipient tolerance in solid organ transplantation are able to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for long-term immunosuppression...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Wolfgang Pommer
Background: Obesity is increasing worldwide and has become a nontraditional risk factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Summary: Obesity-related nephropathy may aggravate renal complications of the metabolic syndrome and progress to advanced CKD stages, while obesity in early stages of CKD is clearly related to the development of kidney disease. A high body mass index (BMI) in advanced CKD stages and dialysis is an advantage for survival (so called "obesity paradox")...
November 2018: Kidney Diseases
Ye Feng, Yan Liang, Jiafa Ren, Chunsun Dai
Background: Wnt/β-catenin, an evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, plays an essential role in modulating kidney injury and repair. Our previous studies demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling could stimulate macrophage M2 polarization and contribute to kidney fibrosis. However, whether canonical Wnt signaling activation leads to macrophage proliferation during kidney fibrosis remains to be determined. Methods: In this study, a mouse model with macrophage-specific β-catenin gene deletion was generated and a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model was created...
June 2018: Kidney Diseases
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