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BJPsych Open

Catherine M McHugh, Amy Corderoy, Christopher James Ryan, Ian B Hickie, Matthew Michael Large
BACKGROUND: The expression of suicidal ideation is considered to be an important warning sign for suicide. However, the predictive properties of suicidal ideation as a test of later suicide are unclear.AimsTo assess the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide measured by odds ratio (OR), sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). METHOD: We located English-language studies indexed in PubMed that reported the expression or non-expression of suicidal ideation among people who later died by suicide or did not...
March 2019: BJPsych Open
Emese Csipke, Til Wykes, Stephen Nash, Paul Williams, Leo Koeser, Paul McCrone, Diana Rose, Tom Craig
BACKGROUND: Although patients value evidence-based therapeutic activities, little is known about nurses' perceptions.AimsTo investigate whether implementing an activities training programme would positively alter staff perceptions of the ward or be detrimental through the increased workload (trial registration: ISRCTN 06545047). METHOD: We conducted a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial involving 16 wards with psychology-led nurse training as the intervention...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Philip Henson, Hannah Wisniewski, Chris Hollis, Matcheri Keshavan, John Torous
BACKGROUND: As mental healthcare expands to smartphone apps and other technologies that may offer therapeutic interventions without a therapist involved, it is important to assess the impact of non-traditional therapeutic relationships.AimsTo determine if there were any meaningful data regarding the digital therapeutic alliance in smartphone interventions for serious mental illnesses. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in four databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science)...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Penny Woolnough, Emily Magar, Graham Gibb
BACKGROUND: Understanding what distinguishes the suicide of individuals reported missing (missing-suicides) from those of individuals not reported missing (other-suicides) may have preventative and/or operational utility and inform our knowledge of suicide.AimsTo assess whether specific epidemiological, sociodemographic or circumstantial characteristics differ between individuals reported missing and those not reported missing who take their own life. METHOD: Content analysis of Scottish Police Death Reports, detailing 160 suicides/undetermined deaths over a 3-year period in the North-East of Scotland...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Gillian Haddock, Daniel Pratt, Patricia A Gooding, Sarah Peters, Richard Emsley, Emma Evans, James Kelly, Charlotte Huggett, Ailsa Munro, Kamelia Harris, Linda Davies, Yvonne Awenat
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviour is common in acute psychiatric wards resulting in distress, and burden for patients, carers and society. Although psychological therapies for suicidal behaviour are effective in out-patient settings, there is little research on their effectiveness for in-patients who are suicidal.AimsOur primary objective was to determine whether cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention therapy (CBSP) was feasible and acceptable, compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for in-patients who are suicidal...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Muhammad I Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Ameer B Khoso, Mohammad Omair Husain, Raza R Rahman, Munir M Hamirani, John Hodsoll, Andre F Carvalho, Nusrat Husain, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: A third of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Relatively few pharmacological agents have established efficacy for TRD. Therefore, the evaluation of novel treatments for TRD is a pressing priority. Statins are pleiotropic agents and preclinical studies as well as preliminary clinical trials have suggested that these drugs may have antidepressant properties.AimsTo report on a protocol for a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of add-on treatment with simvastatin for patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD who have failed to respond to at least two adequate trials with approved antidepressants...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Nicola S Klein, Ben F M Wijnen, Joran Lokkerbol, Erik Buskens, Hermien J Elgersma, Gerard D van Rijsbergen, Christien Slofstra, Johan Ormel, Jack Dekker, Peter J de Jong, Willem A Nolen, Aart H Schene, Steven D Hollon, Huibert Burger, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: As depression has a recurrent course, relapse and recurrence prevention is essential.AimsIn our randomised controlled trial (registered with the Nederlands trial register, identifier: NTR1907), we found that adding preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) to maintenance antidepressants (PCT+AD) yielded substantial protective effects versus antidepressants only in individuals with recurrent depression. Antidepressants were not superior to PCT while tapering antidepressants (PCT/-AD)...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Oana Mitrofan, Hristina Petkova, Astrid Janssens, Jonathan Kelly, Eve Edwards, Dasha Nicholls, Fiona McNicholas, Mima Simic, Ivan Eisler, Tamsin Ford, Sarah Byford
BACKGROUND: Perspectives of young people with eating disorders and their parents on helpful aspects of care should be incorporated into evidence-based practice and service design, but data are limited.AimsTo explore patient and parent perspectives on positive and negative aspects of care for young people with eating disorders. METHOD: Six online focus groups with 19 young people aged 16-25 years with existing or past eating disorders and 11 parents. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified three key themes: the need to (a) shift from a weight-focused to a more holistic, individualised and consistent care approach, with a better balance in targeting psychological and physical problems from an early stage; (b) improve professionals' knowledge and attitude towards patients and their families at all levels of care from primary to 'truly specialist'; (c) enhance peer and family support...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Miharu Nakanishi, Shintaro Tanaka, George Kurokawa, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Masato Fukuda, Kiyohisa Takahashi, Takuya Kojima, Atsushi Nishida
BACKGROUND: Autonomy is a key factor in the reduction of inequitable physical healthcare among people with severe mental illness compared with the general population.AimsTo clarify the critical mechanism underlying autonomy in physical health promotion based on the perspectives of people with severe mental illness. METHOD: We employed a conventional content analysis of narrative data from the Healthy Active Lives in Japan (HeAL Japan) workshop meetings. RESULTS: 'Inhibited autonomy' was extracted as a central component and shaped by the users' experiences, both in a healthcare setting and in real life...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Andrea Sinesi, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan O'Carroll, Helen Cheyne
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and self-reported symptoms are highly prevalent in pregnancy. Despite their negative impact on maternal and child outcomes, uncertainty remains regarding which symptoms can be considered accurate indicators of antenatal anxiety.AimsTo examine and synthesise the evidence in relation to the psychometric properties and content of self-report scales used to detect anxiety symptoms in pregnant women. METHOD: A systematic search was carried out and the methodological quality of all included studies was assessed...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Johanna A M du Mortier, Henny A D Visser, Malinda F R van Geijtenbeek-de Vos van Steenwijk, Harold J G M van Megen, Anton J L M van Balkom
BACKGROUND: Watching videotaped personal compulsions together with a therapist might enhance the effect of cognitive-behavioural therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but little is known about how patients experience this.AimsTo performed a qualitative study that describes how watching these videos influences motivation for treatment and whether patients report any adverse events. METHOD: In this qualitative study, data were gathered in semi-structured interviews with 24 patients with OCD...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Hiong Tie, Georgina Krebs, Katie Lang, James Shearer, Cynthia Turner, David Mataix-Cols, Karina Lovell, Isobel Heyman, Sarah Byford
BACKGROUND: Telephone cognitive-behaviour therapy (TCBT) may be a cost-effective method for improving access to evidence-based treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people.AimsEconomic evaluation of TCBT compared with face-to-face CBT for OCD in young people. METHOD: Randomised non-inferiority trial comparing TCBT with face-to-face CBT for 72 young people (aged 11 to 18) with a diagnosis of OCD. Cost-effectiveness at 12-month follow-up was explored in terms of the primary clinical outcome (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, CY-BOCS) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (trial registration: ISRCTN27070832)...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Olayan Albalawi, Nabila Zohora Chowdhury, Handan Wand, Stephen Allnutt, David Greenberg, Armita Adily, Azar Kariminia, Peter Schofield, Grant Sara, Sarah Hanson, Colman O'Driscoll, Tony Butler
BACKGROUND: With significant numbers of individuals in the criminal justice system having mental health problems, court-based diversion programmes and liaison services have been established to address this problem.AimsTo examine the effectiveness of the New South Wales (Australia) court diversion programme in reducing re-offending among those diagnosed with psychosis by comparing the treatment order group with a comparison group who received a punitive sanction. METHOD: Those with psychoses were identified from New South Wales Ministry of Health records between 2001 and 2012 and linked to offending records...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Alish B Palmos, Stuart Watson, Tom Hughes, Andreas Finkelmeyer, R Hamish McAllister-Williams, Nicol Ferrier, Ian M Anderson, Rajesh Nair, Allan H Young, Rebecca Strawbridge, Anthony J Cleare, Raymond Chung, Souci Frissa, Laura Goodwin, Matthew Hotopf, Stephani L Hatch, Hong Wang, David A Collier, Sandrine Thuret, Gerome Breen, Timothy R Powell
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.AimsTo determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis. METHOD: We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Thomas Rego, Dennis Velakoulis
SummaryThere is currently debate about when a clinician should consider neuroimaging for patients with a known psychiatric illness. We consider this topic and propose a set of 'red flags' to use to aid decision-making.Declaration of interestNone.
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Siri Thoresen, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Filip K Arnberg, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Ines Blix
BACKGROUND: Trauma and traumatic bereavement have well-known consequences for mental health, but little is known about long-term adjustment, particularly with respect to health-protective factors.AimsTo assess the levels of anxiety/depression and perceived social support among the survivors and the bereaved 26 years after the Scandinavian Star ferry disaster compared with expected levels from the general population. METHOD: Anxiety/depression and social support were assessed in face-to-face interviews with the survivors and the bereaved (N = 165, response rate 58%)...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Ann Josefsson, Josefin Vikström, Marie Bladh, Gunilla Sydsjö
BACKGROUND: The well-known adverse consequences of maternal depression prompts consideration of the importance of learning more about intergenerational transmission in order to identify individuals at risk of developing depressive disorders.AimsTo follow two generations of women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to examine the risk of MDD in the third-generation children. METHOD: A register-based, retrospective cohort study of all women born in Sweden between 1973 and 1982 who had given birth during the study period, their mothers and their children...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Kate L Lewis, Mahnaz Fanaian, Beth Kotze, Brin F S Grenyer
BACKGROUND: The relative burden and risk of readmission for people with personality disorders in hospital settings is unknown.AimsTo compare hospital use of people with personality disorder with that of people with other mental health diagnoses, such as psychoses and affective disorders. METHOD: Naturalistic study of hospital presentations for mental health in a large community catchment. Mixed-effects Cox regression and survival curves were generated to examine risk of readmission for each group...
January 2019: BJPsych Open
Andrea Tortelli, Aurélie Nakamura, Federico Suprani, Franck Schürhoff, Judith Van der Waerden, Andrei Szöke, Ilaria Tarricone, Baptiste Pignon
Background: It is well established that migration and ethnic minority status are risk factors for psychotic disorders. Recent studies have aimed to determine if they are also associated with subclinical psychosis (psychotic-like experiences and schizotypal traits). Aims: We aimed to determine to what extent migrant and ethnic minority groups are associated with higher risk of subclinical psychosis. Method: We conducted a systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, and examined findings by ethnicity, migrant status, outcomes of subclinical psychosis and host country...
November 2018: BJPsych Open
David McGuinness, Kathy Murphy, Emma Bainbridge, Liz Brosnan, Mary Keys, Heike Felzmann, Brian Hallahan, Colm McDonald, Agnes Higgins
Background: A theoretical model of individuals' experiences before, during and after involuntary admission has not yet been established. Aims: To develop an understanding of individuals' experiences over the course of the involuntary admission process. Method: Fifty individuals were recruited through purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed 3 months after their involuntary admission. Analyses were conducted using a Straussian grounded theory approach...
November 2018: BJPsych Open
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