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Trends in Cancer

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755309/bone-metastasis-find-your-niche-and-fit-in
#1
REVIEW
Weijie Zhang, Igor Bado, Hai Wang, Hin-Ching Lo, Xiang H-F Zhang
Metastasis to bones is determined by both intrinsic traits of metastatic tumor cells and properties appertaining to the bone microenvironment. Bone marrow niches are critical for all major steps of metastasis, including the seeding of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) to bone, the survival of DTCs and microscopic metastases under dormancy, and the eventual outgrowth of overt metastases. In this review, we discuss the role of bone marrow niches in bone colonization. The emphasis is on complicated and dynamic nature of cancer cells-niche interaction, which may underpin the long-standing mystery of metastasis dormancy, and represent a therapeutic target for elimination of minimal residue diseases and prevention of life-taking, overt metastases...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755308/ushering-in-integrated-t-cell-repertoire-profiling-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ning Jiang, Alexandra A Schonnesen, Ke-Yue Ma
Advances in immune profiling techniques have dramatically changed the cancer immunotherapy and monitoring landscape. High-throughput protein and gene expression technologies have paved the way for the discovery of therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and have made monitoring therapeutic response possible through the ability to independently assay the phenotype, specificity, exhaustion status, and lineage of single T cells. Although valuable insights into response profiling have been gained with current technologies, it has become evident that single-method profiling is insufficient to accurately capture an antitumor T cell response...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755307/muscle-specific-fxr1-isoforms-in-squamous-cell-cancer
#3
Jesse J McClure, Viswanathan Palanisamy
The RNA-binding protein fragile-X mental retardation autosomal 1 (FXR1) is upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) and expressed as at least seven isoforms in humans. Only two of these isoforms are capable of binding to RNA containing G-quadruplex structures. We suggest that these unique isoforms play a role in the pathogenesis of HNSCC.
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755306/it-is-a-capital-mistake-to-theorize-who-to-treat-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-before-one-has-data
#4
Christine N Spencer, Daniel K Wells, Theresa M LaVallee
Immunotherapy results in remarkable clinical benefit in a subset of cancer patients by activating the patient's own immune system. The factors determining which cancer patients will benefit are diverse. Success in realizing precision immunotherapy needs collaboration to bring together multiple diverse data sets. Defining multi-factorial biomarker algorithms for immunotherapy requires new approaches and methodologies that use deep molecular and cellular profiling of the tumor microenvironment, systemic immunity with clinical metadata from clinical trials, and other databases...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755305/targeting-pancreatic-stellate-cells-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Jonas Schnittert, Ruchi Bansal, Jai Prakash
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the major contributor to the aggressive, metastatic, and resilient nature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 8%. PSCs constitute more than 50% of the tumor stroma in PDAC, where they induce extensive desmoplasia by secreting abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In addition, they establish dynamic crosstalk with cancer cells and other stromal cells, which collectively supports tumor progression via various inter- and intracellular pathways...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755304/adaptive-transcriptional-responses-by-crtc-coactivators-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Jason Tasoulas, Laura Rodon, Frederic J Kaye, Marc Montminy, Antonio L Amelio
Adaptive stress signaling networks directly influence tumor development and progression. These pathways mediate responses that allow cancer cells to cope with both tumor cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic insults and develop acquired resistance to therapeutic interventions. This is mediated in part by constant oncogenic rewiring at the transcriptional level by integration of extracellular cues that promote cell survival and malignant transformation. The cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) are a newly discovered family of intracellular signaling integrators that serve as the conduit to the basic transcriptional machinery to regulate a host of adaptive response genes...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616758/protein-n-homocysteinylation-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Hieronim Jakubowski
High-fat diet is associated with elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), and both are linked to cancer. Although Hcy is not a coded amino acid, proteins do carry Hcy modifications formed via a pathway involving methionyl-tRNA synthetase-catalyzed metabolic conversion of Hcy to Hcy-thiolactone. Hcy-thiolactone then chemically reacts with protein lysine residues, affording KHcy-protein. Recently, Wang et al.[1] (Cell Rep. 2018;25:398-412.e6) showed that this pathway promotes colorectal cancer by impairing DNA damage repair...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616757/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-pathways-in-cellular-dormancy
#8
REVIEW
Chloé Prunier, David Baker, Peter Ten Dijke, Laila Ritsma
Individual cancer cells can switch, reversibly, to a non-proliferative dormant state, a process characterized by two principal stages: (i) establishment and maintenance, and (ii) the breaking of dormancy. This phenomenon is of clinical importance because dormant cells resist chemotherapy, and this can result in cancer relapse following years, if not decades, of clinical remission. Although the molecular mechanisms governing tumor cell dormancy have not been clearly delineated, accumulating evidence suggests that members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are integral...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616756/glucose-regulated-tet2-activity-links-cancer-to-diabetes
#9
Hari R Singh, Stefan H Stricker
Diabetes has long been associated with an increased risk of cancer. While many molecular connections likely exist between the diseases, a recent publication discovered a clear molecular link, demonstrating that a glucose-dependent destabilisation of the DNA demethylase TET2 can promote malignant transformation via an AMPK-dependent phosphoswitch.
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616755/glioblastoma-therapy-in-the-age-of-molecular-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Luiz Henrique Medeiros Geraldo, Celina Garcia, Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca, Luiz Gustavo Feijó Dubois, Tânia Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr, Diana Matias, Eduardo Sabino de Camargo Magalhães, Rackele Ferreira do Amaral, Barbara Gomes da Rosa, Izabella Grimaldi, Felipe Sceanu Leser, José Marcos Janeiro, Lucy Macharia, Caroline Wanjiru, Claudia Maria Pereira, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Catarina Freitas, Flavia Regina Souza Lima
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary malignant brain tumor. Despite advances in the understanding of the biology of gliomas, little has changed in the treatment of these tumors in the past decade. Phase III clinical trials showed no benefit for the use of bevacizumab in newly diagnosed patients, leading to a renewed search for new antiangiogenic drugs, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches, including checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T cells, and intracerebral CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616754/gluconeogenesis-in-cancer-function-and-regulation-of-pepck-fbpase-and-g6pase
#11
REVIEW
Zhanyu Wang, Chenfang Dong
Cancer cells display a high rate of glycolysis in the presence of oxygen to promote proliferation. Gluconeogenesis, the reverse pathway of glycolysis, can antagonize aerobic glycolysis in cancer via three key enzymes - phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Recent studies have revealed that, in addition to metabolic regulation, these enzymes also play a role in signaling, proliferation, and the cancer stem cell (CSC) tumor phenotype...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616753/a-road-map-to-personalizing-targeted-cancer-therapies-using-synthetic-lethality
#12
REVIEW
Sreejit Parameswaran, Deeksha Kundapur, Frederick S Vizeacoumar, Andrew Freywald, Maruti Uppalapati, Franco J Vizeacoumar
Targeted therapies rely on the genetic and epigenetic status of the tumor cells and are seen as the most promising approach to treat cancer today. However, current targeted therapies focus on directly inhibiting those molecules that are altered in tumor cells. Unfortunately, targeting these molecules, even with specific inhibitors, is challenging as tumor cells rewire their genetic circuitry to eliminate genetic dependency on these targets. Here, we describe how synthetic lethality approaches can be used to identify genetic dependencies and develop personalized targeted therapies...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616752/rapid-research-autopsy-piecing-the-puzzle-of-tumor-heterogeneity
#13
Melanie A Krook, Hui-Zi Chen, Russell Bonneville, Patricia Allenby, Sameek Roychowdhury
Tumor heterogeneity decreases the effectiveness of anticancer therapies and is an important topic in translational cancer research, given its relevance in clinical oncology. Here, we discuss how rapid research autopsy of cancer patients can elucidate heterogeneity-associated processes including cancer evolution and acquired therapeutic resistance. In practice, rapid research autopsy is performed shortly after a patient's passing to procure multiple metastatic tumor samples for genomic studies through next-generation sequencing and development of patient-derived xenografts or organoids...
January 2019: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470306/cancer-cachexia-more-than-skeletal-muscle-wasting
#14
REVIEW
Søren Fisker Schmidt, Maria Rohm, Stephan Herzig, Mauricio Berriel Diaz
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial condition characterized by body weight loss that negatively affects quality of life and survival of patients with cancer. Despite the clinical relevance, there is currently no defined standard of care to effectively counteract cancer-associated progressive tissue wasting. Skeletal muscle atrophy represents the main manifestation of cancer cachexia. However, cancer cachexia is increasingly seen as a systemic phenomenon affecting and/or influenced by various organs. Here, we describe recent developments elucidating the roles of different tissues as well as tissue crosstalk in this wasting syndrome, including potential links to other cancer-associated morbidities...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470305/microvascular-mural-cells-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Arne Östman, Sara Corvigno
Microvascular mural cells (MMCs) are important regulators of tumor vessel properties, such as endothelial cell differentiation and vessel permeability, and are recognized as modulators of tumor angiogenesis and growth. Emerging experimental studies suggest impact of MMCs on additional aspects of tumor biology, exerted by functionally distinct subsets. These have been shown to control metastasis both in primary tumors and in the premetastatic niche. Other studies link marker-defined MMCs to tumor immune surveillance and drug sensitivity...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470304/maximizing-the-utility-of-cancer-transcriptomic-data
#16
REVIEW
Yu Xiang, Youqiong Ye, Zhao Zhang, Leng Han
Transcriptomic profiling has been applied to large numbers of cancer samples, by large-scale consortia, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. Advances in mining cancer transcriptomic data enable us to understand the endless complexity of the cancer transcriptome and thereby to discover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this paper, we review computational resources for deep mining of transcriptomic data to identify, quantify, and determine the functional effects and clinical utility of transcriptomic events, including noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptional regulation, exogenous RNAs, and transcribed genetic variants...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470303/the-myc-enhancer-ome-long-range-transcriptional-regulation-of-myc-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Olga Lancho, Daniel Herranz
MYC is one of the most important oncogenes in cancer. Indeed, MYC is upregulated in 50-60% of all tumors. MYC overexpression can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including gene duplications, chromosomal translocations, or somatic mutations leading to increased MYC stability. However, recent studies have identified numerous tissue-specific noncoding enhancers of MYC that play major roles in cancer, highlighting long-range transcriptional regulation of MYC as a critical novel mechanism leading to MYC hyperactivation and as a potential target for new therapeutic strategies in the near future...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470302/the-multiple-layers-of-the-tumor-environment
#18
REVIEW
Lucie Laplane, Dorothée Duluc, Nicolas Larmonier, Thomas Pradeu, Andreas Bikfalvi
The notion of tumor microenvironment (TME) has been brought to the forefront of recent scientific literature on cancer. However, there is no consensus on how to define and spatially delineate the TME. We propose that the time is ripe to go beyond an all-encompassing list of the components of the TME, and to construct a multilayered view of cancer. We distinguish six layers of environmental interactions with the tumor and show that they are associated with distinct mechanisms, and ultimately with distinct therapeutic approaches...
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470301/regulators-of-asymmetric-cell-division-in-breast-cancer
#19
Jiannis Ragoussis
The aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) pathological group poses significant challenges for both diagnosis and treatment because high levels of cellular heterogeneity are one of its hallmarks. In a recent issue of Cell Reports, Granit et al. shed light into how regulation of asymmetric cell division contributes to heterogeneity in TNBC, and identify key control factors. With the help of technological advances, deeper understanding of these processes will lead to new cancer therapeutics.
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30470300/exons-of-leukemia-suppressor-genes-creative-assembly-required
#20
Mukta Asnani, Andrei Thomas-Tikhonenko
Alternative splicing (AS) has many important roles in the pathogenesis of leukemia. Recent papers suggest that one of its key aspects is exclusion of 3'-terminal exons in favor of premature termination using intronic polyadenylation signals. This process generates leukemia suppressor isoforms with truncated C termini and acting in loss-of-function or dominant-negative manners.
December 2018: Trends in Cancer
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