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Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Benti Deresa Gelalcha, Aboma Zewude, Gobena Ameni
Mycobacterium bovis ( M. bovis ) has an exceptionally wide host range including sheep. Information on tuberculosis (TB) in sheep is scarce, and there appears to be conflicting opinions about the relative susceptibility of sheep to infection. In Ethiopia, there was no single previous report on tuberculosis in sheep, though mixed farming of cattle and sheep is a common practice. In this study, following the observation of TB-like lesions on sheep died from sheep flock kept in contact with cattle herd, further investigation was conducted on the flock to assess the magnitude of the infection and identify and characterize the causative M...
2019: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Mebrahtu Berhe, Berhanu Mekibib, Abrha Bsrat, Gebretsadik Atsbaha
The poultry industry is an infant but fast growing sector in Ethiopia. However, it is largely dependent on local chicken managed under backyard production system. The sector is facing different challenges, mainly emanated from prevalence of infectious diseases such as helminth parasite species. Hence, this study came up with an aim to determine the infection rate and identify helminth parasite species in chickens managed under different production systems, in Mekelle, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was employed, from November 2015 to March 2016...
2019: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Yu Deng, Silu Wang, Runxia Liu, Guiying Hao
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) affects cows, pigs, sheep, goats, and other ruminants, as well as some wild animals. BVDV causes considerable economic losses every year and many countries have developed programs aimed at the eradication of this disease. The genetic diversity of BVDV in diseased goats has never been described in southwestern China. Thus, in this study, we applied antigen-capture ELISA and RT-PCR to survey the infection rate of BVDV in diseased goats in this region. Our results demonstrated that the average BVDV infection rate in goats was 17...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Precious Mahlangu, Naomi Maina, John Kagira
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Thika East Subcounty, Kenya. Further the bacterial pathogens and their antibiogram were investigated. Farm level data on risk factors were obtained from 41 farmers using questionnaires. Milk was obtained from 110 lactating dairy goats and tested for submastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT). The prevalence of subclinical mastitis at goat level was estimated to be at 50.9% using CMT, out of which 86...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Kennedy O Ogolla, Peter K Gathumbi, Robert M Waruiru, Paul O Okumu, Joyce Chebet, Philip M Kitala
There are no anticoccidial drugs labelled for rabbits in Kenya and those available are used as extra labels from poultry. The drugs are used in rabbits with limited knowledge of their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of sulphachloropyrazine, amprolium hydrochloride, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole relative to diclazuril when used curatively against experimental and natural rabbit coccidiosis. In a controlled laboratory trial, sixty (60) rabbits were randomly allocated to six treatment groups, namely, 1A, 2B, 3C, 4D, 5E, and 6F, each with 10 rabbits...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Borden Mushonga, Dismas Habumugisha, Erick Kandiwa, Oscar Madzingira, Alaster Samkange, Basiamisi Ernest Segwagwe, Ishmael Festus Jaja
This study investigated the overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep and goats from five purposively selected subdivisions (sectors) of Nyagatare district from January to December 2014, after a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and generalized poor productivity was reported in small ruminants in some districts of Rwanda. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using the Modified Wisconsin Sugar Floatation method and the Fluorescent-labeled peanut-lectin agglutination test while enumerations, as log (FEC), were done using the modified McMaster method...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Winston Kabiswa, Ann Nanteza, Gabriel Tumwine, Samuel Majalija
Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem in both humans and animals due to misuse and excessive use of drugs. Resistance in commensal E. coli isolates can be used to predict emergence of resistance in other gut microflora. The aim of this study is to determine the phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli from healthy chickens in Uganda. The phylogenetic grouping of 120 fecal E. coli isolates from eastern and central Uganda was derived using the triplex PCR assay and their susceptibility patterns determined by agar disc diffusion method to 5 antimicrobial drugs...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Matilda Ayim-Akonor, Doreen Dela Owusu-Ntumy, Hilda Emefa Ohene-Asa, Agyekum Oduro-Abrokwa, Patricia Hammond, Michael Appenteng, Daniel Annan
Infectious bronchitis is an economically important disease with worldwide distribution. Information is available on the presence of infectious bronchitis virus in commercial chicken in parts of Ghana but there is no information on free-range poultry and guinea fowls in the country. Possible IBV infections among free-range chickens and guinea fowls in Abokobi and Frafraha communities in the Ga-East district of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were investigated using serology and PCR. Blood, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were obtained from 219 free-range chickens and guinea fowls with no respiratory symptoms and no history of IBV vaccination...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
A M Herndon, A T Thompson, C Mack
Diseases presenting with lower motor neuron (LMN) signs are frequently seen in small animal veterinary practice in Australia. In addition to the most common causes of LMN disease seen world-wide, such as idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis and myasthenia gravis, there are several conditions presenting with LMN signs that are peculiar to the continent of Australia. These include snake envenomation by tiger ( Notechis spp.), brown ( Pseudonaja spp.), and black snakes ( Pseudechis spp.), tick paralysis associated with Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes coronatus , and tetrodotoxins from marine animals such as puffer fish (Tetraodontidae spp...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Michael Guarnieri, Cory Brayton, Betty M Tyler
Animal models to study opiates are of growing interest. We have examined the short-term safety of buprenorphine implants in Fischer F344/NTac rats treated with excess doses of a cholesterol-triglyceride suspension of buprenorphine. A single injection of 0.65 mg/kg afforded clinically significant blood levels of analgesia for 3 days. Chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis values with 2- to 10-fold excess doses of the drug-lipid suspension were within normal limits. Histopathology findings were unremarkable...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Shimeles Abegaz Addis, Andualem Yimer Desalegn
This cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in sheep management under extensive smallholder farming and intensively in governmental breeding ranches in six districts selected from three administrative zones. Using multistage sampling, serum samples of 2409 sheep from 274 flocks were collected and tested using the Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) and positive sera were confirmed using a Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Of all animals tested, 4.98% were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with CFT, the overall animal-level prevalence was found to be 4...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Tshilenge M Georges, Masumu Justin, Mbao Victor, Kayembe Jean Marie, Rweyemamu Mark, Mulumba Mfumu K Léopold
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that is characterized by periodic and severe outbreaks in humans and animals. Published information on the occurrence of RVF in domestic animals is very scarce in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). To assess possible circulation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in cattle in the eastern province of DRC, 450 sera collected from cattle in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri provinces were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the detection of viral Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for detection of viral RVF RNA...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Xiaobu Ye, MariaLisa Itzoe, Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Louis DeTolla, Betty M Tyler, Michael Guarnieri
Studies have demonstrated that buprenorphine, a front line drug for veterinary analgesia, may alleviate symptoms of chronic pain. A cage side observation protocol was used to record behavioral signs in a mouse clinical trial of extended release buprenorphine. A retrospective review of the observations for signs of pain and stress revealed that mice given a fivefold overdose of buprenorphine (16.25 mg/kg) showed lethargy and facial signs associated with stress. However, similar signs were observed in the drug-free control mice as early as Day 3 of single-cage housing...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
S F Bwatota, M Makungu, H E Nonga
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of indigestible foreign bodies (IFB) in cattle slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse, Tanzania. A total of 387 slaughter cattle were examined for presence of IFB. Out of 387 examined cattle, 93 (24.03%) had IFB in their forestomachs. The observed IFB were plastic bags, fruit seeds, clothing materials, ropes, hairballs, leather materials, stones, metallic nails, and wire. Plastic bags were the most frequently (50.5%) observed IFB followed by fruit seeds (18...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Isabelle F Vanhaezebrouck, Elizabeth A Ballegeer, Stephen Frey, Rob Sieffert
Conformal radiation treatment plans such as IMRT and other radiosurgery techniques require very precise patient positioning, typically within a millimeter of error for best results. CT cone beam, real-time navigation, and infrared position sensors are potential options for success but rarely present in veterinary radiation centers. A neuronavigation system (Brainsight Vet, Rogue Research) was tested 22 times on a skull for positioning accuracy and precision analysis. The first 6 manipulations allowed the authors to become familiar with the system but were still included in the analyses...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Abadi Amare Reda
This paper is a comprehensive, concise, and an up to date review about probiotics effect and mechanisms against helminth infections of zoonotic importance. Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans in a reversible way. Despite zoonotic helminth diseases being still a challenge to the public health and the agriculture industries globally, they were still neglected in both human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, the increasing emergence of anthelmintic drug resistance constitutes failures of most disease control strategies, alarming for a quest to new alternative control approaches...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Tesfaheywet Zeryehun, Biruk Alemu
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017, to estimate the prevalence of major gross lung lesions in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal Abattoir, southern Ethiopia. A total of 563 male cattle were examined by antemortem examination, while postmortem lung lesions were done using standard inspection procedures. Association between prevalence and the explanatory variables was estimated by way of chi-square/Fischer's exact tests using statistical packages for social science (SPSS) software...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Borden Mushonga, Sylvine Twiyizeyimna, Gervais Habarugira, Erick Kandiwa, Simbarashe Chinyoka, Alaster Samkange, Alec Bishi
Reproductive and urinary tract abnormalities are a cause of infertility, reproductive inefficiency, and economic losses in goats. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and nature of reproductive and urinary tract abnormalities encountered in female goats slaughtered at Nyagatare abattoir in the Eastern Province of Rwanda. Reproductive and urinary organs from 369 female goat carcasses were opened by incision and then given a thorough macroscopic examination by visually inspecting and palpating for evidence of abnormalities...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Dauda Yahi, Nicholas Adetayo Ojo, Gideon Dauda Mshelia
Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexamethasone was administered at 0...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
J M Mutua, C G Gitao, L C Bebora, F K Mutua
This study was designed to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy camels. A total of 255 nasal samples (swabs) were collected in Isiolo, Samburu, and Nakuru counties, Kenya, from which 404 bacterial isolates belonging to various genera and species were recovered. The bacterial isolates included Bacillus (39.60%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29.95%), Streptococcus species other than Streptococcus agalactiae (25.74%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (3...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
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