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Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707346/bayesian-inference-of-environmental-effects-on-seaweed-production-in-japan-via-a-production-environmental-suitability-model
#1
Hungyen Chen
BACKGROUND: Both natural and human-induced disturbances are commonly responsible for an overall decrease of the world's seaweed. Along Japan's coastal areas, edible seaweed production has been decreasing for decades. In this study, a production-environmental suitability model to estimate the impacts of environmental factors on seaweed production was developed. The developed model not only estimates human-induced disturbances but also quantifies the impacts of environmental factors responsible for the decline of annual seaweed production...
February 1, 2019: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30617933/effective-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-protocols-for-callus-and-roots-of-halophyte-ice-plant-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum
#2
Hau-Hsuan Hwang, Chih-Hao Wang, Hsiao-Huei Chen, Jia-Fang Ho, Shin-Fei Chi, Fan-Chen Huang, Hungchen Emilie Yen
BACKGROUND: Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) is a model plant for studying salt-tolerant mechanisms in higher plants. Many salt stress-responsive ice plant genes have been identified with molecular and biochemical approaches. However, no further functional characterization of these genes in host plant due to lack of easy and effective transformation protocols. RESULTS: To establish efficient transformation system of ice plants, three types of ice plant materials, hypocotyl-derived callus, aseptically-grown seedlings and pot-grown juvenile plants, were used to develop Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols...
January 7, 2019: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578469/genome-wide-association-study-of-rice-genes-and-loci-conferring-resistance-to-magnaporthe-oryzae-isolates-from-taiwan
#3
Heng-An Lin, Szu-Yu Chen, Fang-Yu Chang, Chih-Wei Tung, Yi-Chia Chen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Ruey-Shyang Chen, Chih-Wen Wu, Chia-Lin Chung
BACKGROUND: Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is an important rice disease occurring in all rice-growing areas. To manage blast disease effectively and in an environmentally friendly way, it is important to continually discover diverse resistant resources for breeding. In this study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to map genes/loci resistant to rice blast in the open-access rice diversity panel 1 (RDP1), previously genotyped with a 44K single-nucleotide polymorphism array...
December 21, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30569413/age-and-site-specific-pattern-on-encrustation-of-charophytes
#4
Anne Herbst, Hendrik Schubert
Encrustation and element content (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and P) of charophytes was studied along plant thalli to investigate the dependency of thallus age and site-specificity. Charophytes were collected from five sampling sites (Angersdorfer Teiche, Asche, Bruchwiesen, Krüselinsee and Lützlower See) which were distinct with respect to water chemistry. Furthermore, photosynthesis was measured to identify the physiological state of plants in habitat waters and with the addition of different ion concentrations (Ca2+ , K+ , Mg2+ and Na+ )...
December 19, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30539325/squalene-synthase-cloning-and-functional-identification-in-wintersweet-plant-chimonanthus-zhejiangensis
#5
Guanhua Liu, Jianyu Fu
BACKGROUND: Three species of wintersweets: Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu, Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu and Chimonanthus grammalus M. C. Liu are widely distributed in China. The three wintersweets belonging to the genus of Chimonanthus that can synthesize abundant terpenoids that are beneficial to human health. Their buds and leaves are traditional Chinese herb applied by the 'She' ethnic minority in southeast of China. Squalene is a multi-functional and ubiquitous triterpene in plants, which is biosynthesized by squalene synthase (SQS) using farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as the substrate...
December 11, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535726/identification-sexual-dimorphism-and-aspects-of-the-natural-history-of-sapria-himalayana-rafflesiaceae-on-vietnam-s-lang-biang-plateau
#6
Hữu Đăng Trần, Hồng Trường Lưu, Quốc Đạt Nguyễn, Hiếu Cường Nguyễn, Parusuraman Athen, K M Wong
BACKGROUND: Sapria is a distinctive and narrowly host-specific holoparasitic genus belonging to the Rafflesiaceae. Sapria himalayana, rare throughout its range from NE India, SW China, Thailand to Vietnam, is a little-understood species first recorded for Vietnam in 1959, and only recollected there over half a century later in February 2017. This has facilitated an assessment of its taxonomic identity and our understanding of its morphology and natural history aspects. RESULTS: Six populations of Sapria at Vietnam's Tuyền Lâm Lake, and another two populations at the Nam Ban Protection Forest and the Cam Ly area were found, in an area of about 20 km in radius...
December 10, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535879/identification-of-phosphorylation-proteins-in-response-to-water-deficit-during-wheat-flag-leaf-and-grain-development
#7
Fei Luo, Xiong Deng, Yue Liu, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as important grain crop widely cultivated in the world, which is often suffered by drought stress in natural conditions. As one of the most important post translation modifications, protein phosphorylation widely participates in plant abiotic stress regulation. In this study, we performed the first comparative analysis of phosphorylated protein characterization in flag leaves and developing grains of elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 under water deficit by combining with proteomic approach and Pro-Q Diamond gel staining...
December 8, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30406863/nuclear-and-chloroplast-dna-phylogeography-suggests-an-early-miocene-southward-expansion-of-lithocarpus-fagaceae-on-the-asian-continent-and-islands
#8
Chih-Kai Yang, Yu-Chung Chiang, Bing-Hong Huang, Li-Ping Ju, Pei-Chun Liao
BACKGROUND: Most genera of Fagaceae are thought to have originated in the temperate regions except for the genus Lithocarpus, the stone oaks. Lithocarpus is distributed in subtropical and tropical Asia, and its ancestral population is hypothesized to be distributed in tropical regions in Borneo and Indochina. Borneo and the nearby islands (the Greater Sunda Islands) were connected to the Malay Peninsula and Indochina prior to the Pliocene epoch and formed the former Sundaland continent...
November 8, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374844/chloroplast-proteome-analysis-of-nicotiana-tabacum-overexpressing-terf1-under-drought-stress-condition
#9
Wei Wu, Yanchun Yan
BACKGROUND: Chloroplast is indispensable for plant response to environmental stresses, growth and development, whose function is regulated by different plant hormones. The chloroplast proteome is encoded by chloroplast genome and nuclear genome, which play essential roles in plant photosynthesis, metabolism and other biological processes. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors in activating the ethylene signaling pathway and plant response to abiotic stress. But we know little about how ethylene regulates plastid function under drought stress condition...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374836/tuber-elevatireticulatum-sp-nov-a-new-species-of-whitish-truffle-from-taiwan
#10
Chieh-Lung Lin, Ming-Jer Tsai, Chuen-Hsu Fu, Tun-Tschu Chang, Hoi-Tung Li, King-Fai Wong
BACKGROUND: There are estimated 180-220 species of Tuber described in the world, but the diversity of the genus in Taiwan is poorly known, with only two species recorded, i.e., Tuber formosanum and T. furfuraceum. During our survey of hypogenous fungi in Taiwan, a whitish truffle belongs to Puberulum clade was collected from roots of Keteleeria fortunei var. cyclolepis in central Taiwan and appeared to differ from the two recorded species. RESULTS: The whitish truffle is herein described as a new species Tuber elevatireticulatum, which is distinguished from closely resembled Asian whitish truffles species like Tuber thailandicum, T...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374786/expression-shifts-of-floral-symmetry-genes-correlate-to-flower-actinomorphy-in-east-asia-endemic-conandron-ramondioides-gesneriaceae
#11
Kuan-Ting Hsin, Chun-Neng Wang
BACKGROUND: Bilateral symmetry flower (zygomorphy) is the ancestral state for Gesneriaceae species. Yet independent reversions to actinomorphy have been parallelly evolved in several lineages. Conandron ramondioides is a natural radially symmetrical species survived in dense shade mountainous habitats where specialist pollinators are scarce. Whether the mutations in floral symmetry genes such as CYC, RAD and DIV genes, or their expression pattern shifts contribute to the reversion to actinomorphy in C...
October 29, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367286/grain-width-2-gw2-and-its-interacting-proteins-regulate-seed-development-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#12
Kyu Ho Lee, Sang Woo Park, Yeon Jeong Kim, Yeon Jong Koo, Jong Tae Song, Hak Soo Seo
BACKGROUND: Seed size has been extensively studied in crop plants, as it determines crop yield. However, the mechanism of seed development remains elusive. In this study, we explored the mechanism of seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and identified proteins affecting seed size. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis showed that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, chitinase 14 (CHT14), and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) accumulated to high levels in the seeds of the natural japonica rice mutant Oochikara, which carries a loss-of-function mutation in the grain width 2 (GW2) gene; GW2 encodes a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase...
October 26, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30255457/arabidopsis-and-rice-showed-a-distinct-pattern-in-zips-genes-expression-profile-in-response-to-cd-stress
#13
Xin Zheng, Liang Chen, Xiaofang Li
BACKGROUND: Plant ZIP genes represent an important transporter family involved in metal transport. Evidence has implied that some ZIPs may contribute to plant Cd uptake, but a genome-wide examination of ZIPs' role in Cd tolerance and uptake has rarely been reported. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic screening of candidate ZIP genes in Arabidopsis and rice was performed, followed by a systematic determination of their expression profile in response to Cd stress. Typical up-regulated ZIPs genes were then expressed in yeast cells to examine their effect on hosts' Cd uptake...
September 25, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30203294/comparative-rna-seq-analysis-on-the-regulation-of-cucumber-sex-differentiation-under-different-ratios-of-blue-and-red-light
#14
Jiali Song, Yiting Zhang, Shiwei Song, Wei Su, Riyuan Chen, Guangwen Sun, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecism vegetable with individual male and female flowers, which has been used as a plant model for sex determination. It is well known that light is one of the most important environmental stimuli, which control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. However, whether light controls sex determination remains elusive. To unravel this problem, we performed high-throughput RNA-Seq analyses, which compared the transcriptomes of shoot apices between R2B1(Red light:Blue light = 2:1)-treated and R4B1(Red light:Blue light = 4:1)-treated cucumber seedlings...
September 10, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30083978/understory-upheaval-factors-influencing-japanese-stiltgrass-invasion-in-forestlands-of-tennessee-united-states
#15
Lela Z Culpepper, Hsiao-Hsuan Wang, Tomasz E Koralewski, William E Grant, William E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Invasions by non-native plants contribute to loss of ecosystem biodiversity and productivity, modification of biogeochemical cycles, and inhibition of natural regeneration of native species. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Campus) is one of the most prevalent invasive grasses in the forestlands of Tennessee, United States. We measured the extent of invasion, identified potential factors affecting invasion, and quantified the relative importance of each factor...
August 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30056474/sky-canopy-border-length-exposure-and-thresholding-influence-accuracy-of-hemispherical-photography-for-complex-plant-canopies
#16
Guo-Zhang M Song, Kuo-Jung Chao, David Doley, David Yates
BACKGROUND: Hemispherical photography (HP) is a popular method to estimate canopy structure and understorey light environment, which analyses photographs acquired with wide view-angle lens (i.e. fisheye lens). To increase HP accuracy, the approaches of most previous studies were to increase the preciseness of exposure and thresholding of photographs, while ours quantified effects of canopy properties (gap fraction and length of sky-canopy border (SCB)) and errors of exposure and thresholding on the accuracy of HP...
July 28, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30046932/integrating-morphological-characters-molecular-markers-and-distribution-patterns-to-assess-the-identity-of-blepharis-species-from-jordan
#17
Riyadh Muhaidat, Mohammad H Brake, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Robert I Colautti, Amjad Al-Nasser, Muheeb Awawdeh, Khalid Al-Batayneh, Wesam Al Khateeb, Athena D McKown, Jamil Lahham, Ahmad El-Oqlah
BACKGROUND: Blepharis constitutes an important part of the vegetation of the Jordanian arid and semi-arid regions, yet whether one or more species of this genus occurs in the Jordanian area is uncertain. We addressed this question by assessing morphological characters and testing Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers from three populations of Blepharis: two northern (lower slopes of Kufranjah valley and the Dead Sea region) and one southern (Wadi al Yutm). RESULTS: Shoots from randomly chosen Blepharis plants were harvested from each of the three populations for morphological and molecular analyses...
July 25, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29971523/nuclear-dynamics-in-the-homothallic-ascomycete-sordaria-fimicola
#18
Kulsumpun Krobanan, Wei-Chiang Shen
BACKGROUND: The coprophilous ascomycete Sordaria fimicola usually reproduces sexually. Sexual differentiation in S. fimicola is accompanied by cellular and morphological changes, followed by multicellular tissue development to complete the sexual cycle. Although the morphological features of the sexual reproductive structure in S. fimicola have been well characterized, little is known about the nuclear dynamics and organization during these processes. Therefore, in this study, we successfully developed an Agrobacterium-mediated protoplast transformation protocol and generated histone H2B-mCherry-labeled S...
July 3, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29872972/orchid-conservation-how-can-we-meet-the-challenges-in-the-twenty-first-century
#19
REVIEW
Michael F Fay
With c. 28,000 species, orchids are one of the largest families of flowering plants, and they are also one of the most threatened, in part due to their complex life history strategies. Threats include habitat destruction and climate change, but many orchids are also threatened by unsustainable (often illegal and/or undocumented) harvest for horticulture, food or medicine. The level of these threats now outstrips our abilities to combat them at a species-by-species basis for all species in such a large group as Orchidaceae; if we are to be successful in conserving orchids for the future, we will need to develop approaches that allow us to address the threats on a broader scale to complement focused approaches for the species that are identified as being at the highest risk...
June 5, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29785454/the-roles-of-arabidopsis-hsfa2-hsfa4a-and-hsfa7a-in-the-heat-shock-response-and-cytosolic-protein-response
#20
Kuan-Fu Lin, Meng-Yu Tsai, Chung-An Lu, Shaw-Jye Wu, Ching-Hui Yeh
Previously, we found that Arabidopsis plants transformed with a construct containing the promoter of Oshsp17.3 from rice fused to the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS), Oshsp17.3Pro::GUS (Oshsp17.3p), showed a GUS signal after heat shock (HS) or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) treatment. HS and AZC trigger the heat shock response (HSR) and cytosolic protein response (CPR), respectively, in the cytosol by modulating specific heat shock factor (HSF) activity. Here we further identified that AtHSFA2 (At2g26150), AtHSFA7a (At3g51910), AtHSFB2a (At5g62020), and AtHSFB2b (At4g11660) are HS- and AZC-inducible; AtHSFA4a (At4g18880) is AZC-inducible; and AtHSFA5 (At4g13980) is less AZC- and HS-inducible...
May 21, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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