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Sports Medicine—Open

Lauchlan Carey, Peter Stanwell, Douglas P Terry, Andrew S McIntosh, Shane V Caswell, Grant L Iverson, Andrew J Gardner
BACKGROUND: Rugby league is a full-contact collision sport with an inherent risk of concussion. Wearable instrumented technology was used to observe and characterize the level of exposure to head impacts during game play. PURPOSE: To verify the impacts recorded by the x-patch™ with video analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: The x-patch™ was used on eight men's semi-professional rugby league players during the 2016 Newcastle Rugby League competition (five forwards and three backs)...
March 14, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Joshua P McGeown, Patria A Hume, Stephen Kara, J Patrick Neary, Will Gardner
BACKGROUND: Within the last two decades, attitudes have shifted from considering sports-related concussion as an insignificant minor injury with no long-term repercussions to a potentially serious brain injury garnering attention from media, clinicians, researchers, and the general public. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a case study to determine the underlying cause of persistent issues suspected to be associated with a history of sports-related concussion. PROTOCOL: Participant A underwent neurophysiological testing following the Neary protocol (assessment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular variables), comprehensive concussion assessment at a dedicated sports concussion clinic (history, neurological assessment, cervical spine screening, vestibulo-ocular screening, SCAT-5, and exercise testing), referral to a neurologist, structural MRI scan, and referral for specialised assessment at a dedicated dizziness and balance centre...
March 4, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Philipp Kunz, Florian Azad Engel, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich
BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently employed to improve the endurance of various types of athletes. To determine whether youth soccer players may benefit from the intermittent load and time efficiency of HIIT, we performed a meta-analysis of the relevant scientific literature. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to compare changes in various physiological parameters related to the performance of youth soccer players in response to running-based HIIT to the effects of other common training protocols (i...
February 21, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Natàlia Balagué, Rafel Pol, Carlota Torrents, Angel Ric, Robert Hristovski
The purpose of this opinion paper is providing a platform for explaining and discussing the relatedness and nestedness of constraints on the basis of four claims: (a) task constraints are distributed between the person and the environment and hence are relational variables, (b) being relational, task constraints are also emergent properties of the organism/environment system, (c) constraints are nested in timescales, and (d) a vast set of constraints are correlated through circular causality. Theoretical implications for improving the understanding of the constraints-led approach and practical applications for enhancing the manipulation of constraints in learning and training settings are proposed...
February 11, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Simon Nichols, Claire Taylor, Richard Page, Anna Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Fiona Nation, Toni Goodman, Andrew L Clark, Sean Carroll, Lee Ingle
The original article [1] contains an error in the presentation of Table 4.
February 5, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Nathan Philip Hilton, Nicholas Keith Leach, S Andy Sparks, Lewis Anthony Gough, Melissa May Craig, Sanjoy Kumar Deb, Lars Robert McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) is a well-established nutritional ergogenic aid, though gastrointestinal (GI) distress is a common side-effect. Delayed-release NaHCO3 may alleviate GI symptoms and enhance bicarbonate bioavailability following oral ingestion, although this has yet to be confirmed. METHODS: In a randomised crossover design, pharmacokinetic responses and acid-base status were compared following two forms of NaHCO3 , as were GI symptoms. Twelve trained healthy males (mean ± SD age 25...
January 24, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Benjamin F Donohue, Marc G Lubitz, Timothy E Kremchek
BACKGROUND: This retrospective case series examined 324 athletes who received elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction by a single surgeon in a private practice over a 9-year period. The novel Docking Plus technique for elbow UCL reconstruction in 324 athletes provided good or excellent Conway score results in 88% of patients. The preponderance of previous studies examining UCL reconstruction outcomes were performed by surgeons at one of only three institutions (Andrews Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, Kerlan Jobe Orthopedic Clinic)...
January 16, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Katina Aleksovska, Anna Puggina, Luca Giraldi, Christoph Buck, Con Burns, Greet Cardon, Angela Carlin, Simon Chantal, Donatella Ciarapica, Marco Colotto, Giancarlo Condello, Tara Coppinger, Cristina Cortis, Sara D'Haese, Marieke De Craemer, Andrea Di Blasio, Sylvia Hansen, Licia Iacoviello, Johann Issartel, Pascal Izzicupo, Lina Jaeschke, Martina Kanning, Aileen Kennedy, Fiona Ling, Agnes Luzak, Giorgio Napolitano, Julie-Anne Nazare, Camille Perchoux, Tobias Pischon, Angela Polito, Alessandra Sannella, Holger Schulz, Rhoda Sohun, Astrid Steinbrecher, Wolfgang Schlicht, Walter Ricciardi, Ciaran MacDonncha, Laura Capranica, Stefania Boccia
BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of studies and reviews available, the evidence regarding the biological determinants of physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. In this umbrella review, we summarized the current evidence on the biological determinants of PA across the life course, by pooling the results of the available systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs). METHODS: We conducted an online search on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases up to January 2018...
January 8, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Patrick S Harty, Megan L Cottet, James K Malloy, Chad M Kerksick
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is typically caused by unaccustomed exercise and results in pain, soreness, inflammation, and reduced muscle function. These negative outcomes may cause discomfort and impair subsequent athletic performance or training quality, particularly in individuals who have limited time to recover between training sessions or competitions. In recent years, a multitude of techniques including massage, cryotherapy, and stretching have been employed to combat the signs and symptoms of EIMD, with mixed results...
January 7, 2019: Sports Medicine—Open
Joseph O C Coyne, G Gregory Haff, Aaron J Coutts, Robert U Newton, Sophia Nimphius
This commentary delivers a practical perspective on the current state of subjective training load (TL) monitoring, and in particular sessional ratings of perceived exertion, for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Subjective measures may be able to reflect mental fatigue, effort, stress, and motivation. These factors appear to be important moderators of the relationship TL has with performance and injury, and they also seem to differ between open and closed skill sports. As such, mental factors may affect the interaction between TL, performance, and injury in different sports...
December 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Gary Souter, Robin Lewis, Laura Serrant
Mental health in elite sport is receiving more publicity due to an increase in male athletes sharing their personal experiences. Sports injury is recognised as the major risk factor for psychological distress amongst male athletes, although anecdotally this may be that athletes are more likely to discuss their emotional wellbeing when related to the injury they are experiencing. Stress can be amplified within elite sport and the pressure they experience in relation to competition and performance can be exacerbated by adverse life events...
December 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
BACKGROUND: The risk of falling and associated injuries increases with age. Therefore, the prevention of falls is a key priority in geriatrics and is particularly based on physical exercising, aiming to improve the age-related decline in motor performance, which is crucial in response to postural threats. Although the benefits and specifications of effective exercise programs have been well documented in pre-post design studies, that is during the treatment, the definitive retention and transfer of these fall-related exercise benefits to the daily life fall risk during follow-up periods remains largely unclear...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Henrik Petré, Fredrik Wernstål, C Mikael Mattsson
BACKGROUND: Strength and power development are abilities important for athletic performance in many sports. Generally, resistance training based on gravity is used to improve these qualities. Flywheel training instead utilizes kinetic energy transferred to a flywheel. This allows for eccentric overload and variable resistance throughout the movement. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of flywheel training on multiple strength-related variables affecting athletic performance...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Andrew J Gardner, Ryan Kohler, Warren McDonald, Gordon W Fuller, Ross Tucker, Michael Makdissi
In the original article [1] reference was made to the Hawk-Eye system having been used as the sideline operating system during the 2015 season.
December 7, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Yoichi Katsumata, Kohei Omuro, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Hiroki Nakata
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of birth dates, in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study investigated the characteristics of the RAE in baseball and anthropometric data (height and weight) among recreational junior baseball players as well as elite players, using data extracted from national surveys. METHODS: Birth and anthropometric data were obtained from 4464 Japanese students as elementary school, junior high school, and high school players...
November 30, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Corrin P Walmsley, Sîan A Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell
BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors are portable measurement tools that are becoming increasingly popular for the measurement of joint angle in the upper limb. With many brands emerging on the market, each with variations in hardware and protocols, evidence to inform selection and application is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this review were related to the use of wearable sensors to calculate upper limb joint angle. We aimed to describe (i) the characteristics of commercial and custom wearable sensors, (ii) the populations for whom researchers have adopted wearable sensors, and (iii) their established psychometric properties...
November 29, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Jeff Barfield, Gretchen Oliver
Participation rates in fastpitch softball are continually on the rise, especially in youth. With the increased participation also comes the increased injury susceptibility. Unfortunately, the common misconception about the dynamic 360° windmill softball pitch, that it is a natural motion and thus does not cause stress on the shoulder, deterred investigation into pitching mechanics until recently. As pitching injuries in softball are on the rise, more attention is needed into the mechanics of the windmill softball pitch and injury implications...
November 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
James H Hull, Mathew G Wilson
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema is an infrequently encountered cause of acute respiratory distress in open-water swimmers. The condition can be challenging, with athletes often wanting answers to three main questions regarding (i) a definitive and robust diagnosis, (ii) the risk of recurrence, and (iii) what can be done to avoid recurrence. This commentary provides an overview of the best available evidence, in light of a recently published systematic review.
November 19, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Jaime Leppe, Manuela Besomi
BACKGROUND: Previous injury in the last 12 months is the main risk factor for future running-related injuries (RRI) during training and competition environments. However, the relationship between a recent versus old previous injury and a new RRI has not been established yet, nor a separate analysis by different types of runners. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to 6000 participants of a running event (10 km, 21 km and 42 km), 10 days following the event...
November 12, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Mikalyn T DeFoor, Lara M Stepleman, Paul C Mann
In comparison to their heterosexual peers, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student-athletes encounter substantial challenges during their intercollegiate and professional athletic careers including detrimental stereotypes, harassment, and discrimination. Such non-inclusive environments promoted throughout the current Western culture of sport are notably associated with higher incidences of mental health and substance use disorders among LGB athletes across youth, collegiate, and professional sports. There have been significant gains at the collegiate level to address LGB-inclusive practices aimed towards administrators, educators, coaches, and student-athletes; however, there is currently no literature that addresses the unique role of the sports medicine team...
November 6, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
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