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One Health

Kristine M Smith, Catherine C Machalaba, Richard Seifman, Yasha Feferholtz, William B Karesh
Beyond the public health impacts of regional or global emerging and endemic infectious disease events lay wider socioeconomic consequences that are often not considered in risk or impact assessments. With rapid and extensive international travel and trade, such events can elicit economic shock waves far beyond the realm of traditional health sectors and original geographical range of a pathogen. While private sector organizations are impacted indirectly by these disease events, they are under-recognized yet effective stakeholders that can provide critical information, resources, and key partnerships to public and private health systems in response to and in preparation for potential infectious disease events and their socioeconomic consequences...
June 2019: One Health
Hellen Amuguni, Winnie Bikaako, Irene Naigaga, William Bazeyo
•Identification of One Health Core Competencies for Africa•Development of One Health training modules for a multidisciplinary workforce•Integration of One Health competencies into courses and curricula•A framework for the design and implementation of One Health curricula for professionals who impact disease detection prevention and response.
June 2019: One Health
Nma Bida Alhaji, Tajudeen Opeyemi Isola
Antimicrobials are used to maintain good health and productivity of food animals. Misuse of antibiotics in livestock contributes to development of antimicrobial resistance, an emerging One Health issue. This study assessed pastoralists' knowledge and practices regarding antimicrobial usage, explore pathways for resistant pathogens emergence and associated social drivers for antimicrobial misuse in pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in randomly selected pastoral households...
December 2018: One Health
Soledad Colombe, Ekkarin Watanapalachaigool, Monaya Ekgatat, Albert I Ko, Soawapak Hinjoy
Brucellosis and Q fever impart high morbidity in humans and economic losses among livestock worldwide. However their prevalence is still not fully known in Thailand. We conducted a sero-survey of brucellosis and Q fever in beef, dairy cattle, goat, and sheep herds from Thai communities at the border with Cambodia, a cross-border trading center. Serum samples were tested for brucellosis and Q fever by antibody-based tests at the National Institute of Animal Health, Thailand. We surveyed a total of 520 individuals from 143 herds...
December 2018: One Health
Joelle M Sweeney, Paulina Zielinska Crook, Natalia Deeb-Sossa, Brenden Tu, Jonathan D Dear, Jonna A K Mazet
Limited access to healthcare is a symptom of poverty worldwide. In Knights Landing, California, USA, an economically underserved, agricultural community, advocates recognized that integration of human and animal healthcare could provide a less intimidating gateway to services and facilitate assessments of individuals' health, not just in moments in time, but within the context of the complex interactions with other humans, animals, and their encompassing environment. Humans and animals share diseases resulting from common exposure to environmental pollutants and disease hosts and lack of adequate nutrition...
December 2018: One Health
Emily Mosites, Erica Lujan, Michael Brook, Michael Brubaker, Desirae Roehl, Moses Tcheripanoff, Thomas Hennessy
As a result of the close relationships between Arctic residents and the environment, climate change has a disproportionate impact on Arctic communities. Despite the need for One Health responses to climate change, environmental monitoring is difficult to conduct in Arctic regions. The Local Environmental Observer (LEO) Network is a global social media network that recruits citizen scientists to collect environmental observations on social media. We examined the processes of the LEO Network, numbers of members and observations, and three case studies that depict One Health action enabled by the system...
December 2018: One Health
Solomon M Woldeyohannes, Charles F Gilks, Peter Baker, Nigel R Perkins, Simon A Reid
Q fever caused by the gram negative bacteria, Coxiella burnetii, is an occupational hazard for those who live and work in rural settings and those who are in contact with animals, especially abattoir and slaughterhouse workers. Australia is the only country to register a vaccine to prevent Q fever (Q-vax®, Seqirus, Australia) that is used in high risk populations. Seroprevalence studies conducted to determine the burden of Q fever ( C. burnetii infection) in different settings have demonstrated high levels of heterogeneity with estimates of the percent positive ranging from 30% to 70%...
December 2018: One Health
Nma Bida Alhaji, Olutayo Olajide Babalobi, Tajudeen Opeyemi Isola
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne re-emerging viral zoonosis that mainly affects poor and marginalized populations in Africa and the Middle East. The study assessed pastoralists' knowledge/awareness and preventive measures towards RVF in Fulani nomadic pastoral communities of Niger State, North-central Nigeria. An interview questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in randomly selected 403 Fulani nomadic pastoral households. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were performed...
December 2018: One Health
Sandra G Steele, Robert Booy, Siobhan M Mor
While general medical practitioners (GPs) and veterinarians are often the first line responders in the face of a disease outbreak, pathways to improving the One Health efficacy of these clinicians remain unclear. A two-phase modified Delphi survey of professionals with known expertise in One Health ('expert panel') was used to 1) identify key knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of GPs and veterinarians that would be consistent with a One Health approach to zoonoses; and 2) determine priorities for future surveys with Australian GPs and veterinarians to identify important gaps that impede effective diagnosis and management of zoonoses...
December 2018: One Health
Cara Cherry, Kirsten M Leong, Rick Wallen, Danielle Buttke
Yellowstone National Park is home to the largest bison population on public land in the United States. Although Yellowstone regulations require visitors to remain at least 23 m from bison, since 1980, bison have injured more visitors to Yellowstone than any other animal. We examined a series of bison-related injuries at Yellowstone to evaluate the circumstances of these injuries and to identify common risk-enhancing behaviors that lead to injury. To do this, we analyzed narrative case incident records from law enforcement regarding bison-human encounters in Yellowstone during 2000-2015...
December 2018: One Health
Abdolmotalleb Rezaei
International and national organizations responsible for healthy food production and food consumers have too often neglected farmers, who are the producers in this cycle and are directly involved in environmental issues, integrating resources with their skills and producing agricultural crops to offer to civil society. Moreover, the health of farmers has also been neglected, when attending to their health would likely ensure a healthy environment and safe foods. Thus, the Farmer First Health Paradigm is seeking to address the fact that if international community expects a healthy environment and safe foods for future generations, then basic principles for producing healthy food in different countries should be considered and applied in their strategic plans...
June 2018: One Health
Dan David, Ditza Rotenberg, Evgeny Khinich, Oran Erster, Svetlana Bardenstein, Michael van Straten, Nisreen M A Okba, Stalin V Raj, Bart L Haagmans, Marcelo Miculitzki, Irit Davidson
Thus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. A total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and 19 llamas' sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to MERS-CoV. Our findings indicate a lower MERS-CoV seropositivity among Israeli dromedaries than in the surrounding countries, and for the first time naturally infected llamas were identified...
June 2018: One Health
Siobhan M Mor, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Michael P Ward, Jaime Gongora, Meg Vost, Peter C Higgins, Paul D McGreevy, Peter J White, Sanaa Zaki
Background: New educational approaches are needed to improve student understanding of the wider sociological and ecological determinants of health as well as professional responsibilities in related areas. Field trips allow students to observe interaction between plant, animal and human communities, making them an ideal tool for teaching One Health concepts. Methods: Veterinary medical students participated in a field trip to a local parklands area, frequented by humans, dogs, horses, and wildlife...
June 2018: One Health
Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Charles Dongkum, Christopher Idehen, Dachung Tok Langs, Susan C Welburn
Fulani pastoralists in Nigeria lack adequate access to good quality veterinary services and often resort to treating their animals themselves. There are several negative aspects to this, including poor treatment outcomes, misuse of veterinary drugs and subsequent resistance, and further barriers to good relations between pastoralists and veterinary services. A participatory epidemiology survey was undertaken in Fulani communities, to examine their ability to diagnose and treat bovine diseases. Qualitative participatory epidemiology techniques including semi-structured interviews, ranking and participant and non-participant observations were used for data collection...
June 2018: One Health
Paul R Torgerson, Simon Rüegg, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Arie H Havelaar, Alexandra P M Shaw, Jonathan Rushton, Niko Speybroeck
The burden of human diseases in populations, or for an individual, is frequently estimated in terms of one of a number of Health Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). The Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a widely accepted HALY metric and is used by the World Health Organization and the Global Burden of Disease studies. Many human diseases are of animal origin and often cause ill health and production losses in domestic animals. The economic losses due to disease in animals are usually estimated in monetary terms...
June 2018: One Health
Rafael Ruiz de Castañeda, Amanda Garrison, Philippe Haeberli, Lisa Crump, Jakob Zinsstag, André Ravel, Antoine Flahault, Isabelle Bolon
In 2016 and 2017 the first three MOOCs (Massive Online Open Course) addressing One Health were released, two of them by University of Geneva and University of Basel (Switzerland). With the support of Swiss School of Public Health and using these two highly interdisciplinary MOOCs, the first 'Global Flipped Classroom in One Health' was organized in Geneva and Basel in July 2017. This innovative event gathered 12 Swiss and international MOOC learners to work on specific public/global health challenges at the human-animal-ecosystem interface in interdisciplinary teams supported by experts from academia and international organisations (e...
June 2018: One Health
Melinda K Rostal, Noam Ross, Catherine Machalaba, Claudia Cordel, Janusz T Paweska, William B Karesh
One Health has been promoted by international institutions as a framework to improve public health outcomes. Despite strong overall interest in One Health, country-, local- and project-level implementation remains limited, likely due to the lack of pragmatic and tested operational methods for implementation and metrics for evaluation. Here we use Rift Valley fever virus as an example to demonstrate the value of using a One Health approach for both scientific and resources advantages. We demonstrate that coordinated, a priori investigations between One Health sectors can yield higher statistical power to elucidate important public health relationships as compared to siloed investigations and post-hoc analyses...
June 2018: One Health
Alexandro Guterres, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Most human pathogenic hantaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers with a high rate of fatalities, such as occurs due to the genotypes causing hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome carried by the New World Sigmodontinae and Neotominae rodents. An increasing number of outbreaks and the possibility of cases spreading over international borders have led to greater interest in these viruses and the environmental determinants that facilitate their transmission. Rodents, shrews, moles and bats act as reservoir hosts of hantaviruses, and within the hantavirus transmission flow, the prevalence and distribution of infection in reservoir hosts is influenced by a range of factors...
June 2018: One Health
Médiha Khamassi Khbou, Samaher Htira, Kaouther Harabech, M'hammed Benzarti
A case-control study was conducted, aimed to describe the clinical human brucellosis (CHB) pattern during 2015 in the Gafsa region (Southwest Tunisia) and to investigate the main risk factors involved in the disease occurrence. One hundred and four CHB cases were notified in 2015 in Gafsa district. All CHB cases that own ruminants were contacted, but only 32 accepted to participate in a matched case-control study. Thirty-two and thirty-one CHB cases and controls, respectively, were included in the study. The subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire...
June 2018: One Health
Mitesh Mittal, Vikas Sharma, Kapil Nehra, Soumendu Chakravarti, Krishnendu Kundu, V K Bansal, C P Churamani, Anil Kumar
The present study was undertaken over a three year period (2012-2014) in an organized dairy farm located in North India to ascertain Brucella abortus as the putative cause of abortion. The dairy farm maintained cattle of Frieswal, Crossbred and Sahiwal breeds and followed calf-hood vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain 19 live vaccine in all the heifers. Even with the recommended vaccination schedule and good managemental practices in place, 88 cases of abortions clinically suspected of bovine brucellosis (40 from Frieswal breed, 17 from Crossbred cattle and 31 from Sahiwal breed) were reported from this farm...
June 2018: One Health
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