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Atsushi Kanno, Atsushi Masamune, Keiji Hanada, Masataka Kikuyama, Masayuki Kitano
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. PDAC is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and Japan based on epidemiological data. Early detection of PDAC is very important to improve the prognosis of PDAC. Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) requires further examination after selecting cases with risk factors for the condition, such as family history, hereditary pancreatic carcinoma syndrome, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, or chronic pancreatitis...
February 5, 2019: Diagnostics
Alexandra Nikaki, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Varvara Valotassiou, Roxani Efthymiadou, George Angelidis, Ioannis Tsougos, Vassilios Prassopoulos, Panagiotis Georgoulias
18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) is a radiolabeled thymidine analog that has been reported to help monitor tumor proliferation and has been studied in primary brain tumors; however, knowledge about 18F-FLT positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in metastatic brain lesions is limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of 18F-FLT-PET/CT in metastatic brain lesions. A total of 20 PET/CT examinations (33 lesions) were included in the study. Semiquantitative analysis was performed: standard uptake value (SUV) with the utilization of SUVmax, tumor-to-background ratio (T/B), SUVpeak, SUV1cm³, SUV0...
January 26, 2019: Diagnostics
Sartaj S Gill, Mark Doyle, Diane V Thompson, Ronald Williams, June Yamrozik, Saundra B Grant, Robert W W Biederman
BACKGROUND: While left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been shown to have prognostic value in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMX) patients, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) has not been systematically evaluated in either ICMX or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMX) patients. Moreover, an accurate estimation of RVEF is problematic due to the geometry of the right ventricle (RV). Over the years, there have been improvements in the resolution, image acquisition and post-processing software for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), such that CMR has become the "gold standard" for measuring RV volumetrics and RVEF...
January 23, 2019: Diagnostics
Shuzo Terada, Masataka Kikuyama, Shinya Kawaguchi, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Yoshihiro Yokoi, Terumi Kamisawa, Sawako Kuruma, Kazuro Chiba, Goro Honda, Shinichiro Horiguchi, Jun Nakahodo
BACKGROUNDS: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is used to observe the stricture of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and in diagnosing pancreatic cancer (PC). We investigate the findings on EUS by referring to the histopathological findings of resected specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 30 patients with invasive carcinoma of 20 mm or less were included. The preoperative EUS findings were classified as follows. A1: Simple stricture type-no findings around the stricture; A2: Hypoecho stricture type-localized hypoechoic area without demarcation around the stricture; A3: Tumor stricture type-tumor on the stricture; B: Dilation type-the dilation of the pancreatic duct without a downstream stricture; C: Parenchymal tumor type-tumor located apart from the MPD...
January 23, 2019: Diagnostics
Ermira Bajramaj, Birgitta Häggman-Henrikson, Andreas Dawson, Björn Gerdle, Bijar Ghafouri
Myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common cause of chronic pain in the orofacial region. Microdialysis has been used to study metabolic changes in the human masseter muscle. The insertion of the microdialysis probe causes acute tissue trauma that could affect the metabolic milieu and thereby influence the results when comparing healthy subjects to those with TMD. This study aimed to investigate the levels of serotonin and glutamate during the acute tissue trauma period in healthy subjects and in patients with TMD...
January 22, 2019: Diagnostics
Odharnaith O'Brien, Mark C Wright, Cathal O'Brien, Orla Geoghegan, Niamh Leonard, Siobhan Nicholson, Sinéad Cuffe, Aurelie Fabre, Wolfram Jochum, Markus Joerger, Steven G Gray, Stephen P Finn
MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays important roles in carcinogenesis. Despite being frequently overexpressed in cancer, clinical responses to targeting this receptor have been limited. Recently novel splicing mutations involving the loss of exon 14 (called METex14 skipping) have emerged as potential biomarkers to predict for responsiveness to targeted therapies with Met inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, the diverse genomic alterations responsible for METex14 skipping pose a challenge for routine clinical diagnostic testing...
January 18, 2019: Diagnostics
Gary J Whitman, Raya H AlHalawani, Niloofar Karbasian, Rajesh Krishnamurthy
Axillary lymph node status is the single most important prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection, the traditional method of staging breast cancer, is associated with significant morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become standard in patients being treated for breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. There is considerable variation in the medical literature regarding technical approaches to sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer. The purpose of this article is to describe our preferred approaches to sentinel lymph node biopsy with a review of the literature...
January 17, 2019: Diagnostics
Anne Duvekot, Gwen van Heesch, Laura Veder
Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgery in the daily practice of an otorhinolaryngologist. For patients as well as health professionals, the best known complication is post-operative bleeding. Among the less noted, but potentially life-threatening, complications are the development of subcutaneous emphysema and the presence of bacteremia due to group A hemolytic streptococci. In this report, we describe a severely complicated clinical course after an uncomplicated adenotonsillectomy in a young boy. Increased awareness of relatively unknown complications after adenotonsillectomy amongst surgeons, pediatricians and anesthesiologists is desirable to facilitate rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment in order to prevent life-threatening situations...
January 15, 2019: Diagnostics
Peter J Dailey, Jennifer Osborn, Elizabeth A Ashley, Ellen Jo Baron, David A B Dance, Daniela Fusco, Caterina Fanello, Yukari C Manabe, Margaret Mokomane, Paul N Newton, Belay Tessema, Chris Isaacs, Sabine Dittrich
Bacterial blood stream infections (BSI) are a common cause of mortality and morbidity globally. As the causative agents and the resulting treatment decisions vary, near-patient testing and surveillance tools are necessary to monitor bacterial causes and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The gold standard to identify BSIs is blood culture (BC), a methodology not widely available in resource-limited settings. The aim of the study was to map out a target product profile of a simplified BC system (SBCS) to inform product development efforts...
January 11, 2019: Diagnostics
Gustavo Barcelos Barra, Ticiane Henriques Santa Rita, Daniella Paniago Jardim, Pedro Góes Mesquita, Camila Santos Nobre, Rafael Henriques Jácomo, Lídia Freire Abdalla Nery
The cell-free genomic DNA (gDNA) concentration in serum ranges from 1500 to 7500 copies/mL within 2 h after phlebotomy (6⁻24 times the concentration observed in plasma). Here, we aimed to evaluate the gDNA size distribution in serum with time after coagulation and to test if crude serum can be directly used as a source of gDNA for qPCR. Next, we investigated if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be genotyped directly from the crude serum isolated from capillary blood using a hand-powered paper centrifuge...
January 11, 2019: Diagnostics
Laura A Zanella-Calzada, Carlos E Galván-Tejada, Nubia M Chávez-Lamas, M Del Carmen Gracia-Cortés, Rafael Magallanes-Quintanar, José M Celaya-Padilla, Jorge I Galván-Tejada, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales
Depression is a mental disorder characterized by recurrent sadness and loss of interest in the enjoyment of the positive aspects of life, in addition to fatigue, causing inability to perform daily activities, which leads to a loss of quality of life. To monitor depression (unipolar and bipolar patients), traditional methods rely on reports from patients; nevertheless, bias is commonly present in them. To overcome this problem, Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) reports have been widely used, which include data of the behavior, feelings and other types of activities recorded almost in real time through the use of portable devices and smartphones containing motion sensors...
January 10, 2019: Diagnostics
Tuba Yilmaz, Robert Foster, Yang Hao
This paper reviews non-invasive blood glucose measurements via dielectric spectroscopy at microwave frequencies presented in the literature. The intent is to clarify the key challenges that must be overcome if this approach is to work, to suggest some possible ways towards addressing these challenges and to contribute towards prevention of unnecessary 'reinvention of the wheel'.
January 8, 2019: Diagnostics
Tin-Quoc Nguyen, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Thor Bechsgaard, Lars Lönn, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen
Invasive catheterization is associated with a low risk of serious complications. However, although it is the gold standard for measuring pressure gradients, it induces changes to blood flow and requires significant resources. Therefore, non-invasive alternatives are urgently needed. Pressure gradients are routinely estimated non-invasively in clinical settings using ultrasound and calculated with the simplified Bernoulli equation, a method with several limitations. A PubMed literature search on validation of non-invasive techniques was conducted, and studies were included if non-invasively estimated pressure gradients were compared with invasively measured pressure gradients in vivo...
December 29, 2018: Diagnostics
Aman Saini, Ilana Breen, Yash Pershad, Sailendra Naidu, M Grace Knuttinen, Sadeer Alzubaidi, Rahul Sheth, Hassan Albadawi, Malia Kuo, Rahmi Oklu
Radiogenomics is a computational discipline that identifies correlations between cross-sectional imaging features and tissue-based molecular data. These imaging phenotypic correlations can then potentially be used to longitudinally and non-invasively predict a tumor's molecular profile. A different, but related field termed radiomics examines the extraction of quantitative data from imaging data and the subsequent combination of these data with clinical information in an attempt to provide prognostic information and guide clinical decision making...
December 27, 2018: Diagnostics
Anna Sophie L Kjaer, Iben Ribberholt, Kim Thomsen, Per H Ibsen, Elena Markova, Jesper Graff
We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up of a patient undergoing azathioprine treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diagnosed with an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and CMV colitis. An 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed 2 weeks after debut of symptoms revealed pathological 18 F-FDG uptake in the left side of the colon mucosa, mimicked activity of IBD. However, a diagnosis of CMV colitis was based on the presence of CMV IgM antibodies, a seroconversion of CMV IgG antibodies, presence of CMV DNA in plasma and the finding af CMV DNA in biopsies from the intestinal mucosa...
December 26, 2018: Diagnostics
Reiko Ashida, Sachiko Tanaka, Hiromi Yamanaka, Suetsumi Okagaki, Keiko Nakao, Junko Fukuda, Miho Nakao, Tatsuya Ioka, Kazuhiro Katayama
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death with a 5-year survival rate less than 10%. In the absence of effective screening methods, such as blood markers, most clinical diagnoses of PC are made at an advanced stage. However, early stage PC is associated with a more favorable five-year survival rate of 85.8% for stage 0, and 68.7% for stage IA. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) is frequently used as a first-line diagnostic tool in the clinical setting and a preferred modality for routine medical evaluations for asymptomatic individuals...
December 26, 2018: Diagnostics
Frank Twisk
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a neuromuscular disease with two distinctive types of symptoms (muscle fatigability or prolonged muscle weakness after minor exertion and symptoms related to neurological disturbance, especially of sensory, cognitive, and autonomic functions) and variable involvement of other bodily systems. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), introduced in 1988 and re-specified in 1994, is defined as (unexplained) chronic fatigue accompanied by at least four out of eight listed (ill-defined) symptoms...
December 20, 2018: Diagnostics
Nadine Joachimowicz, Bernard Duchêne, Christophe Conessa, Olivier Meyer
This paper deals with breast and head phantoms fabricated from 3D-printed structures and liquid mixtures whose complex permittivities are close to that of the biological tissues within a large frequency band. The goal is to enable an easy and safe manufacturing of stable-in-time detailed anthropomorphic phantoms dedicated to the test of microwave imaging systems to assess the performances of the latter in realistic configurations before a possible clinical application to breast cancer imaging or brain stroke monitoring...
December 18, 2018: Diagnostics
Aman Saini, Alex Wallace, Hassan Albadawi, Sailendra Naidu, Sadeer Alzubaidi, M Grace Knuttinen, Anshuman Panda, Rahmi Oklu
Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, debilitating disease with a significant global burden. A number of diagnostic imaging techniques exist, including computed tomography angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA), to aid in PAD diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. Due to concerns of renal toxicity or nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) for iodinated and gadolinium-based contrasts, respectively, a number of non-enhanced MRA (NEMRA) protocols are being increasingly used in PAD diagnosis...
December 18, 2018: Diagnostics
Masashi Sugiyama, Kazuyuki Saito
Currently, minimally invasive treatments that insert various treatment devices into an endoscope are actively being performed. A high-frequency (HF) snare is commonly used as an energy device inserted into an endoscope. However, using a high-frequency snare, problems usually occur, such as the obstruction of the visual field caused by smoke. On the other hand, microwave heating produces less smoke and provides a better visual field. In this study, a snare using microwave energy inserted into an endoscope is proposed, and its characteristics are evaluated...
December 15, 2018: Diagnostics
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