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Tobacco Regulatory Science

Melissa Mercincavage, Jordan Burdge, Kirsten Lochbuehler, Valentina Souprountchouk, Alexandra A McCullough, Andrew A Strasser
Objectives: In this study, we sought to determine how smokers allocate their attention when viewing the 9 cigarette pictorial warning labels (PWLs) proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and identify PWL attributes associated with increased attention. Methods: Using eye-tracking data from an exploratory within-subject study, we examined smokers' attention (latency, latency duration, and dwell time) to areas of interest (image vs textual warning) for each PWL among 95 daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (62...
November 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Maria A Parker, Joanna M Streck, Cecilia L Bergeria, Janice Y Bunn, Diann E Gaalema, Danielle R Davis, Anthony J Barrows, Stacey C Sigmon, Jennifer W Tidey, Sarah H Heil, Stephen T Higgins
Objective: We estimated whether recent cannabis use moderates response to cigarettes varying in nicotine content (0.4, 2.4, 5.2, 15.8 mg/g) among smokers with concurrent affective disorders, opioid dependence, or socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multi-site, double-blind, laboratory study examining acute response to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNCC) in 169 adult smokers with co-morbid conditions. Participants positive for recent cannabis use or self-reported past 30-day cannabis use at baseline were categorized as current cannabis users (N = 63)...
September 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Benjamin W Chaffee, Jing Cheng
Objectives: Compare cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) perceptions within a youth population where ST use is common. Methods: Male baseball players (N = 594) at 36 rural high schools in California rated separately 20 potential risks or benefits associated with cigarettes or ST, along with global harm ratings. Informed by principal components analysis, 3 composite categories were created: oral/rule-breaking risks (eg, mouth cancer, getting in trouble), systemic risks (eg, heart attack), and benefits (eg, relaxation)...
July 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Nina C Schleicher, Trent O Johnson, Heather D'Angelo, Douglas A Luke, Kurt M Ribisl, Lisa Henriksen
Objectives: Researchers and regulators study the advertised price of tobacco products to evaluate compliance with minimum price policies, tax increases, and geodemographic marketing. However, few studies report reliability of advertised price and none address its concordance with receipt price. Methods: In a sample of US tobacco retailers (N=1972), data collectors purchased the leading brand of non-menthol or menthol cigarettes, recorded advertised prices, whether sales tax was included and price was discounted...
May 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Cynthia K Suerken, Jessica L King, Kimberly D Wiseman, Seth M Noar, Kimberly G Wagoner, Erin L Sutfin
Objectives: To inform targeted prevention efforts, it is important to understand which tobacco products are used first and associations by demographic characteristics. Methods: We conducted a nationally-representative random digit-dial telephone survey of 1125 adolescents ages 13-17. Adolescents reported the first tobacco product they tried, and we analyzed associations with demographic variables. Results: Two-hundred nineteen (18.6%) adolescents reported ever using a tobacco product...
May 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Abigail T Evans, Ellen Peters, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Christopher Loiewski, Michael D Slater, Bo Lu, Megan E Roberts, Amy K Ferketich
Objectives: In the U.S., print advertisements for smokeless tobacco (SLT) feature a large black-and-white text warning covering 20% of the advertisement space. Cigarette and e-cigarette advertisements feature a small warning covering approximately 4% of advertisement space. We explored how warning size affects adolescent boys' spontaneous recollection of the warning, brand-relevant advertisement features, and product risks. Methods: 1,220 adolescent males (ages 11-16) viewed SLT, cigarette, and e-cigarette advertisements...
May 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Elizabeth A Vandewater, Stephanie L Clendennen, Emily T Hébert, Galya Bigman, Christian D Jackson, Anna V Wilkinson, Cheryl L Perry
Objectives: E-cigarette advertisers know that 76% of youth use social media, yet little is known about the nature of e-cigarette advertising on social media most favored by youth. We utilized text-mining to characterize e-cigarette advertising and marketing messages from image-focused social media brand sites, and to construct and test an algorithm for predicting brand from brand-generated social media posts. Methods: Data comprised 5022 unique posts accompanied by an image from Facebook, Instagram or Pinterest e-cigarette brand pages for Blu, Logic, Metro, and NJOY from February 2012 to April 2015...
March 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
M Justin Byron, Allison J Lazard, Ellen Peters, Huyen Vu, Annie Schmidt, Noel T Brewer
Objective: The US government requires the public display of information about toxic chemicals in cigarettes and smoke by brand in a way that is understandable and not misleading. We sought to identify risk communication formats that meet these goals. Methods: We conducted 3 online experiments with US adult convenience samples (total N = 1866). Participants viewed a webpage displaying information about chemicals in the smoke of a cigarette brand. Experiment 1 varied the chemicals listed and format for their health effects...
March 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Susan Veldheer, Vishal Midya, Courtney Lester, Jason Liao, Jessica Yingst, Shari Hrabovsky, Sophia I Allen, Nicolle M Krebs, Lisa Reinhart, A Eden Evins, Kimberly Horn, John Richie, Joshua Muscat, Jonathan Foulds
Objectives: SPECTRUM research cigarettes (SPECTRUMs) are being used in trials evaluating the effects of switching to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes. Because smokers have a high brand affinity, we evaluated if they were willing to switch and continue smoking normal nicotine content (NNC) SPECTRUMs. Methods: We asked smokers (N = 341) to rate their own brand of cigarettes and NNC SPECTRUMs (after 2 weeks of use) using subjective measures including satisfaction, reward, taste, and craving reduction...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Theodore M Brasky, Alice Hinton, Nathan J Doogan, Sarah E Cooper, Haikady N Nagaraja, Wenna Xi, Peter G Shields, Mary Ellen Wewers
Objectives: Identifying characteristics associated with the use of new and emerging tobacco products is a priority. The enumeration and baseline characteristics of a new cohort of adult tobacco users are described. Methods: Residents, ≥18 years of age, in urban Franklin County, or one of 6 rural Appalachian counties, and who were exclusive users of combustible, smokeless (SLT), or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) tobacco products, or were dual users, were targeted for recruitment...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Eric D Claus, Benjamin C Moeller, Darlene Harbour, Philip J Kuehl, Michael McGuire, Juan C Vivar, Megan J Schroeder
Objectives: To examine factors important to cigar smoking and subsequent nicotine exposure, we evaluated the impact of cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and inhalation behaviors on nicotine dependence, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure in current exclusive cigar smokers. Methods: Adult, exclusive cigar smokers (N = 77) were recruited based on cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and self-reported inhalation behaviors. Participants smoked their own brand product ad libitum for up to one hour; dependence symptoms, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Emily T Hébert, Elizabeth A Vandewater, Michael S Businelle, Melissa B Harrell, Steven H Kelder, Cheryl L Perry
Objectives: We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Methods: Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Peter Jatlow, Gerald Valentine, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Haleh Nadim, Ran Wu, Stephanie S O'Malley, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Objectives: Menthol is often added to cigarettes and e-cigarette solutions for its cooling and anti-irritant effects, and may contribute to development of nicotine dependence, particularly in vulnerable populations such as adolescents, and among African Americans. Menthol is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide (MG) with little or no unconjugated menthol measurable in venous blood. Human challenge studies of the effects of inhaled menthol, and of its interactions with nicotine, would benefit from a quantitative measure of acute menthol exposure...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Reinskje Talhout, Patricia A Richter, Irina Stepanov, Christina V Watson, Clifford H Watson
Objectives: This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. Methods: We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Baoguang Wang, Brian Rostron
Objective: In this paper, we describe trends in tobacco-related poison exposure calls (calls) involving young children in the US. Methods: Data were from the National Poison Data System between January 1, 2001 and October 31, 2016. We analyzed data on calls involving children younger than 5 years old. We describe trends in calls over time and call frequency by age, tobacco product type, level of care, and other characteristics of calls. Results: During 2001-2016, there were 123,876 calls involving young children...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Sherri Jean Katz, Bruce Lindgren, Dorothy Hatsukami
Objectives: We tested how variations of the warning message on e-cigarette packages influenced risk and ambiguity perceptions, and whether including a modified risk statement on the package influenced how the warning label was perceived. Method: A 4 (warning text) × 2 (modified risk statement), plus control, experiment (N = 451) was conducted. Results: Smoking status, sex, and the language used in the warning statements interacted to influence risk perceptions...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Samera H Hamad, Nathan M Johnson, Margaret E Tefft, Marielle C Brinkman, Sydney M Gordon, Pamela I Clark, Stephanie S Buehler
Objective: Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette. Methods: We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure drop, and ventilation for each product...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Pallav Pokhrel, Pebbles Fagan, Thaddeus A Herzog, Simone Schmid, Crissy T Kawamoto, Jennifer B Unger
Objectives: We tested how various measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity are related to each other and compare to each other in their associations with e-cigarette use susceptibility and behavior. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from young adult college students (N = 470; Mage = 20.9, SD = 2.1; 65% women). Measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure/receptivity compared included a cued recall measure, measures of marketing receptivity, perceived ad exposure, liking of e-cigarette ads, and frequency of convenience store visit, which is considered a measure of point-of-sale ad exposure...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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