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Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology

Fadzai Mukora-Mutseyekwa, Hilary Gunguwo, Rugare Gilson Mandigo, Paddington Mundagowa
Background: The World Health Organization recommends initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of delivery. Early initiation is beneficial for both mother and baby. Previous Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys (ZDHS) have shown reduction in early initiation of breast feeding from 68% (2005/06) to 58% (2015). This study sought to investigate factors associated with early initiation of breast feeding among women aged 15-49 years in Zimbabwe. Methodology: Secondary analysis of ZDHS 2015 data was done to investigate the association between early initiation of breast feeding and maternal, provider and neonatal factors using multivariate logistic regression ( n  = 2192)...
2019: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Madoka Yamamoto-Sasaki, Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Yusuke Ogawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Koji Kawakami
Background: Studies using data from Western countries have raised concerns that treating pregnant women with antidepressants may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in their offspring. However, to date, the studies are inconclusive. We therefore examined the association between antidepressant use and ASD using claims data collected in Japan. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on claims data from mothers and their children from January 2005 to July 2014, obtained from the Japan Medical Data Center...
2019: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Katharina Ruf, Johannes Wirbelauer, Antje Beissert, Eric Frieauff
Background: Oligohydramnios sequence can be caused by renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD), a rare condition resulting in pulmonary and renal morbidity. Besides typical features of Potter-sequence, the infants present with severe arterial hypotension and anuria as main symptoms. Establishing an adequate arterial blood pressure and sufficient renal perfusion is crucial for the survival of these infants. Case presentation: We describe a male preterm infant of 34 + 0 weeks of gestation...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Anura W G Ratnasiri, Steven S Parry, Vivi N Arief, Ian H DeLacy, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Laura A Halliday, Ralph J DiLibero, Kaye E Basford
Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased infant mortality, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities among survivors. The aim of this study is to investigate temporal trends, patterns, and predictors of PTB in California from 2007 to 2016, based on the obstetric estimate of gestational age (OA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluated 435,280 PTBs from the 5,137,376 resident live births (8.5%) documented in the California Birth Statistical Master Files (BSMF) from 2007 to 2016...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Subhashchandra Daga
Background: The national and global coverage of kangaroo mother care (KMC) remains low. Hence, adjuncts to KMC may be necessary, especially on day1 of life when neonatal mortality is high. It is important to provide warmth and reduce mortality in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants in the community/hospital setting. In this manuscript, the outcome of using a Styrofoam box (SB) for LBW infants in various situations in India, such as in a home-setting in tribal/extra-remote areas, at a primary health center in tribal/extra-remote areas and at a referral hospital, is presented...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Afif El-Khuffash, Patrick J McNamara, Colm Breatnach, Neidin Bussmann, Aisling Smith, Oliver Feeney, Elizabeth Tully, Joanna Griffin, Willem P de Boode, Brian Cleary, Orla Franklin, Eugene Dempsey
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a relatively common condition which results in a mortality of up to 33%. Up to 40% of infants treated with nitric oxide (iNO) either have a transient response or fail to demonstrate an improvement in oxygenation. Milrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with inotropic and lusitropic properties may have potential benefit in PPHN. This pilot study was developed to assess the impact of milrinone administration on time spent on iNO in infants with PPHN...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Wesley Jackson, Genevieve Taylor, David Selewski, P Brian Smith, Sue Tolleson-Rinehart, Matthew M Laughon
Furosemide is a potent loop diuretic commonly and variably used by neonatologists to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in premature infants. There are several safety concerns with use of furosemide in premature infants, specifically the risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis (NC/NL). We conducted a systematic review of all trials and observational studies examining the association between these outcomes with exposure to furosemide in premature infants. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinicaltrials...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Elizabeth V Asztalos, Alex Kiss, Orlando P da Silva, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Shinya Ito, David Knoppert
Background: Preterm birth alters the normal sequence of lactogenesis. Lactogenesis I may not yet have started when mothers of very preterm infants (≤ 29 weeks gestation) have given birth. Preterm infants are too small or too ill to initiate suckling in the immediate postpartum period thus altering the normal cascade of event for lactogenesis II. With an increasing demand for mother's own milk as a primary source of nutritional support in the care of very small and preterm infants, mothers of these infants are often at risk of expressing inadequate amounts of milk...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Albertina Ngomah Moraes, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Selestine H Nzala
Background: About three in ten young women aged 15-19 have begun childbearing among the Zambian population, with adolescent pregnancy levels as high as 35% in rural areas. In 2009, Luapula reported 32.1% adolescent pregnancies. The study sought to investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among adolescents compared to mothers aged 20-24 years delivering at selected health facilities in Kawambwa and Mansa districts of Luapula. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of all deliveries to mothers aged between 10 and 24 years for the period January 2012 to January 2013...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Asmare Talie, Abere Yekoye, Megbaru Alemu, Belsity Temesgen, Yibeltal Aschale
Background: Postpartum maternal morbidity is maternal illness that occurs after one hour of expulsion of placenta up to six weeks of childbirth. Though the true burden of this problem is not well known estimates of WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA showed that 1.4 million women experience acute obstetric morbidity annually. Knowledge of magnitude and predicting factors postpartum morbidity is central to understand the extent of the problem and will help as a cornerstone in designing and implementing better preventive strategies...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Israel Macedo, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Manuela Cardoso
Background: To achieve recommended nutrient intakes in preterm infants, the target fortification method of human milk (HM) was proposed as an alternative to standard fortification method. We aimed to compare assumed energy and macronutrient intakes based on standard fortified HM with actual intakes relying on measured composition of human milk (HM), in a cohort of HM-fed very preterm infants. Methods: This study is a secondary retrospective analysis, in which assumed energy and macronutrient contents of daily pools of own mother's milk (OMM) from 33 mothers and donated HM (DHM) delivered to infants were compared with the measured values using a mid-infrared HM analyzer...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Gemechu Kumera, Dereje Gedle, Animut Alebel, Fetuma Feyera, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Under nutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting the well-being of millions of pregnant women in the developing world. Only limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and determinants of maternal nutritional status in Ethiopia. Particularly, data on the nutritional status of pregnant women are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw
Background: Unintended pregnancies increase levels of stress, adoption of risky behaviours and impact on women's general quality of life. In Ghana, in spite of the paucity of literature on unintended pregnancies, the phenomenon is high especially among women in the early years of their reproductive health. This study therefore sought to investigate the prevalence and correlates of unintended pregnancies in Ghana. Methods: This study made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Anura W G Ratnasiri, Steven S Parry, Vivi N Arief, Ian H DeLacy, Laura A Halliday, Ralph J DiLibero, Kaye E Basford
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a leading risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are large disparities in the prevalence of LBW by race and ethnicity, especially between African American and White women. Despite extensive research, the practice of clinical and public health, and policies devoted to reducing the number of LBW infants, the prevalence of LBW has remained unacceptably and consistently high. There have been few detailed studies identifying the factors associated with LBW in California, which is home to a highly diverse population...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Kwamena Sekyi Dickson, Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
Background: The International Safe Motherhood initiative provides a focus for programmes and research to improve maternal health in low - income countries. Antenatal care is one of the key pillars of the initiative. This study sought to examine the association between background characteristics and choice of skilled providers of antenatal care services in Ghana. Methods: The study used data from the six rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Binary logistic regression models were applied to analyse the data...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Caroline J Chantry, Aubrey Blanton, Véronique Taché, Laurel Finta, Daniel Tancredi
Background: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) results in decreased iron deficiency in infancy. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology has called for research on the optimal time to clamp the cord during cesarean deliveries (CD). Our objective was to conduct a pilot trial examining the safety of delayed cord clamping (DCC) for maternal-infant dyads during elective cesarean delivery (CD). Methods: We enrolled 39 dyads [23 at 90 s, 16 at 120 s; (DCC Pilot)] between 10/2013 and 9/2014...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ryan M McAdams, Carl H Backes, Omid Fathi, David J R Hutchon
Delayed cord clamping, the common term used to denote placental-to-newborn transfusion at birth, is a practice now endorsed by the major governing bodies affiliated with maternal-newborn care. Despite considerable evidence, delayed cord clamping, not early cord clamping, continues to be viewed as the "experimental" intervention category when discussed in research studies. We provide a brief overview of placental-to-newborn transfusion in relation to birth transitional physiology and discuss areas where we may need to modify our interpretation of "normal" vital signs and laboratory values as delayed cord clamping becomes standardized...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Richard Kalisa, Patrick Smeele, Marianne van Elteren, Thomas van den Akker, Jos van Roosmalen
Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) comprise a strategy to make women plan for birth and encourage them to seek professional care in order to reduce poor pregnancy outcome. We aimed to understand the facilitators and barriers to BP/CR among community health workers (CHWs) and community members in rural Rwanda. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 88 participants comprising of CHWs, elderly women aged 45-68 and men aged 18-59, as well as two key informant interviews in Musanze district, Rwanda, between November and December 2015...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Hajar Mazahery, Pamela R von Hurst, Christopher J D McKinlay, Barbara E Cormack, Cathryn A Conlon
Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) has been widely utilised to track body composition because it is considered to be practical, reliable, and valid. Pea Pod is the infant version of ADP that accommodates infants up to the age of 6 months and has been widely utilised to assess the body composition of full-term infants, and more recently pre-term infants. The primary goal of this comprehensive review is to 1) discuss the accuracy/reproducibility of Pea Pod in both full- and pre-term infants, 2) highlight and discuss practical challenges and potential sources of measurement errors in relation to Pea Pod operating principles, and 3) make suggestions for future research direction to overcome the identified limitations...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Alicia S Landry
Background: Physical inactivity and inadequate amounts of sleep are two potential causes for excessive weight gain in infancy. Thus, parents and caregivers of infants need to be educated about decreasing infant sedentary behavior, increasing infant unrestrained floor time, as well as age specific recommended amounts of sleep for infants. The aims of this study were to determine if maternal knowledge about infant activity and sleep changed over time and to evaluate maternal compliance rates with expert recommendations for infant sleep in a two-arm, randomized, controlled, comparative impact trial...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
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