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Science Advances

V S R Jampani, R H Volpe, K Reguengo de Sousa, J Ferreira Machado, C M Yakacki, J P F Lagerwall
Liquid crystals (LCs) are nonsolids with long-range orientational order, described by a scalar order parameter <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>〈</mml:mo> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>P</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> <mml:mo>〉</mml:mo> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mfrac> <mml:mn>1</mml:mn> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mfrac> <mml:mo>〈</mml:mo> <mml:mn>3</mml:mn> <mml:msup> <mml:mtext>cos</mml:mtext> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msup> <mml:mi>β</mml:mi> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> <mml:mn>1</mml:mn> <mml:mo>〉</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ...
April 2019: Science Advances
Hirokazu Yano, Kazuki Kudo, Kazumasa Marumo, Hidenori Okuzaki
Wet-processable and highly conductive polymers are promising candidates for key materials in organic electronics. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is commercially available as a water dispersion of colloidal particles but has some technical issues with PSS. Here, we developed a novel fully soluble self-doped PEDOT (S-PEDOT) with an electrical conductivity as high as 1089 S cm-1 without additives (solvent effect). Our results indicate that the molecular weight of S-PEDOT is the critical parameter for increasing the number of nanocrystals, corresponding to the S-PEDOT crystallites evaluated by x-ray diffraction and conductive atomic force microscopic analyses as having high electrical conductivity, which reduced both the average distance between adjacent nanocrystals and the activation energy for the hopping of charge carriers, leading to the highest bulk conductivity...
April 2019: Science Advances
Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen
If nature allowed nonlocal correlations other than those predicted by quantum mechanics, would that contradict some physical principle? Various approaches have been put forward in the past two decades in an attempt to single out quantum nonlocality. However, none of them can explain the set of quantum correlations arising in the simplest scenarios. Here, it is shown that generalized uncertainty relations, as well as a specific notion of locality, give rise to both familiar and new characterizations of quantum correlations...
April 2019: Science Advances
A Sadeghpour, Z Zeng, H Ji, N Dehdari Ebrahimi, A L Bertozzi, Y S Ju
Growing concern over the scarcity of freshwater motivates the development of compact and economic vapor capture methods for distributed thermal desalination or harvesting of water. We report a study of water vapor condensation on cold liquid beads traveling down a massive array of vertical cotton threads that act as pseudo-superhydrophilic surfaces. These liquid beads form through intrinsic flow instability and offer localized high-curvature surfaces that enhance vapor diffusion toward the liquid surface, a critical rate-limiting step...
April 2019: Science Advances
Sicong Tian, Feng Yan, Zuotai Zhang, Jianguo Jiang
Closing the anthropogenic carbon cycle is one important strategy to combat climate change, and requires the chemistry to effectively combine CO2 capture with its conversion. Here, we propose a novel in situ CO2 utilization concept, calcium-looping reforming of methane, to realize the capture and conversion of CO2 in one integrated chemical process. This process couples the calcium-looping CO2 capture and the CH4 dry reforming reactions in the CaO-Ni bifunctional sorbent-catalyst, where the CO2 captured by CaO is reduced in situ by CH4 to CO, a reaction catalyzed by catalyzed by the adjacent metallic Ni...
April 2019: Science Advances
Kai Zhao, Tengfei Zhang, Huicong Chang, Yang Yang, Peishuang Xiao, Hongtao Zhang, Chenxi Li, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel M Ajayan, Yongsheng Chen
Until now, materials with high elasticity at deep cryogenic temperatures have not been observed. Previous reports indicated that graphene and carbon nanotube-based porous materials can exhibit reversible mechano-elastic behavior from liquid nitrogen temperature up to nearly a thousand degrees Celsius. Here, we report wide temperature-invariant large-strain super-elastic behavior in three-dimensionally cross-linked graphene materials that persists even to a liquid helium temperature of 4 K, a property not previously observed for any other material...
April 2019: Science Advances
Michael Baudoin, Jean-Claude Gerbedoen, Antoine Riaud, Olivier Bou Matar, Nikolay Smagin, Jean-Louis Thomas
Acoustical tweezers based on focalized acoustical vortices hold the promise of precise contactless manipulation of millimeter down to submicrometer particles, microorganisms, and cells with unprecedented combined selectivity and trapping force. Yet, the widespread dissemination of this technology has been hindered by severe limitations of current systems in terms of performance and/or miniaturization and integrability. Here, we unleash the potential of focalized acoustical vortices by developing the first flat, compact, paired single electrode focalized acoustical tweezers...
April 2019: Science Advances
Seyoung Cook, Kendra Letchworth-Weaver, I-Cheng Tung, Tassie K Andersen, Hawoong Hong, Laurence D Marks, Dillon D Fong
In traditional models of heteroepitaxy, the substrate serves mainly as a crystalline template for the thin-film lattice, dictating the initial roughness of the film and the degree of coherent strain. Here, performing in situ surface x-ray diffraction during the heteroepitaxial growth of LaTiO3 on SrTiO3 (001), we find that a TiO2 adlayer composed of the <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>(</mml:mo> <mml:msqrt> <mml:mn>13</mml:mn> </mml:msqrt> <mml:mo>×</mml:mo> <mml:msqrt> <mml:mn>13</mml:mn> </mml:msqrt> <mml:mo>)</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> R 33...
April 2019: Science Advances
Markus Heyl, Philipp Hauke, Peter Zoller
A fundamental challenge in digital quantum simulation (DQS) is the control of an inherent error, which appears when discretizing the time evolution of a quantum many-body system as a sequence of quantum gates, called Trotterization. Here, we show that quantum localization-by constraining the time evolution through quantum interference-strongly bounds these errors for local observables, leading to an error independent of system size and simulation time. DQS is thus intrinsically much more robust than suggested by known error bounds on the global many-body wave function...
April 2019: Science Advances
Kundan Chaudhary, Michele Tamagnone, Mehdi Rezaee, D Kwabena Bediako, Antonio Ambrosio, Philip Kim, Federico Capasso
Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures assembled from layers of two-dimensional materials have attracted considerable interest due to their novel optical and electrical properties. Here, we report a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy study of hexagonal boron nitride on black phosphorus (h-BN/BP) heterostructures, demonstrating the first direct observation of in-plane anisotropic phonon polariton modes in vdW heterostructures. Notably, the measured in-plane optical anisotropy along the armchair and zigzag crystal axes exceeds the ratio of refractive indices of BP in the x - y plane...
April 2019: Science Advances
Mengqi Zhu, Songmei Li, Bin Li, Yongji Gong, Zhiguo Du, Shubin Yang
Metallic sodium is a potential anode material for rechargeable sodium-based batteries because of its high specific capacity and low cost. However, sodium commonly suffers from severe sodium dendrites and infinitely huge volume change, hampering its practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that sodium can be controllably deposited through main group II metals such as Be, Mg, and Ba since they have definite solubility in sodium and thus enable a marked reduction of the nucleation barriers of sodium, guiding the parallel growth of sodium on the metal substrates...
April 2019: Science Advances
Shuwang Wu, Zhiyuan He, Jinger Zang, Shenglin Jin, Zuowei Wang, Jianping Wang, Yefeng Yao, Jianjun Wang
Establishing a direct correlation between interfacial water and heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) is essential for understanding the mechanism of ice nucleation. Here, we study the HIN efficiency on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) surfaces with different densities of hydroxyl groups. We find that the HIN efficiency increases with the decreasing hydroxyl group density. By explicitly considering that interfacial water molecules of PVA films consist of "tightly bound water," "bound water," and "bulk-like water," we reveal that bulk-like water can be correlated directly to the HIN efficiency of surfaces...
April 2019: Science Advances
Quentin Szabo, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli
Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chromosome folding within cell nuclei is essential to determine the relationship between genome structure and function. The recent application of "chromosome conformation capture" techniques has revealed that the genome of many species is organized into domains of preferential internal chromatin interactions called "topologically associating domains" (TADs). This chromosome chromosome folding has emerged as a key feature of higher-order genome organization and function through evolution...
April 2019: Science Advances
Milos S Simic, Erica A Moehle, Robert T Schinzel, Franziska K Lorbeer, Jonathan J Halloran, Kartoosh Heydari, Melissa Sanchez, Damien Jullié, Dirk Hockemeyer, Andrew Dillin
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells using the Yamanaka transcription factors. Reprogramming requires both epigenetic landscape reshaping and global remodeling of cell identity, structure, basic metabolic processes, and organelle form and function. We hypothesize that variable regulation of the proteostasis network and its influence upon the protein-folding environment within cells and their organelles is responsible for the low efficiency and stochasticity of reprogramming. We find that the unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER ), the mitochondrial UPR, and the heat shock response, which ensure proteome quality during stress, are activated during reprogramming...
April 2019: Science Advances
H Jin, T Seki, J Yamaguchi, H Fujiwara
Color patterns often function as camouflage to protect insects from predators. In most swallowtail butterflies, younger larvae mimic bird droppings but change their pattern to mimic their host plants during their final molt. This pattern change is determined during the early fourth instar by juvenile hormone (JH-sensitive period), but it remains unclear how the prepatterning process is controlled. Using Papilio xuthus larvae, we performed transcriptome comparisons to identify three camouflage pattern-associated homeobox genes [ clawless , abdominal-A , and Abdominal-B ( Abd-B )] that are up-regulated during the JH-sensitive period in a region-specific manner...
April 2019: Science Advances
Insu Jo, Songlin Fei, Christopher M Oswalt, Grant M Domke, Richard P Phillips
Plant-fungal symbioses play critical roles in vegetation dynamics and nutrient cycling, modulating the impacts of global changes on ecosystem functioning. Here, we used forest inventory data consisting of more than 3 million trees to develop a spatially resolved "mycorrhizal tree map" of the contiguous United States. We show that abundances of the two dominant mycorrhizal tree groups-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal trees-are associated primarily with climate. Further, we show that anthropogenic influences, primarily nitrogen (N) deposition and fire suppression, in concert with climate change, have increased AM tree dominance during the past three decades in the eastern United States...
April 2019: Science Advances
Shuai Xia, Lei Yan, Wei Xu, Anurodh Shankar Agrawal, Abdullah Algaissi, Chien-Te K Tseng, Qian Wang, Lanying Du, Wenjie Tan, Ian A Wilson, Shibo Jiang, Bei Yang, Lu Lu
Continuously emerging highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remain a major threat to human health, as illustrated in past SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV outbreaks. The development of a drug with broad-spectrum HCoV inhibitory activity would address this urgent unmet medical need. Although previous studies have suggested that the HR1 of HCoV spike (S) protein is an important target site for inhibition against specific HCoVs, whether this conserved region could serve as a target for the development of broad-spectrum pan-CoV inhibitor remains controversial...
April 2019: Science Advances
Shih-Hsun Chen, Xiaochun Yu
While poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays an important role in DNA repair, the role of dePARylation in DNA repair remains elusive. Here, we report that a novel small molecule identified from the NCI database, COH34, specifically inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), the major dePARylation enzyme, with nanomolar potency in vitro and in vivo. COH34 binds to the catalytic domain of PARG, thereby prolonging PARylation at DNA lesions and trapping DNA repair factors. This compound induces lethality in cancer cells with DNA repair defects and exhibits antitumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models...
April 2019: Science Advances
Qiaoli Chen, Ping Rong, Sangsang Zhu, Xinyu Yang, Qian Ouyang, Hong Yu Wang, Shuai Chen
How insulin stimulates postprandial uptake of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into skeletal muscle and the mechanisms by which these events are dampened in diet-induced obesity are incompletely understood. Here, we show that RalGAPα1 is a critical regulator of muscle insulin action and governs both glucose and lipid homeostasis. A high-fat diet increased RalGAPα1 protein but decreased its insulin-responsive Thr735 -phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. A RalGAPα1Thr735Ala mutation impaired insulin-stimulated muscle assimilation of glucose and LCFAs and caused metabolic syndrome in mice...
April 2019: Science Advances
Kirill Kovalev, Vitaly Polovinkin, Ivan Gushchin, Alexey Alekseev, Vitaly Shevchenko, Valentin Borshchevskiy, Roman Astashkin, Taras Balandin, Dmitry Bratanov, Svetlana Vaganova, Alexander Popov, Vladimir Chupin, Georg Büldt, Ernst Bamberg, Valentin Gordeliy
Rhodopsins are the most universal biological light-energy transducers and abundant phototrophic mechanisms that evolved on Earth and have a remarkable diversity and potential for biotechnological applications. Recently, the first sodium-pumping rhodopsin KR2 from Krokinobacter eikastus was discovered and characterized. However, the existing structures of KR2 are contradictory, and the mechanism of Na+ pumping is not yet understood. Here, we present a structure of the cationic (non H+ ) light-driven pump at physiological pH in its pentameric form...
April 2019: Science Advances
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