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Current Stem Cell Reports

Vinothini Govindarajah, Damien Reynaud
Purpose of review: The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment is the cornerstone of a lifelong blood cell production but also contributes to the ability of the hematopoietic system to dynamically respond to environmental challenges. This review summarizes our knowledge about the interaction between HSCs and its inflammatory environment during life and questions how its disruption could affect the health of the hematopoietic system. Recent findings: The latest research demonstrates the direct role of inflammatory signals in promoting the emergence of the HSCs during development and in setting their steady-state activity in adults...
September 2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Nathaniel Magilnick, Mark P Boldin
Purpose of Review: Hematopoiesis is an ordered developmental process that requires dynamic regulation to warrant proper response to physiological challenges and prevent malignancies. Long noncoding RNAs are emerging as key, multi-faceted regulators of gene expression. This review explores the function of lncRNAs in the control of HSC homeostasis and hematopoietic differentiation. Recent Findings: Multiple lncRNAs have been implicated in maintaining HSC stemness and enabling progenitors to carry out the correct programs of lineage differentiation...
June 2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Dionna M Kasper, Stefania Nicoli
Purpose of the Review: Blood specification is a highly dynamic process, whereby committed hemogenic endothelial cells (ECs) progressively transdifferentiate into multipotent, self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Massive changes in gene expression must occur to switch cell identity, however the factors that mediate such an effect were a mystery until recently. This review summarizes the higher-order mechanisms involved in endothelial to hematopoietic reprogramming identified thus far...
March 2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Guangbin Xia, Naohiro Terada, Tetsuo Ashizawa
Purpose of Review: Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a spectrum of muscle disorders, which are caused by a number of gene mutations. The studies of MDs are limited due to lack of appropriate models, except for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and certain type of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies are emerging to offer a useful model for mechanistic studies, drug discovery, and cell-based therapy to supplement in vivo animal models...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Elisa Lazzari, Jason M Butler
Purpose of review: In this review, we aim to discuss the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in supporting hematopoiesis, with particular focus on the contribution of the endothelial niche in dictating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate. Recent findings: Evidence gathered in the past two decades revealed that specific cell types within the bone marrow niche influence the hematopoietic system. Endothelial cells have emerged as a key component of the HSC niche, directly affecting stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and lineage differentiation...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Daniel E Morales-Mantilla, Katherine Y King
Purpose of Review: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that participates in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during development and under homeostatic conditions. IFN-γ also plays a key pathogenic role in several diseases that affect hematopoiesis including aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and cirrhosis of the liver. Recent Findings: Studies have shown that increased IFN-γ negatively affects HSC homeostasis, skewing HSC towards differentiation over self-renewal and eventually causing exhaustion of the HSC compartment...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Sarah Chan
Purpose of Review: The '14-day rule', which limits research on human embryos to the first 14 days after fertilisation, has long been a pillar of regulation in this contested area. Recently, advances in developmental biology have led to calls to rethink the rule and its application. In this paper, I address the question of whether the 14-day rule should be replaced and, if so, how. Recent Findings: The two lines of research that have prompted this question are new techniques enabling culture of embryos at least up to 14 days and patterning experiments with pluripotent cells suggesting that they might form embryo-like structures...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Denis G Alferez, Bruno M Simões, Sacha J Howell, Robert B Clarke
Purpose of Review: This review will discuss how the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as treatments that target steroid receptors, can regulate cancer stem cell (CSC) activity. The CSC theory proposes a hierarchical organization in tumors where at its apex lies a subpopulation of cancer cells endowed with self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Recent Findings: In breast cancer (BC), CSCs have been suggested to play a key role in tumor maintenance, disease progression, and the formation of metastases...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Rachel Sagar, Lilian Walther-Jallow, Anna L David, Cecilia Götherström, Magnus Westgren
Purpose of Review: The aim of the study is to provide an overview on the possibility of treating congenital disorders prenatally with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Recent Findings: MSCs have multilineage potential and a low immunogenic profile and are immunomodulatory and more easy to expand in culture. Their ability to migrate, engraft and differentiate, or act via a paracrine effect on target tissues makes MSCs candidates for clinical therapies. Fetal and extra-fetal MSCs offer higher therapeutic potential compared to MSCs derived from adult sources...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Brian Nankervis, Mark Jones, Boah Vang, R Brent Rice, Claire Coeshott, Jim Beltzer
Purpose of Review: Recent developments in regenerative medicine have precipitated the need to expand gene-modified human T cells to numbers that exceed the capacity of well-plate-based, and flask-based processes. This review discusses the changes in process development that are needed to meet the cell expansion requirements by utilizing hollow-fiber bioreactors . Maintenance of cell proliferation over long periods can become limited by unfilled demands for nutrients and oxygen and by the accumulation of waste products in the local environment...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Nafiisha Genet, Neha Bhatt, Antonin Bourdieu, Karen K Hirschi
Purpose of Review: Considerable progress has been made in the field of stem cell research; nonetheless, the use of stem cells for regenerative medicine therapies, for either endogenous tissue repair or cellular grafts post injury, remains a challenge. To better understand how to maintain stem cell potential in vivo and promote differentiation ex vivo, it is fundamentally important to elucidate the interactions between stem cells and their surrounding partners within their distinct niches...
2018: Current Stem Cell Reports
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al ., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller
Purpose of review: The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still compromised by relapse and complications. NK cells and γδT cells, effectors which both function through MHC-unrestricted mechanisms, can target transformed and infected cells without inducing Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Allo-HCT platforms based on CD34+ selection or αβ-TCR depletion result in low grades of GVHD, early immune reconstitution (IR) of NK and γδT cells and minimal usage of GVHD prophylaxis...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Seamus P Caragher, Sean Sachdev, Atique Ahmed
Purpose of the review: Radiation became a pillar of oncologic treatment in the last century and provided a powerful and effective locoregional treatment of solid malignancies. After achieving some of the first cures in lymphomas and skin cancers, it assumed a key role in curative treatment of epithelioid malignancies. Despite success across a variety of histologic types, glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor afflicting adults, remains ultimately resistant to current radiation strategies...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Negar Seyedhassantehrani, Takayoshi Otsuka, Shambhavi Singh, David M Gardiner
Purpose of review: Recent advances in genomics and gene editing have expanded the range of model organisms to include those with interesting biological capabilities such as regeneration. Among these are the classic models of regeneration biology, the salamander. Although stimulating endogenous regeneration in humans likely is many years away, with advances in stem cell biology and biomedical engineering (e.g. bio-inspired materials), it is evident that there is great potential to enhance regenerative outcomes by approaching the problem from an engineering perspective...
September 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Samuel Sances, Robert Barrett, Joshua J Breunig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The modeling of biological processes in vitro provides an important tool to better understand mechanisms of development and disease, allowing for the rapid testing of therapeutics. However, a critical constraint in traditional monolayer culture systems is the absence of the multicellularity, spatial organization, and overall microenvironment present in vivo . This limitation has resulted in numerous therapeutics showing efficacy in vitro , but failing in patient trials...
June 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Shangping Wang, Gloria D Elliott
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Over the past several decades, cryopreservation has been widely used to preserve cells during long term storage, but advances in stem cell therapies, regenerative medicine, and miniaturized cell-based diagnostics and sensors are providing new targets of opportunity for advancing preservation methodologies. The advent of microfluidics-based devices is an interesting case in which the technology has been used to improve preservation processing, but as the devices have evolved to also include cells, tissues, and simulated organs as part of the architecture, the biochip itself is a desirable target for preservation...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Miyeko D Mana, Elaine Yih-Shuen Kuo, Ömer H Yilmaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary intake is a critical regulator of organismal physiology and health. Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are dependent on adult tissue stem cells that self-renew and differentiate into the specialized cell types. As stem cells respond to cues from their environment, dietary signals and nutrients influence tissue biology by altering the function and activity of adult stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent studies that illustrate how diverse diets such as caloric restriction, fasting, high fat diets, and ketogenic diets impact stem cell function and their microenvironments...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Ahmet Alptekin, Bingwei Ye, Han-Fei Ding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolism is increasingly recognized as a major player in control of stem cell function and fate. How stem cell metabolism is established, maintained, and regulated is a fundamental question of biology and medicine. In this review, we discuss major metabolic programs in stem cells and cancer stem cells, with a focus on key transcription factors that shape the stem cell metabolic phenotype. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer stem cells primarily use oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation, in contrast to normal stem cells, which rely on glycolytic metabolism with the exception of mouse embryonic stem cells...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Elizabeth T Ables, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stem cells respond to local paracrine signals; more recently, however, systemic hormones have also emerged as key regulators of stem cells. This review explores the role of steroid hormones in stem cells, using the Drosophila germline stem cell as a centerpiece for discussion. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cells sense and respond directly and indirectly to steroid hormones, which regulate diverse sets of target genes via interactions with nuclear hormone receptors...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
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