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Current Sleep Medicine Reports

Tara D Rachakonda, Nadir M Balba, Miranda M Lim
Purpose of review: This paper describes a newly proposed sleep disorder, trauma-associated sleep disorder (TSD). Whether or not this represents a truly unique condition is controversial. In this paper, we describe the overlapping features and differences between TSD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Recent findings: While REM sleep without atonia (RWA) and dream enactment are part of the diagnostic criteria for both RBD and TSD, only TSD features nightmares that occur both in non-REM and REM...
June 2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Aaron T Berger, Rachel Widome, Wendy M Troxel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Later school start times are associated with a number of benefits for adolescents. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the literature regarding the effects of delaying school start times on adolescent psychological health. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified eight observational studies that examined the relationship between schools' starting times and psychological outcomes. Of these, three were longitudinal studies that reported measures of adolescent mental health improved following a start time delay...
June 2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Philip Cheng, Christopher L Drake
Purpose of review: Technology and globalization have been central forces driving the need for shift work. This review examines recent scientific developments that inform our understanding of how psychological process contribute to and are impacted by shift work. Recent findings: Nascent research is beginning to expand beyond circadian misalignment to elucidate the phenomenology of shift work and the associated psychological impairments. Psychological processes and their interaction with biology are considered in the pathophysiology of shift work sleep disorder...
June 2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Allison Crawford, Brooke Aggarwal
Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to evaluate recent research related to the effects of plant-based diets on sleep patterns. We discuss plausible mechanisms for the link between plant-based diets and sleep, and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Recent findings: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been shown to negatively affect individual dietary habits, through enhanced appetite, increased overall caloric intake, as well as lower diet quality...
March 2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Saana Myllyntausta, Sari Stenholm
Purpose of Review: In this review, we focus on the association of sleep and retirement from two perspectives. Firstly, we examine the role of sleep during the working years on retirement timing. Secondly, we examine how sleep changes during the transition to retirement. Recent Findings: Persons with sleep difficulties are more likely to retire due to health problems, such as depression and musculoskeletal disorders. Retirement, on the other hand, is associated with both increased sleep duration and decreased sleep difficulties, mainly premature awakenings and nonrestorative sleep...
2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Liia Kivelä, Marinos Rodolfos Papadopoulos, Niki Antypa
Purpose of Review: Chronotype, reflecting interindividual differences in daily activity patterns and sleep-wake cycles, is intrinsically connected with well-being. Research indicates increased risk of many adverse mental health outcomes for evening-type individuals. Here, we provide an overview of the current evidence available on the relationship between chronotype and psychiatric disorders. Recent Findings: The association between eveningness and depression is well established cross-sectionally, with preliminary support from longitudinal studies...
2018: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Tiffany J Braley
Purpose of review: This review will focus on the causes, consequences, workup, and treatment of sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome in patients with MS. An approach to the discussion of sleep problems and associated symptoms with MS patients, to facilitate timely and accurate diagnosis, is emphasized. Recent findings: Recent research suggests that sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome disproportionately affect patients with MS, and contribute to substantial morbidity in this population...
December 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Abdulghani Sankari, Jennifer L Martin, M Safwan Badr
Purpose of review: This paper focuses on the sleep disorders in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI/D), particularly mechanism of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and challenges in diagnosis and management. Based on a review of recent literatures and studies the paper summarizes some main challenges with respect to management of SDB in patients with SCI; and what are the responsible mechanisms of disease? What are the barriers in diagnosing and treating SDB using standard treatment such as positive airway pressure (CPAP)?...
December 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Madeleine M Strohl, Motoo Yamauchi, Zhe Peng, Kingman P Strohl
Purpose: The literature on hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was reviewed from 2014, the time of FDA approval for the Inspire Systems device, to 2017 for themes that might be useful conceptually and practically in the consideration of this new non-anatomic surgical therapy. Recent Findings: there are now further follow-up articles since the 12-month results for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial of the Inspire device, and post-approval publications which report similar and/0r improved AHI outcomes...
September 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Michael K Scullin
Purpose of Review: Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views...
September 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Priti Gros, Aleksandar Videnovic
Purpose of review: Sleep disorders are among the most challenging non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly affect quality of life. Research in this field has gained recent interest among clinicians and scientists and is rapidly evolving. This review is dedicated to sleep and circadian dysfunction associated with PD. Recent findings: Most primary sleep disorders may co-exist with PD; majority of these disorders have unique features when expressed in the PD population...
September 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Howard M Kravitz, Imke Janssen, Joyce T Bromberger, Karen A Matthews, Martica H Hall, Kristine Ruppert, Hadine Joffe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Longitudinal studies show that the menopausal transition (MT) is associated with poorer self-reported sleep. Increases in sleep disturbances across and beyond the MT are strongly associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS) but occur even without VMS. We analyzed data from baseline through 13 annual or biennial follow-up assessments from SWAN's multi-racial/ethnic cohort of midlife women, specifically focusing on patterns of sleep problems in the years preceding and following the final menstrual period (FMP)...
September 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Jason C Ong, Christine E Smith
Purpose of review: The goal of this review is to provide an update on the use of mindfulness meditation for the treatment of insomnia, including conceptual models and empirical evidence from randomized controlled trials. Recent findings: A metacognitive model of insomnia has been proposed as a conceptual model to explain the application of mindfulness principles for reducing insomnia-related arousal. Furthermore, the evidence base for mindfulness-based therapies has grown with the results of several randomized controlled trials published in the past three years...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Erik S Musiek
Purpose of the Review: A wide array of sleep and circadian deficits have been observed in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the vast majority of these studies have focused on later-stage AD, and do not shed light on the possibility that circadian dysfunction contributes to AD pathogenesis. The goal of this review it to examine the evidence supporting or refuting the hypothesis that circadian dysfunction plays an important role in early AD pathogenesis or AD risk in humans...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Stephen M James, Kimberly A Honn, Shobhan Gaddameedhi, Hans P A Van Dongen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our 24/7 society is dependent on shift work, despite mounting evidence for negative health outcomes from sleep displacement due to shift work. This paper reviews short- and long-term health consequences of sleep displacement and circadian misalignment due to shift work. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on four broad health domains: metabolic health; risk of cancer; cardiovascular health; and mental health. Circadian misalignment affects these domains by inducing sleep deficiency, sympathovagal and hormonal imbalance, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, and dysregulated cell cycles...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Mariana G Figueiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to discuss possible reasons why research to date has not forged direct links between light at night, acute melatonin suppression or circadian disruption, and risks for disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Data suggest that irregular light-dark patterns or light exposures at the wrong circadian time can lead to circadian disruption and disease risks. However, there remains an urgent need to: (1) specify light stimulus in terms of circadian rather than visual response; (2) when translating research from animals to humans, consider species-specific spectral and absolute sensitivities to light; (3) relate the characteristics of photometric measurement of light at night to the operational characteristics of the circadian system; and (4) examine how humans may be experiencing too little daytime light, not just too much light at night...
June 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Jonathan C Jun, Aman Rathore, Haris Younas, Daniele Gilkes, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the transcription of hundreds of genes that allow cells to adapt to hypoxic environments. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about mechanisms of HIF activation in cancer, as well as downstream cancer-promoting consequences such as altered substrate metabolism, angiogenesis, and cell differentiation. In addition, we examine the proposed relationship between respiratory-related hypoxia, HIFs, and cancer...
March 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
M Marklund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of the adult population is affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to recent epidemiological research. Oral appliance (OA) therapy is increasingly recommended, particularly for patients with milder OSA. This review updates the evidence in favor of OA therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: A high level of evidence shows that OA is effective in the treatment of OSA, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is more efficient. Higher adherence with OAs may compensate for this difference...
2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Annemarie I Luik, Simon D Kyle, Colin A Espie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, digital solutions have been developed to support the dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). In this paper, we review the evidence for and implications of digital CBT (dCBT) for insomnia. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose three categories of dCBT, which differ in the amount of clinician time needed, level of automatization, costs, and scalability: dCBT as support, guided dCBT, and fully automated dCBT. Consistent evidence has been published on the effectiveness of dCBT to address insomnia disorder, in a variety of populations, with effects extending into well-being...
2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Sheila N Garland, Eric S Zhou, Brian D Gonzalez, Nicole Rodriguez
Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) for insomnia and sleep disturbances are receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This paper provides a critical appraisal of this growing area investigating the application of MBIs for people with insomnia and sleep disturbance. First, we discuss the theoretical justification for how mindfulness meditation practice may affect sleep processes. Second, we provide a focused review of literature published between January 1, 2012 and April 1, 2016 examining the impact of MBIs on sleep, broken down by whether insomnia or sleep disturbance was a primary or secondary outcome...
September 2016: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
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