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Consuelo M Kreider, Sharon Medina, Mackenzi R Slamka
Learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by neurological differences that result in difficulties meeting learning and productivity expectations. Young people with LD and ADHD experience difficulties in self-managing academic, social, daily living, and health/wellness demands. Students with LD/ADHD must work longer and harder than peers, which makes managing time and productivity a critical skill for school success. This study examined the strategies that college students with LD/ADHD used to overcome obstacles related to time and productivity within their everyday life contexts...
February 13, 2019: Children
Elizabeth Sokol, Ami V Desai
Neuroblastoma is a tumor with great clinical heterogeneity. Patients in North America are risk-stratified using a number of features including age at diagnosis, disease stage, tumor histology, MYCN status (amplified versus nonamplified), and tumor cell ploidy. In this paper, we review the evidence for utilizing these features in the risk classification of neuroblastic tumors. Additionally, we review the clinical and biologic criteria used by various cooperative groups to define low, intermediate, and high-risk disease populations in clinical trials, highlighting the differences in risk classification internationally...
February 11, 2019: Children
Courtney Coughenour, Jennifer Pharr, Maxim Gakh, Sheila Clark, Prescott Cheong
Studies show that children who attend full-day kindergarten (FDK) experience both academic and developmental benefits compared to children who attend half-day programs. Sectors outside of health, such as education, can have important intended and unintended impacts on health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand perceptions of parental and other stakeholders in Southern Nevada (USA) about the education⁻health link, and to understand priorities regarding how FDK access could affect health...
February 8, 2019: Children
Richard H Parrish, Johannes van den Anker, Sandra Benavides
This editorial describes the purposes and content of the Special Issue for the development of a national pediatric pharmacotherapy collaborative practice network. A collaborative practice network from a population health perspective is needed to better manage the medication-related needs of children with special health care needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC). Over the last 25 years, the pharmacy profession has been engaged in organized efforts both to elevate practice and educational standards for pediatric pharmacy practice and to design medication management systems that benefit children and their families and caregivers...
February 7, 2019: Children
Helen T Wang, Sara Anvari, Katherine Anagnostou
The prevalence of allergic disorders has been increasing worldwide and significantly impacts the quality of life of the atopic individual. There has been an increased interest in the role of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergic disorders, given the recent evidence that atopy risk may be associated with a dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Research in this area is ongoing with some studies showing possible benefits of probiotics, with seemingly little to no risk. While these studies suggest that there may be a promise in probiotic use for the prevention or treatment of allergy, further evidence is needed to determine its efficacy, optimal dosing, and strains needed for treatment...
February 5, 2019: Children
Li-Rong Shao, Christa W Habela, Carl E Stafstrom
Mechanisms underlying seizures and epilepsy have traditionally been considered to involve abnormalities of ion channels or synaptic function. Those considerations gave rise to the excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance theory, whereby increased excitation, decreased inhibition, or both favor a hyperexcitable state and an increased propensity for seizure generation and epileptogenesis. Several recent findings warrant reconsideration and expansion of the E/I hypothesis: novel genetic mutations have been identified that do not overtly affect E/I balance; neurotransmitters may exert paradoxical effects, especially during development; anti-seizure medications do not necessarily work by decreasing excitation or increasing inhibition; and metabolic factors participate in the regulation of neuronal and network excitability...
February 5, 2019: Children
Gitanjali Srivastava, Valerie O'Hara, Nancy Browne
Approximately two-thirds of US children and adolescents have either obesity or overweight status, with almost 24% of adolescents (ages 12⁻19 years) afflicted with severe obesity, defined as >1.2 × the 95th BMI percentile for age/gender. Despite the increasing disproportionate rise in severe or extreme childhood obesity, many children in weight management programs do not achieve a healthy weight. Most often, these patients will go on to require metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), but challenges and limitations may prohibit MBS on adolescents...
February 4, 2019: Children
Joy B Parrish, Emily Fields
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is relatively rare, but as technology and neuroimaging advance, an increasing number of cases are identified, and our understanding of how multiple sclerosis (MS) impacts the developing brain improves. There are consistent findings in the literature highlighting the impact of MS and other demyelinating diseases on cognitive functioning and cognitive development. We also have a better understanding of how POMS impacts psychosocial functioning and functional outcomes in daily living...
February 4, 2019: Children
Bethan Everson, Kelly A Mackintosh, Melitta A McNarry, Charlotte Todd, Gareth Stratton
Wearable cameras combined with accelerometers have been used to estimate the accuracy of children's self-report of physical activity, health-related behaviours, and the contexts in which they occur. There were two aims to this study; the first was to validate questions regarding self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours in 9⁻11-year-old children using the child's health and activity tool (CHAT), an accelerometer and a wearable camera. Second, the study sought to evaluate ethical challenges associated with taking regular photographs using a wearable camera through interviews with children and their families...
February 1, 2019: Children
Inger P Landsem, Bjørn H Handegård, Per I Kaaresen, Jorunn Tunby, Stein E Ulvund, John A Rønning
The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms (TISP) randomized 146 preterm-born children either to the Mother-Infant Transaction Program (MITP) or to a preterm control group. Previously, significant reductions of child behavior problems and maternal stress have been reported in the intervention group. This follow-up study examines whether the MITP may have affected the longitudinal adaptation between mothers and their children from two until nine years, expressed as associations between different behavioral problems and parenting stress reported by mothers...
January 31, 2019: Children
Andie Saša Buccitelli, Myriam Denov
Accessing meaningful forms of support can be an onerous experience for young people resettling from war-affected contexts. In addition to facing linguistic and financial barriers in this process, these young people negotiate care systems that are often structurally and culturally insensitive to their unique needs, values, beliefs, and intersectional experiences of oppression. Drawing on interviews with 22 young people from war-affected areas living in Quebec, Canada, this paper critically examines how dominant cultural norms and social relations in Quebec's health, social and educational services network shape their experiences in seeking care, healing and belonging...
January 30, 2019: Children
Raúl de Moreno, Cristina Redondo, Azahara Pérez-Davó, Esther Moreno, Pedro Redondo
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disorder, characterized by skin barrier disruption. Dermacare is a new cosmetic formulation, which enhances moisturization, reinforces and repairs the skin barrier, and prevents cutaneous microbiota imbalance. To demonstrate its safety and efficacy, a prospective, open-label, and multicenter study was carried out on patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), clinical severity, Desquamation Index, Patient/Investigator Global Assessments, quality of life index, and tolerance were assessed...
January 29, 2019: Children
Soichiro Kitamura, Etsuko Tsuda
As an acquired ischemic heart disease in childhood, coronary-artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease (KD) has been known worldwide since the mid-1970s. KD patients who develop coronary-artery obstructive disease often need revascularization some time in their life. Coronary-artery revascularization for KD coronary lesions can be done with the surgical coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. However, the characteristics of coronary-arterial lesions caused by KD significantly differ from atherosclerotic coronary disease in adults...
January 29, 2019: Children
Iliyana Pacheva, Ivan Ivanov, Ralitsa Yordanova, Katerina Gaberova, Fani Galabova, Margarita Panova, Aneliya Petkova, Elena Timova, Iglika Sotkova
The comorbidity of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has been widely discussed but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to establish the occurrence of epilepsy among children with ASD to define the type of epileptic seizures and syndromes, the age of onset of epilepsy, EEG abnormalities, the used antiepileptic drugs and the therapeutic responses for seizures and autistic behavior, as well as to find some correlations between epilepsy and gender, etiology and intellectual disability (ID)...
January 25, 2019: Children
Suzi Tortora
Children freely expressing themselves through spontaneous dance is a natural part of childhood. The healing powers of dance are universal in all cultures across history. Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in pediatric oncology is little known and underutilized. This article discusses DMT, specifically focusing on pediatric oncology. It defines and clarifies the difference between medical DMT as a psychotherapeutic modality aimed at addressing the patient's psychosocial needs, and dance and therapeutic dance used recreationally to engage patients during their hospital visits...
January 21, 2019: Children
Shana Jacobs, Catriona Mowbray
Children with cancer experience multiple troubling symptoms. Massage offers a safe, non-pharmacological approach to address these symptoms. Numerous studies of massage in children and adults with cancer have been performed, yet most are unable to demonstrate significant benefit. This review aims to summarize what we know about the role of massage and sets goals and challenges for future massage research. This paper descriptively reviews the existing literature available in PubMed (both prior reviews and select papers) and the holes in prior research studies...
January 18, 2019: Children
Kyle J Van Arendonk, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, has widely variable outcomes dependent on the specific biology of the tumor. In this review, current biologic principles that are used to stratify risk and guide treatment algorithms are discussed. The role for surgical resection in neuroblastoma is also reviewed, including the indications and timing of surgery within the greater treatment plan.
January 17, 2019: Children
Rebecca A Vidourek, Keith A King
Peer victimization at school is a pressing public health issue. Peer victimization has a deleterious impact on the victim and can lead to lifelong negative outcomes such as depression. The purpose of the present study is to examine peer victimization and potential individual, school, and peer correlates in a national sample of middle and high school students. A secondary data analysis of the School Crime and Safety survey was conducted to investigate study aims. Greater than one in 20 (7.2%) of students reported peer victimization at school...
January 15, 2019: Children
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. AIMS: Using a national data set with 15 years of follow up, we compared Black and White youth for the effects of family SES at birth on the risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at age 15...
January 14, 2019: Children
Christopher D Pfledderer, Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau
This study examined the association between access to electronic devices in the home and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Participants were children aged 8⁻12 years from a local elementary school ( n = 106, mean age = 9.7 + 1.1 years, male = 50). Child access to electronic devices was measured with a 37-item parent-reported questionnaire. Estimated maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 Peak ) was calculated from The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) using a validated algorithm. The association between access to electronic devices in the home and cardiorespiratory fitness was explored by employing hierarchical ridge regression, using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model, controlling for the covariates of sex, age, and Body Mass Index (BMI)...
January 9, 2019: Children
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