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Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878664/a-novel-gastric-spheroid-co-culture-model-reveals-chemokine-dependent-recruitment-of-human-dendritic-cells-to-the-gastric-epithelium
#1
Thomas A Sebrell, Marziah Hashimi, Barkan Sidar, Royce Wilkinson, Liliya Kirpotina, Mark T Quinn, Zeynep Malkoç, Paul J Taylor, James N Wilking, Diane Bimczok
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric dendritic cells (DCs) control the adaptive response to infection with Helicobacter pylori, a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We hypothesize that DC interactions with the gastric epithelium position gastric DCs for uptake of luminal H. pylori and promote DC responses to epithelial-derived mediators. The aim of this study was to determine whether the gastric epithelium actively recruits DCs, using a novel co-culture model of human gastric epithelial spheroids and monocyte-derived DCs...
March 13, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878663/senescent-hepatocytes-in-decompensated-liver-show-reduced-upr-mt-and-its-key-player-clpp-attenuates-senescence-in-vitro
#2
Bijoya Sen, Archana Rastogi, Rhisita Nath, Saggere M Shasthry, Viniyendra Pamecha, Sonika Pandey, Kapuganti J Gupta, Shiv K Sarin, Nirupma Trehanpati, Gayatri Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-dividing hepatocytes in end-stage liver disease indicates permanent growth arrest similar to senescence. Identifying senescence in vivo is often challenging and mechanisms inhibiting senescence are poorly understood. In lower organisms mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT ) helps in increasing longevity; however, its role in senescence and liver disease is poorly understood. Aim of this study was to identify hepatocyte senescence and role of UPRMT in cryptogenic cirrhosis...
March 13, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849550/interferon-%C3%AE-3-promotes-epithelial-defense-and-barrier-function-against-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#3
Sylvia H Ferguson, Derek M Foster, Barbara Sherry, Scott T Magness, Dahlia M Nielsen, Jody L Gookin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The epithelial response is critical for intestinal defense against Cryptosporidium but is poorly understood. To uncover the host strategy for defense against Cryptosporidium, we examined the transcriptional response of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to C. parvum in experimentally infected piglets by microarray. Upregulated genes were dominated by targets of interferon (IFN) and IFN-λ3 was significantly upregulated in infected piglet mucosa. While IFN-λ has been described as a mediator of epithelial defense against viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of any role against non-viral pathogens...
March 5, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836148/glucose-drives-growth-factor-independent-esophageal-cancer-proliferation-via-phosphohistidine-fak-signaling
#4
Jianliang Zhang, Irwin H Gelman, Eriko Katsuta, Yuanzi Liang, Xue Wang, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Li Yan, Kazuaki Takabe, Steven N Hochwald
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Most targeted therapies against cancer are designed to block growth factor-stimulated oncogenic growth. However, response rates are low and resistance to therapy is high. One mechanism might relate to the ability of tumor cells to induce growth factor-independent proliferation (GFIP). This project aims to understand how: 1) cancer cells preferentially derive a major growth advantage by utilizing critical metabolic products of glucose, such as phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), to drive proliferation and 2) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (EAC), can induce GFIP by utilizing glycolysis to activate phosphohistidine (poHis)-mediated signaling through focal adhesion kinase (FAK)...
March 2, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836147/chronic-inflammatory-diseases-are-we-ready-for-microbiota-based-dietary-intervention
#5
REVIEW
Emilie Viennois, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
The last 15 years have witnessed the emergence of a new field of research that focuses on the roles played by the intestinal microbiota in health and disease. This research field has produced accumulating evidence indicating that dysregulation of host-microbiota interactions contributes to a range of chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), colorectal cancer, and metabolic syndrome. While dysregulation of the microbiota can take complex forms, in some cases, specific bacterial species that can drive specific clinical outcomes have been identified...
March 2, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831323/regulation-of-the-pancreatic-exocrine-differentiation-program-and-morphogenesis-by-onecut-1-hnf6
#6
Peter A Kropp, Xiaodong Zhu, Maureen Gannon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Onecut 1 transcription factor (Oc1, a.k.a. HNF6) promotes differentiation of endocrine and duct cells of the pancreas; however, it has no known role in acinar cell differentiation. We sought to better understand the role of Oc1 in exocrine pancreas development and to identify its direct transcriptional targets. METHODS: Pancreata from Oc1Δpanc (Oc1fl/fl ;Pdx1-Cre) mouse embryos and neonates were analyzed morphologically. High-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on control and Oc1-deficient pancreas; chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was performed on wild type embryonic mouse pancreata to identify direct Oc1 transcriptional targets...
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831322/interleukin-33-promotes-reg3%C3%AE-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-regulates-gut-microbiota
#7
Yi Xiao, Xiangsheng Huang, Ye Zhao, Feidi Chen, Mingming Sun, Wenjing Yang, Liang Chen, Suxia Yao, Alex Peniche, Sara M Dann, Jiaren Sun, George Golovko, Yuriy Fofanov, Yinglei Miao, Zhanju Liu, Daiwen Chen, Yingzi Cong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Regenerating islet-derived protein (REG3γ), an antimicrobial peptide, typically expressed by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis and controlling gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms which regulate IEC expression of REG3γ are still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how IL-33, an alarmin produced by IEC in response to injury, regulates REG3γ expression in IEC, thus, contributing to intestinal homeostasis...
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831321/mouse-model-of-mutated-in-colorectal-cancer-gene-deletion-reveals-novel-pathways-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#8
Nicola Currey, Zeenat Jahan, C Elizabeth Caldon, Phuong N Tran, Fahad Benthani, Penelope De Lacavalerie, Daniel L Roden, Brian S Gloss, Claudia Campos, Elaine G Bean, Amanda Bullman, Saskia Reibe-Pal, Marcel E Dinger, Mark A Febbraio, Stephen J Clarke, Jane E Dahlstrom, Maija R J Kohonen-Corish
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The early events by which inflammation promotes cancer are still not fully defined. 'Mutated in colorectal cancer' (MCC) gene is silenced by promoter methylation in colitis-associated and sporadic colon tumors, but its functional significance in precancerous lesions or polyps is not known. Here we aimed to determine the impact of Mcc deletion on the cellular pathways and carcinogenesis associated with inflammation in the mouse proximal colon. METHODS: We generated knockout mice with deletion of Mcc in the colonic/intestinal mucosa (MccΔIEC ) or in the whole body (MccΔ/Δ )...
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831320/paracrine-induction-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-between-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-its-suppression-by-a-p53-mir-192-215-nid1-axis
#9
Matjaz Rokavec, Nassim Bouznad, Heiko Hermeking
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intratumor-heterogeneity is a common feature of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we analyzed whether mesenchymal-like CRC cells promote the progression of epithelial-like CRC cells via paracrine mechanisms. METHODS: Five CRC cell lines that exhibit an epithelial phenotype were treated with conditioned media (CM) from CRC cell lines that display a mesenchymal phenotype, and effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion, and chemo-resistance were determined...
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831319/defective-phosphatidylglycerol-remodeling-causes-hepatopathy-linking-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-hepatosteatosis
#10
Xiaoyang Zhang, Jun Zhang, Haoran Sun, Xueling Liu, Yue Zheng, Dan Xu, Jianing Wang, Dandan Jia, Xianlin Han, Feng Liu, Jia Nie, Yuguang Shi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity promotes the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), yet not all obese patients develop NAFLD. The underlying causes for this discrepancy remain elusive. LPGAT1 is an acyltransferase that catalyzes the remodeling of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), a mitochondrial phospholipid implicated in various metabolic diseases. Here we investigated the role of LPGAT1 in regulating the onset of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and its related hepatosteatosis, since polymorphisms of the LPGAT1 gene promoter was strongly associated with susceptibility to obesity in Pima Indians...
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831074/organoids-and-engineered-organ-systems
#11
EDITORIAL
Linda C Samuelson, John Lynch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763771/macronutrients-and-the-adipose-liver-axis-in-obesity-and-fatty-liver
#12
REVIEW
Caroline C Duwaerts, Jacquelyn J Maher
Macronutrient metabolism is a highly orchestrated process, with adipose tissue and liver each playing central roles in nutrient uptake, processing, transport and storage. These two tissues form an important metabolic circuit -- particularly as it relates to lipids as the primary storage form of excess energy. The function of the circuit is influenced by many factors, including the quantity and type of nutrients consumed and their impact on the overall health of the tissues. In this review we will begin with a brief summary of the homeostatic disposition of lipids between adipose tissue and liver and how these processes can become dysregulated in obesity...
February 11, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763770/microrna-375-suppresses-the-growth-and-invasion-of-fibrolamellar-carcinoma
#13
Timothy A Dinh, Mark L Jewell, Matt Kanke, Adam Francisco, Ramja Sritharan, Rigney E Turnham, Seona Lee, Edward R Kastenhuber, Eliane Wauthier, Cynthia D Guy, Raymond S Yeung, Scott W Lowe, Lola M Reid, John D Scott, Anna M Diehl, Praveen Sethupathy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a rare liver cancer that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. It is characterized by a heterozygous approximately 400-kb deletion on chromosome 19 that results in a unique DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in FLC remains unclear. We identified dysregulated miRNAs in FLC and investigated whether dysregulation of 1 key miRNA contributes to FLC pathogenesis. METHODS: We analyzed small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify dysregulated miRNAs in primary FLC tumors and validated the findings in 3 independent FLC cohorts...
February 11, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716421/plant-based-enteral-nutrition-modifies-the-gut-microbiota-and-improves-outcomes-in-murine-models-of-colitis
#14
Andrew Yeh, Eric M Conners, Rafael G Ramos-Jimenez, Brian Firek, Elizabeth A Novak, Matthew Brian Rogers, Richard Cheek, John Ozolek, Kevin P Mollen, Michael J Morowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716420/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-composition-by-serotonin-signaling-influences-intestinal-immune-response-and-susceptibility-to-colitis
#15
Yun Han Kwon, Huaqing Wang, Emmanuel Denou, Jean-Eric Ghia, Laura Rossi, Michelle E Fontes, Steve P Bernier, Md Sharif Shajib, Suhrid Banskota, Stephen M Collins, Michael G Surette, Waliul I Khan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is synthesized mainly within enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the gut, and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT synthesis in EC cells. Accumulating evidence suggest the importance of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation. Considering the close proximity of EC cells and the microbes, we investigate the influence of gut-derived 5-HT on the microbiota and the susceptibility to colitis. METHODS: Gut microbiota of Tph1-/- and Tph1+/- mice were investigated by deep sequencing...
February 1, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711545/muscularis-propria-macrophages-alter-the-proportion-of-nitrergic-but-not-cholinergic-gastric-myenteric-neurons
#16
G Cipriani, M L Terhaar, S T Eisenman, S Ji, D R Linden, A M Wright, L Sha, T Ordog, J H Szurszewski, S J Gibbons, G Farrugia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710727/intestinal-macromolecular-transport-supporting-adaptive-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Devesha H Kulkarni, Rodney D Newberry
The gastrointestinal tract performs opposing functions of nutrient absorption, barrier maintenance, and the delivery of luminal substances for the appropriate induction of tolerogenic or protective adaptive immunity. The single layer epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract is central to each of these functions by facilitating the uptake and processing of nutrients, providing a physical and chemical barrier to potential pathogens, and delivering macromolecular substances to the immune system to initiate adaptive immune responses...
January 30, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710726/neuropods
#18
REVIEW
Rodger A Liddle
Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are sensory cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Most EECs reside in the mucosal lining of the stomach or intestine and sense food in the gut lumen. Food signals stimulate the release of hormones into the paracellular space where they either act locally or are taken up into the blood and circulate to distant organs. It was recently recognized that many EECs possess basal processes known as neuropods that not only contain hormones but also connect to nerves. This review describes how neuropods contribute to EEC function beyond typical hormonal actions...
January 30, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707887/a-case-for-not-going-global-americanization-of-diet-accelerates-hepatic-mitochondrial-injury-in-a-model-of-wilson-disease
#19
EDITORIAL
Uyen To, Michael L Schilsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677403/treating-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-from-the-outside-in
#20
EDITORIAL
Charles R Flynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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